Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1853
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1853
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Amphibalanus improvisus was first described by Darwin (1854), using specimens collected from England, Scotland, the United States, the West Indies, Argentina, 'West Colombia' and Ecuador. Most of the specimens were found 'attached to wood, shells, rocks, ships' bottoms' (Darwin 1854). It is native to the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America, based on the occurrence of fossils, and ranges south through the Caribbean to South America. Orensanz et al. (2002) consider this barnacle to be cryptogenic in Argentina and Uruguay. It was apparently a very early invader to Europe (possibly in the 1600s), Ecuador, and San Francisco Bay (both by the 1850s).  It spread rapidly through Europe, colonizing the brackish Baltic, Black, and Caspian Seas. After World War II, it was found in Northwest Pacific waters, from Vladivostok to the East China Sea.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

In the Northeast Pacific, Amphibalanus improvisus was first reported from San Francisco Bay in 1853. It was transported in ship fouling from the East Coast of the U.S. or Europe, but oyster transplants and coastal shipping were likely also responsible for subsequent introductions and movements along the coast. A specimen was collected from the Gulf of California in 1889. Other records of established populations in West Coast estuaries are more recent, but likely reflect temporal sampling bias, and this species was almost certainly present in all of these locations for decades earlier (J.T. Carlton, pers. comm., 2013): Willapa Bay,Washington (1955); Esquimalt Lagoon, British Columbia (1956); Puerto Vallarta, Mexico (1960), Columbia River Estuary (1965), Coos Bay, Oregon (1970), and Elkhorn Slough, California (1998) (Henry and McLaughlin, 1975; Carlton 1979; Wasson et al. 2001). The spotty nature of these records probably reflects the preference of this species for sheltered, brackish estuaries. A recent survey of National Estuarine Research Reserves found new records for A. improvisus in the Tijuana Estuary (southern California), a small boat harbor at the mouth of the Quillayute River on Washington's Olympic coast, and Padilla Bay, Washington (deRivera et al. 2005a), but we do not yet know whether these records represent established populations. There are a number of records from marine harbors which do not appear to have resulted in subsequent populations: San Diego Bay (1939); Los Angeles-Long Beach (1932); and Monterey Bay (1916, 1954) (Carlton 1979).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Charles Darwin examined specimens from Guayaquil, Ecuador and 'West Colombia’ (Darwin 1854), which may have represented populations that were carried by Spanish ships from  Europe or from the Caribbean or Atlantic South America (Carlton et al. 2011). Early shipping could also explain a 1889 collection from the Gulf of California, Mexico (Henry and McLaughlin 1975). However, it is surprising that there are few records from elsewhere on the tropical-subtropical Pacific Coast. Interestingly, this freshwater-tolerant barnacle was not reported on the Pacific coast of Panama until 2008, when it was collected at Isla Taboguilla, at the entrance of the Panama Canal (Ruiz et al. unpublished data).

Amphibalanus improvisus was first recorded from the Northwest Pacific in Tokyo Harbor in 1952. By 1968, it had spread to the Sea of Japan, where it is known from Zolotoi Rog (Golden Horn) Bay, Russia, to Kanking-Chinhan, South Korea (Kim 1992; Zvyagintsev 2003). This barnacle is now abundant in the region, especially in brackish waters. It has been recorded from Western Australia (Furlani 1996), but is not reported to have become established.

We currently consider Amphibalanus improvisus to be introduced in the Northeast Atlantic waters of Europe. It was widespread in brackish waters of England, Scotland and the Netherlands by 1854, and first reported from French Atlantic waters in 1872. It was found at a 17th century archeological site in Antwerp, Belgium (Kerckhof and Cattrijsse 2001), which could indicate that it was either a very early introduction to European waters, or that native populations were present. Carlton et al. (2011) note that Zullo and Miller (1986) argued for its Western Atlantic origin, citing the lack of verified fossils in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Further examination of fossil and archaeological specimens may cause us to change its status to cryptogenic or native. This barnacle expanded its range into the Baltic Sea during historic times, being first reported from Kaliningrad, Russia, in 1844 and extending to the Northern Quark, Finland on the Gulf of Bothnia, by 1994 (Leppakoski and Olenin 2000). Amphibalanus improvisus occurs throughout the Mediterranean (date of first record is not yet known), mostly in brackish lagoons (Relini and Matricardi 1999; Kocak and Kucuksezgin 2000), and the Black Sea (1st record 1844, Gomiou et al. 2002), and reached the Caspian Sea by 1955 (Grigorevich et al. 2003).

Furman and Yule (1991) found that in British waters, many populations of Amphibalanus improvisus are ephemeral. In a 1985-1987 survey, they did not find this barnacle at many of the locations reported by Darwin, or at locations where it was found in the 1950s and 1970s. In some cases, such as the Thames estuary, early (pre 1854) populations apparently disappeared by the 1950s, but recolonized (Furman and Yule 1991). These fluctuations may be due to short-term weather and pollution changes.


Description

The shell of Amphibalanus improvisus is usually conical or subcylindrical. The orifice is slightly toothed, and its width is usually more than 1/2 its height. The plates have a smooth surface, with narrow longitudinal spaces (radii), narrowing to the tops of shell plates. The radii are white. Inside the operculum, the scutum has a well-developed adductor ridge on its interior face (Zullo 1979). The tergum has a blunt apex, and its spur is usually somewhat long and narrow. The spur length is about 1/3 of the length of the basal margin, and its width is about 1/5 of the basal margin (Henry and McLaughlin 1975). Amphibalanus improvisus grows up to 17 mm in diameter. It is characteristic of brackish estuarine habitats, with very low or highly variable salinity (Henry and McLaughlin 1975). Larval stages of A. improvisus are illustrated by Lang (1979; 1980).

Local ecophenotypes or genotypes are to be expected throughout the range of this species (Bacon, 1976; Henry and McLaughlin, 1975), and it may be that tropical "improvisus are a cryptic sibling species (J. T. Carlton, pers. comm., 2013).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Maxillopoda
Subclass:   Thecostraca
Infraclass:   Cirripedia
Superorder:   Thoracica
Order:   Sessilia
Suborder:   Balanomorpha
Superfamily:   Balanoidea
Family:   Balanidae
Genus:   Amphibalanus
Species:   improvisus

Synonyms

Balanus amphitrite var. amphitrite (Stubbings, 1967)
Balanus amphitrite var. assimilis (Darwin, 1854)
Balanus var. denticulata (Stubbings, 1961)
Balanus amphitrite var. pallidus (Stubbings, 1961)
Balanus amphitrite vostokensis (Tarasov & Zevina, 1957)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Amphibalanus amphitrite
Now cosmopolitan, warm-temprate -subtropical

Amphibalanus eburneus
NW Atlantic native, widely introduced in tropical-temperate waters

Amphibalanus pallidus
Tropical Atlantic, introduced in Pacific Panama, establishment unknown

Amphibalanus reticulatus
Indo-Wesr Pacific native, now widely introduced in subtropical-tropical waters

Amphibalanus subalbidus
NW Atlantic native, introduced in Brazil and Gulf of California

Ecology

General:

Like many other barnacles, Amphibalanus improvisus, is hermaphroditic, but is capable of cross-fertilization. The fertilized eggs are brooded in the mantle cavity, sometimes for several months, and are released as nauplius larvae with three pairs of appendages (Barnes 1983). The nauplii feed in the plankton and go through five successive molts, spending four to 18 days in the water column before molting into a non-feeding cypris stage, covered with a pair of chitinous shells (Lang and Marcy 1982; Furman and Yule 1991). Cyprids swim, investigating suitable surfaces, and then settle, secreting a shell, and molting into the first juvenile barnacle stages. Juvenile and adult barnacles are filter feeders, sweeping the water with their long bristled appendages to gather phytoplankton, zooplankton, and detritus (Barnes 1983).

The Bay Barnacle, Amphibalanus improvisus, is characteristic of estuaries and brackish waters, although it can also tolerate high salinities, up to 40 PSU (Foster 1970; Furman and Yule 1991). In estuaries, it can survive weeks of exposure to freshwater, but requires salinities of at least 2 PSU for reproduction (Dineen and Hines 1992). It is typically found in lower intertidal and subtidal zones, in sheltered waters. This barnacle grows on a wide range of hard surfaces, including logs, mangroves, rocks, ship hulls, oysters, other shellfish, docks and ships' hulls.

Food:

Phytoplankton; zooplankton

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Salinity RangeHyperhaline40+ PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)-2Based on range, including ice-covered estuaries.
Maximum Temperature (ºC)38Maximum temperature recorded in effluent canals of a powerplant on the Patuxent River MD, with populations of A. improvisus (Nauman and Cory 1969). Maximum tolerance levels may be higher.
Minimum Salinity (‰)0Adults can survive long exposure to freshwater (Foster 1970)
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Rare at high salinities (Furman and Yule 1991), but present in the Mediterranean Sea.
Minimum Reproductive Temperature10Bousfield 1955
Maximum Reproductive Temperature30Bousfield 1955
Minimum Reproductive Salinity2Experimental, lowest tested, 28% metamorphosis, compared to 71-75% at 16-32 ppt (Furman and Yule 1991).
Maximum Reproductive Salinity40Experimental, highest tested, 45% metamorphosis, compared to 71-75% at 16-32 ppt, all at 30 C (Furman and Yule 1991).
Minimum Duration4Experimental, 30 C, 16-24 ppt, high food density (Furman and Yule 1989).
Maximum Duration1815 C, 18 days for intermittently starved larvae (Lang and Marcy 1982)
Maximum Length (mm)9Maximum adult height (Henry and McLauglin 1975)
Maximum Width (mm)17Maximum adult width (Henry and McLauglin 1975)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneOligohaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts

We have not found specific reports of economic impacts for Amphibalanus improvisus in West Coast waters where it has been introduced. However, A. improvisus is one of the most abundant fouling barnacles in brackish waters of the U.S. (Carlton 1979), and is very likely a major contributor to fouling of ships, boats, harbor structures, fishing gear, and power plant intake pipes in estuaries. A variety of impacts are associated with A. improvisus worldwide, especially in regions where barnacles were previously absent, such as the Baltic and Caspian Seas.

Boating- Amphibalanus improvisus is widely reported as a common fouling organism of recreational and commercial boats and ships, and also of piers, docks, and navigational structures (Zvyagintsev 1985; Vuorinen et al. 1986; Kashin et al. 2000; Gren et al. 2009; Skolka and Preda 2010). In Skagerrak, Sweden, it was the dominant organism fouling the hulls of recreational boats, probably because it was more tolerant of hydrodynamic stress than the native Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, which dominated static fouling plates (Berntsson and Jonsson 2003). In Sweden, estimated costs of hull fouling by A. improvisus are 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009). Barnacle fouling contributes to the deterioration of piers and docks by increasing corrosion. In the Caspian Sea and in Russian harbors on the Sea of Japan, A. improvisus was an important component of fouling on harbor structures (Kashin et al. 2000; Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001; Zvyagintsev 2003).

Industry- Amphibalanus improvisus is a frequent fouler of power plants in its native and introduced range (Nauman and Cory 1969; Vuorinen et al. 1986; Zvyagintsev et al. 2003). In Sweden, estimated costs of power plant fouling by A. improvisus were 1.5-5.5 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).

Fisheries- In the Caspian Sea, A. improvisus is reported to foul fishnets (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001). More speculatively, it is thought to have adverse affects on fisheries by diverting plankton production to the benthic biomass, where it apparently constitutes a 'dead end' by having few predators. Consequently it could be decreasing fish biomass (Olenin and Leppakoski 2000).

Aesthetic- In the Baltic Sea, A. improvisus is reported to affect the recreational quality of shorelines by fouling rocks and littering beaches with its sharp shells. On the other hand, its large filter-feeding biomass increases the clarity of the water (Olenin and Leppakoski 2000).

Ecological Impacts

Specific ecological impacts of Amphibalanus improvisus have not been reported from North American waters. This species is likely to affect fouling communities in the upper regions of estuaries on the Pacific coast, since no native barnacles can tolerate very low salinities, as A. improvisus can.

Competition- In experiments conducted in the western Baltic Sea (Kiel, Germany), manipulations of Amphibalanus improvisus and the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, showed that M. edulis outcompeted and replaced A. improvisus. However, when some mussels were removed, to simulate predation, the two species coexisted and out-competed other fouling community species. Amphibalanus improvisus thus has a sub-dominant role in the fouling community of the Western Baltic (Dürr and Wahl 2004). In the Caspian Sea, A. improvisus reportedly excludes A. eburneus from man-made structures (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001).

Herbivory, Habitat Change, Trophic Cascade- In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, filter-feeding by A. improvisus is thought to affect food webs by diverting planktonic production to the benthic biomass (Olenin and Leppakoski 2000). In experiments, settled A. improvisus indirectly promoted the growth of the green alga, Ulva (Enteromorpha) intestinalis, by filtering phytoplankton, remineralizing nutrients, and increasing the clarity of the water (Kotta et al. 2006).

Food/Prey- The larval stages of A. improvisus can be very abundant in the water column during the spawning period, and represents an important food resource for planktivorous fishes and other animals (Skolka and Preda 2010).

Regional Impacts

B-XIINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Costs of fouling of power plants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-XIINoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 8-49 million dollars, per year. Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-XINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Costs of fouling of powerplants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-XINoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute #to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009). Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus, were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 8-49 million dollars, per year.
B-XNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Costs of fouling of powerplants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-XNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986). Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus, were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 8-49 million dollars, per year. Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-IXNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986).
B-IXNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, A. improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986).
B-VIINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, Amphibalanus improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986).
B-VIINoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Baltic Sea, where it is the only barnacle species present, Amphibalanus improvisus is reported to contribute to hull fouling of ships and the fouling of power plants (Vuorinen et al. 1986).
NWP-4aNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, A. improvisus is an abundant fouling organism of power plants, docks, and ships in Zolotoi Rog (Golden Horn) Bay in the vicinity of Vladivostok (Zvyagintsev 1985; Kashin et al. 2000; Zvyagintsev et al. 2003).
NWP-4aNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, A. improvisus is an abundant fouling organism of power plants, docks, and ships in Zolotoi Rog (Golden Horn) Bay in the vicinity of Vladivostok (Zvyagintsev 1985; Kashin et al. 2000; Koryakova et al. 2002; Zvyagintsev et al. 2004).
B-IIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In experiments in the western Baltic Sea (Kiel, Germany), manipulations of A. improvisus and the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis, showed that M. edulis outcompeted and replaced A. improvisus. However, when some mussels were removed, to simulate predation, the two species coexisted and out-competed other fouling community species. Amphibalanus improvisus thus has a sub-dominant role in the fouling community of the Western Baltic (Dürr and Wahl 2004).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactHerbivory
In experiments, settled Amphibalanus improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis, by filtering phytoplankton, remineralizing nutrients, and increasing the clarity of the water (Kotta et al. 2006).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In experiments, settled Amphibalanus improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis, by filtering phytoplankton, remineralizing nutrients, and increasing the clarity of the water (Kotta et al. 2006). In the central Baltic, A. improvisus was classified as having some habitat impacts, by fouling macroalgae (Bostrom and Bonsdorff 1997, cited by Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
In experiments, settled Amphibalanus improvisus promoted the growth of the green alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis, by filtering phytoplankton, remineralizing nutrients, and increasing the clarity of the water (Kotta et al. 2006).
B-INoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
In the Skagerrak, Sweden, A. improvisus was the dominant organism fouling the hulls of recreational boats, probably because it was more tolerant of hydrodynamic stress than the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis, which dominated static fouling plates (Berntsson and Jonsson 2003).
CASPCaspian SeaEcological ImpactCompetition
'There is a competition between A. improvisus and A. eburneus, as a result of that A. improvisus lives on the hulls of ships and hydrotechnical constructions, but A. eburneus inhabits bottom hard substrates.' (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001).
CASPCaspian SeaEconomic ImpactIndustry
'Amphibalanus increases the corrosion of metallic constructions in the sea including oil pipes.' (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001).
CASPCaspian SeaEconomic ImpactFisheries
'By covering fish nets Amphibalanus diminishes their catchability and floatation.' (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001).
CASPCaspian SeaEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
'Mass fouling of Amphibalanus on piers considerably increases wave loading.'(Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001).
MED-IXNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Skolka and Preda (2010) suggest that the success and abundance of A. improvisus has prevented the settlement of other barnacle species, including introduced A. eburneus, A. amphitrite, and native Balanus crenatus (Skolka and Preda 2010).
MED-IXNoneEcological ImpactFood/Prey
'Larval stages represent a valuable food resource' (Skolka and Preda 2010).
MED-IXNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
'Fouling organisms, like barnacles (A. improvisus or the polychaete Ficopomatus enigmaticus), are harmful because their biomass increases the fuel consumption of ships. Such organisms also increase the corrosion rate of metallic submerged structures' (Skolka and Preda 2010).
B-VINoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus, were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 18-49 million dollars, per year. Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-VINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Costs of fouling of power plants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-VNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus, were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 18-49 million dollars, per year. Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-VNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Costs of fouling of power plants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-IVNoneEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Costs of fouling of recreational boats in Swedish waters, due to A. improvisus, were estimated at 122-331 million Swedish kroner, SK, equal to 18-49 million dollars, per year. Fouling of commercial vessels was estimated at 33-49 SK, equal to 5-7 million dollars, per year, for a total cost of 23-56 million dollars per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-IVNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Costs of fouling of power plants in Swedish waters were estimated at 10-38 SK (=1.5-5.5 million dollars) per year (Gren et al. 2009).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Gulf of Finland, A. improvisus was classified as having moderate community impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Finland, A. improvisus was classified as having some habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
In the Gulf of Finland, A. improvisus was classified as having moderate ecosystem impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Curonian Lagoon, A. improvisus was classified as having some community impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-XINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Bothnia , A. improvisus was classified as having some habitat impacts, by fouling eelgrass and algae (Bostrom and Bonsdorff 1997; Raberg and Kautsky 2007, cited by Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-XIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Bothnia, A. improvisus was classified as having some habitat impacts, by fouling eelgrass and algae (Bostrom and Bonsdorff 1997 and Raberg and Kautsky 2007, cited by Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Gulf of Bothnia, A. improvisus was classified as having some community impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-VIIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Riga, A. improvisus was classified as having some habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
CASPCaspian SeaEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Fouling by Amphibalanus improvisus reduces the growth rate of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum in the souther Caspian Sea. Another, deeper-burrowing bivalve, Adacna vitrea was not colonized by A. improvisus (Mirzajan et al. 2016).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Transplant experiments indicate that competition with Amphibalanus improvisus may limit growth and abundance of the introduced bryozoan Conopeum chesapeakensis at the less saline end of Carquinez Strait in the San Francisco estuary (Benicia, ~3.3 PSU, Newcomer et al. 2018).
NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEcological ImpactCompetition
Transplant experiments indicate that competition with Amphibalanus improvisus may limit growth and abundance of the introduced bryozoan Conopeum chesapeakensis at the less saline end of Carquinez Strait in the San Francisco estuary (Benicia, ~3.3 PSU, Newcomer et al. 2018).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NA-S3 None 1954 Native Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 0 Native Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Native Estab
CAR-II None 0 Native Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
CAR-III None 0 Native Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Native Estab
SA-IV None 0 Native Estab
SA-III None 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 1854 Native Estab
SA-I None 0 Native Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1853 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1955 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1956 Def Estab
NEP-VII None 1889 Def Estab
NEP-VIII None 1960 Def Estab
SEP-I None 1854 Def Estab
SEP-C None 1926 Def Unk
NEA-II None 1827 Def Estab
B-II None 1878 Def Estab
B-III None 1873 Def Estab
B-IV None 1880 Def Estab
B-V None 1948 Def Estab
B-VI None 1895 Def Estab
B-VII None 1844 Def Estab
B-IX None 1869 Def Estab
B-XI None 1933 Def Estab
B-XII None 1994 Def Estab
NEA-III None 1854 Def Estab
MED-V None 1935 Def Estab
MED-IX None 1844 Def Estab
MED-X None 1979 Def Estab
CASP Caspian Sea 1955 Def Estab
MED-IV None 0 Def Estab
MED-VII None 0 Def Estab
MED-III None 0 Def Estab
NWP-3b None 1952 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 1968 Def Estab
B-I None 1895 Def Estab
MED-VI None 0 Def Estab
NEA-V None 1872 Def Estab
MED-II None 0 Def Estab
NEA-IV None 1872 Def Estab
NA-ET1 Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bay of Fundy 0 Native Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1853 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1970 Def Estab
P155 _CDA_P155 (Sixes) 1979 Def Unk
P080 Monterey Bay 1998 Def Estab
P073 _CDA_P073 (Central Coastal) 1939 Def Unk
P260 Columbia River 1957 Def Estab
P282 _CDA_P282 (Queets-Quinault) 2003 Def Unk
P294 _CDA_P294 (Nooksack) 2003 Def Unk
P270 Willapa Bay 1955 Def Estab
N050 Penobscot Bay 0 Native Estab
N165 _CDA_N165 (Charles) 0 Native Estab
N170 Massachusetts Bay 1854 Native Estab
N185 _CDA_N185 (Cape Cod) 0 Native Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 0 Native Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 0 Native Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 0 Native Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 0 Native Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 0 Native Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 0 Native Estab
S050 Cape Fear River 0 Native Estab
S060 Winyah Bay 0 Native Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Native Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Native Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 0 Native Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 0 Native Estab
S190 Indian River 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 0 Native Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 0 Native Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
B-X None 1868 Def Estab
CAR-V None 0 Native Estab
P010 Tijuana Estuary 2003 Def Unk
MED-VIII None 2003 Def Estab
S120 Savannah River 0 Native Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1932 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1932 Def Unk
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1853 Def Estab
EAS-I None 1992 Def Unk
AUS-XII None 2000 Def Unk
AUS-III None 1981 Def Unk
AUS-II None 1981 Def Unk
B-VIII None 0 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 1963 Def Estab
SEP-H None 2008 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 0 Native Estab
NEP-II Alaska south of Aluetians to the Alaskan panhandle 2012 Def Unk
NWP-4b None 0 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 2011 Def Estab
AG-3 None 2010 Def Unk
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 2008 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Native Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 2003 Def Estab
CAR-VI None 0 Native Estab
AR-V None 2012 Def Estab
WA-IV None 0 Def Unk
P020 San Diego Bay 2013 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 2013 Crypto Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 2015 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2015 Def Estab
P070 Morro Bay 2015 Prb Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
3019 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1903 1903-10-30 Alviso Def 37.4261 -121.9742
3020 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1915 1915-01-01 Redwood City Def 37.4853 -122.2353
3021 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1913 1913-10-01 Alameda Def 37.7653 -122.2406
3022 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1922 1922-01-01 Oakland Def 37.8044 -122.2697
3023 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1922 1922-08-28 Dumbarton Bridge Def 37.5053 -122.1183
3024 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1923 1923-08-01 Crockett Def 38.0525 -122.2119
3025 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1931 1931-09-01 Rodeo Def 38.0331 -122.2658
3026 Marchette 1953, cited by Carlton 1979 1951 1951-01-01 Oakland Def 37.4813 -122.1526
3027 Filice 1954, cited by Carlton 1979 1953 1953-01-01 Castro Creek Def 37.9683 -122.4061
3028 Saroyan et al. 1970, cited by Carlton 1979 1970 1970-01-01 Mare Island Strait Def 38.0997 -122.2647
3030 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1919 1939-01-01 Suisun Bay Def 38.0542 -122.8672
3031 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1912 1912-12-09 San Francisco Bay Def 37.7083 -122.2792
3032 Carlton and Zullo 1969 1934 1934-01-01 Palo Alto Def 37.4419 -122.1419
3033 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1978 1978-01-01 San Francisco Bay Def 37.7083 -122.2792
3034 Carlton 1979 1970 1970-01-01 Coos Bay Def 43.4294 -124.2286
3035 de Rivera et al. 2005 2004 2004-07-15 Coos Bay, Sengstocken Arm Def 43.3014 -124.3158
3036 de Rivera et al. 2005 2004 2004-07-15 Empire Boat Ramp Def 43.3933 -124.2806
3037 de Rivera et al. 2005 2004 2004-07-15 Charleston Boat Basin Def 43.3464 -124.3270
3038 de Rivera et al. 2005 2004 2004-07-15 Winchester Def 43.3174 -124.3217
3045 Carlton 1979 1957 1957-01-01 Astoria Def 46.1750 -123.8647
3046 Sytsma et al. 2004 2002 2002-07-08 Astoria Def 46.1898 -123.8540
3047 Sytsma et al. 2004 2002 2002-10-02 Astoria Def 46.1692 -123.8224
3049 deRivera et al. 2005 2003 2003-07-15 Bay View Def 48.4961 -122.5008
3050 Carlton 1979 1955 1955-01-01 Esquimalt Def 48.4333 -123.4167
3054 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1967 1967-04-25 San Felipe Def 31.0167 -114.8500
3055 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1889 1889-03-13 Gulf of California Def 30.4667 -113.1000
3056 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1968 1968-05-23 Mazatlan Def 23.2167 -106.4167
3057 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1960 1960-05-14 Puerto Vallarta Def 22.8667 -105.1000
3058 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1964 1964-05-05 San Blas Def 26.0833 -108.7667
3059 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Campbellton Native 48.0000 -66.6667
3060 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Shippigan Native 47.7333 -64.7000
3061 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Tracadie Native 47.5000 -64.9167
3062 Bousfield 1954 None 1954-01-01 Newcastle Native 46.9833 -65.5667
3063 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Miramichi Estuary Native 47.0833 -65.3667
3064 Carlton 1979 1955 1955-01-01 Willapa Bay Def 46.5538 -124.0172
3065 Cohen et al. 2001 2000 2000-05-21 Upper Palix River pilings Def 46.6017 -123.8830
3066 Cohen et al. 2001 2000 2000-05-21 Bear River Pilings Native 46.3699 -123.9514
3067 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Richibucto Native 46.6833 -64.8667
3068 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Shediac Native 46.2167 -64.5333
3069 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Charlottetown Native 46.2333 -63.1333
3070 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Egmont Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence Native 46.5833 -64.2500
3071 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Pugwash Native 45.8500 -63.6500
3072 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Liverpool Native 44.0333 -64.7167
3074 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 St. Andrews Native 45.0667 -67.0333
3075 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Port Maitland Native 43.9667 -66.1333
3076 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Navy Island Native 45.0500 -67.0500
3077 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1935 1935-01-01 Milldigerville Native 45.3167 -66.1333
3078 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Noel Native 45.3000 -63.7500
3079 Bousfield 1954 1954 1954-01-01 Bay of Fundy Native 45.3500 -63.8833
3080 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Yarmouth Native 43.8333 -66.1167
3081 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1960 1960-11-01 Rockland Native 44.1036 -69.1094
3082 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1960 1960-08-29 Gloucester Native 42.6158 -70.6625
3083 Darwin 1854 1854 1854-01-01 Charlestown (Boston) Native 42.3583 -71.0603
3084 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1965 1964-01-01 Cotuit Native 41.6167 -70.4375
3085 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1936 1936-01-01 Norwich Native 41.5242 -72.0764
3086 Pilsbry 1916 1916 1916-01-01 Quinnipiac River Native 41.2994 -72.9044
3087 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1874 1874-01-01 Long Island Sound Native 41.0833 -73.0000
3088 Crandall 1977 1977 1977-01-01 Croton Bay, Hudson River Native 41.1786 -73.8831
3089 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1936 1936-08-24 Hudson River, Haverstraw Bay Native 41.1936 -73.9308
3090 Pearce 1974 1974 1974-01-01 Raritan Bay Native 40.4742 -74.1811
3091 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1973 1973-12-03 Alloway Creek Native 39.5003 -75.5286
3092 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1957 1957-04-27 Delaware Bay Native 39.0500 -75.1500
3093 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1978 1978-12-18 off Still Pond, Chesapeake Bay Native 39.3340 -76.0458
3094 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1942 1942-12-15 Swan Point Bar Native 39.1275 -76.2758
3095 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1967 1967-06-21 Sandy Point Native 39.0114 -76.3947
3096 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1967 1967-01-01 South River Native 38.8993 -76.5176
3097 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1980 1980-01-01 Cabin Creek Oyster Bar Native 37.6333 -75.9667
3098 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Chesapeake Beach Native 38.6861 -76.5350
3099 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1937 1937-08-15 Fairhaven Native 38.7442 -76.5581
3100 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1944 1944-10-11 Solomons Island Native 38.3214 -76.4586
3101 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1937 1937-10-31 Camp Roosevelt Native 38.6436 -76.5247
3103 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1932 1932-09-19 Cornfield Harbor Native 38.0467 -76.3358
3104 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1932 1932-09-10 Riverside Native 38.3878 -77.1467
3105 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1932 1932-09-09 Lower Cedar Point Bar Native 38.3428 -76.9769
3106 Kennedy and DiCosimo 1983 1979 1979-01-01 Lower Cedar Point Bar Native 38.3428 -76.9769
3107 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1942 1942-12-11 Lower Cedar Point Bar Native 38.3428 -76.9769
3108 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1942 1942-11-30 Poseys Bluff Bar Native 38.2261 -76.6519
3109 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1935 1935-07-27 Liverpool Beach Native 38.4639 -76.3358
3110 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1942 1942-11-19 Heron Island Bar Native 38.2158 -76.7247
3111 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1942 1942-11-27 Blake Creek Bar Native 38.2069 -76.5633
3112 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Swan Point Bar Native 38.2939 -76.9267
3115 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1916 1916-07-29 Lower Cedar Point Bar Native 38.3428 -76.9769
3116 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Lower Cedar Point Bar Native 38.3428 -76.9769
3117 Kennedy and DiCosimo 1983 1979 1979-10-15 Marumsco Bar Native 38.0078 -75.6850
3118 Larsen 1985 1972 1972-01-01 Brown Shoal Native 37.0119 -76.4689
3119 Thompson 1993 1992 1992-01-01 Hog Island Native 37.4161 -75.6914
3120 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1920 1920-08-22 Cape Henry Native 36.9315 -76.0199
3122 Eaton 1994 1993 1993-06-20 Knotts Island Native 36.5322 -75.9233
3123 Eaton 1994 1993 1993-06-20 Poplar Branch Landing Native 36.2478 -75.8711
3124 Dean and Bellis 1975 1972 1972-01-01 15 km SE of Washington Native 35.4507 -76.9357
3125 Dean and Bellis 1975 1972 1972-01-01 56 km ESE of Washington Native 35.3519 -76.4833
3126 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1943 1943-10-01 Roanoke Island Native 35.8825 -75.6558
3127 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1928 1928-01-28 Open Grounds, Beaufort Native 34.8706 -76.5064
3128 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1929 2029-09-29 Beaufort Native 34.7181 -76.6642
3129 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1934 1934-09-03 Morehead City Native 34.7228 -76.7264
3130 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1941 1941-08-07 Wilmington Native 34.2256 -77.9450
3131 Pilsbry 1916 1918 1916-01-01 Sullivan's Island Native 32.7631 -79.8369
3132 Pilsbry 1916 1916 1916-01-01 Winyah Bay Native 33.2661 -79.2333
3134 Pilsbry 1916 1916 1916-01-01 Savannah River Native 32.0375 -80.8503
3135 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Savannah River Native 32.0375 -80.8503
3136 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1921 1921-10-17 James Island Native 32.7275 -79.9558
3137 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1975 1975-01-01 Jacksonville Native 30.3319 -81.6558
3138 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1942 1942-03-05 Daytona Beach Native 29.2106 -81.0231
3139 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1963 1963-11-09 Miami Native 25.7739 -80.1939
3140 McPherson 1984 1981 1981-01-01 Loxohatchee River estuary Native 26.9667 -80.1333
3141 Moore et al. 1974 1964 1964-01-01 Miami Beach Native 25.7903 -80.1303
3142 Wells 1966 1964 1964-11-06 Panama City Native 30.1586 -85.6603
3143 Wells 1966 1966 1965-05-25 St. Teresa Native 29.9306 -84.4542
3144 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1975 1975-01-01 Alligator Harbor Native 29.9097 -84.3953
3145 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1963 1963-07-02 Raccoon Key Native 32.7117 -79.1033
3146 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1942 1947-09-01 East end, Mississippi Sound Native 30.2669 -88.5167
3147 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1928 1928-09-01 Henderson Point Native 30.3050 -89.2922
3148 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1928 1928-09-01 Pass Christian Native 30.3156 -89.2475
3149 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1975 1975-01-01 Lake Ponchartrain Native 30.1120 -90.0605
3150 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1923 1923-05-09 Lake Ponchartrain Native 30.1120 -90.0605
3151 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Lake Ponchartrain Native 30.1120 -90.0605
3152 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Lake Ponchartrain Native 30.1120 -90.0605
3153 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Lake Ponchartrain Native 30.1120 -90.0605
3154 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1954 1954-01-09 Rigolets Native 30.1486 -89.6422
3155 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1953 1953-11-27 Point Platte Native 30.2494 -89.9292
3156 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1953 1953-07-13 off Frenier Beach Native 30.1092 -90.4239
3157 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1981 1981-04-01 7 mi off Cameron Native 29.6644 -93.4594
3158 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1948 1948-05-04 Fort Livingston Native 29.1623 -89.5641
3159 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Heald Bank Native 29.0500 -94.1600
3160 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Heald Bank Native 29.0500 -94.1600
3161 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1946 1945-07-15 Mesquite Bay Native 28.1467 -96.8453
3162 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1947 1947-12-27 Rockport Native 28.0203 -97.0542
3163 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1947 1947-12-01 Port Aransas Native 27.8336 -97.0608
3164 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1965 1965-03-17 Veracruz Harbor Native 19.3333 -96.6667
3165 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1965 1965-02-23 Portete Native 10.0167 -83.0667
3166 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1956 1956-08-12 Guyanilla Native 18.0116 -66.4732
3168 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 1937 1937-03-29 San Juan Native 18.4167 -66.1667
3169 Leppakoski and Olenin 2000 1995 1995-01-01 Northern Quark Islands(Ostra Qvarken) Def 63.5000 21.0000
3170 Gislen 1950 1933 1933-01-01 Vaasa Def 63.1000 23.0000
3171 Leppakoski and Olenin 2000 1868 1868-01-01 Turku Def 60.5000 22.5000
3172 Gislen 1950 1950 1947-01-01 Hudiksvall Def 61.7667 17.0833
3173 Gislen 1950 1918 1918-01-01 Vaddo Def 60.0000 18.8333
3174 Leppakoski and Olenin 2000 1869 1869-01-01 Talinn Def 59.5303 24.7233
3175 Luther 1950 1887 1987-01-01 Paldiski Def 59.3567 24.0531
3176 Kotta et al. 2002 2002 9999-01-01 Kunda Def 59.5181 26.6719
3177 Gislen 1950 1945 1945-01-01 Nykoping Def 58.8333 17.0333
3178 Gislen 1950 1932 1932-01-01 Nynashamm Def 58.9044 17.9464
3179 Luther 1950 1908 1908-01-01 Saaremaa (Osel) Def 58.2500 22.4667
3180 Luther 1950 1877 1877-01-01 Haapsalu (Hapsal) Def 58.9431 23.5414
3181 Gislen 1950 1944 1944-01-01 Visby Def 57.6333 18.3000
3182 Luther 1950 1887 1887-01-01 Ventspils (Windau) Def 57.3894 21.5606
3183 Luther 1950 1975 1875-01-01 Liepaja (Libau) Def 56.5167 21.0167
3184 Luther 1950 1873 1873-01-01 Klaipeda (Memel) Def 55.5000 21.5000
3185 Gislen 1950 1949 1949-01-01 Borgholm Def 56.8833 16.6500
3186 Luther 1950 1844 1844-01-01 Kaliningrad (Konigsberg) Def 54.7100 20.5000
3187 Gislen 1950 1946 1946-01-01 Vastervik Def 57.7833 16.5167
3188 Gislen 1950 1948 1948-01-01 Karlskrona Def 56.2500 15.6667
3189 Gislen 1950 1902 1902-01-01 Torekov Def 56.4250 12.6333
3190 Leppakoski and Olenin 2000 1895 1895-01-01 Stockholm Def 59.3333 18.0500
3191 Gislen 1950 1935 1935-01-01 Varberg Def 57.1167 12.2167
3192 Gislen 1950 1929 1929-01-01 Kattegat Def 57.7167 11.9667
3193 Gislen 1950 1950 1895-01-01 Fiskebäckskil Def 58.2500 11.4667
3194 Jensen and Knudsen 2005 1880 1880-01-01 Copenhagen Def 55.6667 12.5833
3195 Jensen and Knudsen 2005 1880 1880-01-01 Helsingor Def 56.0333 12.6167
3196 Gislen 1950 1902 1902-01-01 Malmo Def 55.6000 13.0000
3197 Wolff 2005 1827 1827-01-01 Leiden Def 50.7539 7.2117
3198 Hoek 1875, cited by Wolff 2005 1875 1875-01-01 Uithoorn Def 52.2333 4.8333
3199 Hoek 1875, cited by Wolff 2005 1875 1875-01-01 Amsterdam Def 52.3500 4.9167
3200 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1932 1932-01-01 Oosterleek Def 52.6333 5.2000
3203 Darwin 1854 1854 1854-01-01 Herne Bay Def 51.3667 1.1133
3204 Darwin 1854 1954 1854-01-01 Sandwich Def 49.9117 1.7494
3206 Darwin 1854 1854 1854-01-01 River Itchen Def 50.9500 -1.3667
3210 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Preston Def 53.7667 -2.7167
3211 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Runcorn Def 53.3333 -2.7500
3213 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Bangor Def 53.3417 -4.3083
3216 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Milford Haven Def 51.7083 -5.0750
3217 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Gloucester Def 51.8333 -2.2083
3219 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Southampton Def 50.9000 -1.4000
3220 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Whitton Def 53.7000 -0.6333
3221 Furman and Yule 1991 1989 1989-01-01 Grangemouth Def 56.0167 -3.7333
3228 Furman and Yule 1991 1924 923-06-13 Oslofjord Def 59.3464 10.5897
3229 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Brest Def 48.3000 -4.4833
3230 Bishop et al. 1957 1957 1955-01-01 Daoulas Def 48.2167 -3.1333
3231 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Lanveoc Def 48.2833 -4.4667
3232 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Camaret Def 48.2833 -4.6000
3233 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Port Lorient Def 47.7500 -3.3667
3234 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Auray Def 47.5833 -2.9333
3235 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Vannes Def 47.6667 -2.7500
3236 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Paimboeuf Def 47.2833 -2.0333
3237 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Mindin Def 47.2667 -2.1667
3238 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Le Pouliguen Def 47.2667 -2.4333
3239 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Pornic Def 47.1167 -2.1000
3240 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 la Bernerie Def 47.0833 -2.0333
3241 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Croix-de-Vie Def 46.7000 -1.9500
3242 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Sables de Olonnes Def 46.5333 -1.7833
3243 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 La Rochelle Def 46.1667 -1.1500
3244 U.S. National Museum 2002 None 9999-01-01 La Rochelle Def 46.1667 -1.1500
3245 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Pointe de Grave Def 45.5667 -1.0667
3246 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Royan Def 45.6333 -1.0333
3247 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Talmont Def 45.5333 -0.9000
3248 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Cap Ferret Def 44.6167 -1.2500
3249 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Arcachon Def 44.6500 -1.1667
3250 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Le Boucau Def 43.5333 -1.5000
3251 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 Bayonne Def 43.4833 -1.4833
3252 Bishop et al. 1957 1955 1955-01-01 St. Jean de Luz Def 43.3000 -1.3000
3253 Goulletquer et al. 2002 1872 1872-01-01 Charente Estuary, Bay of Biscay Def 45.9500 -1.0833
3254 Goulletquer et al. 2002 1872 1872-01-01 Capbreton Def 43.6333 -1.4300
3255 U. S. National Museum 2002 1979 1979-10-29 Puerto Real Def 36.5300 -6.1833
3256 U. S. National Museum 2002 1979 1979-10-29 Playa Valdelagrana Def 36.6000 -6.2333
3257 Relini and Matricari 1999 1975 1975-01-01 Laguna Orbetello Def 42.4500 11.2167
3258 Mor et al. 1971, cited by Koukouras and Matsa 1998 1971 1971-01-01 Genoa Def 44.4167 8.9500
3259 Relini 1972, cited by Koukouras and Matsa 1998 1972 1972-01-01 Venice Def 45.4386 12.3267
3260 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1975 1975-01-01 Alexandria Def 31.1575 29.8989
3401 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1975 1965-05-07 Maracas Bay, Caribbean Sea Native 10.7500 -61.4333
3402 U.S. National Museum 2002 1927 1927-01-01 Jamaica Native 17.9667 -76.8000
3404 Young 1994; Young 1998 1994 1994-01-01 Aquiraz, Native -3.9000 -38.3667
3405 Young 1998 1991 1991-01-01 Recife Native -8.0500 -34.9000
3406 Young 1998 1978 1978-01-01 Cabo Frio Native -22.8833 -42.0000
3407 Young 1998 1974 1974-01-01 Baia de Guanabara Native -22.7431 -43.1328
3408 Darwin 1854 1854 1854-01-01 Montevideo Native -34.8581 -56.1708
3409 Bemvenuti et al. 1979, in Biological Abstracts 1979 1979-01-01 Lagoa do Patos Native -31.0000 -51.0000
3410 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1955 1955-03-29 Cananeia Native -25.0167 -47.9500
3411 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Playa Capurro, Azara Labiata, Montevideo, Native -34.8667 -56.2167
3412 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 None 9999-01-01 Playa Buceo Native -34.9000 -56.1333
3413 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 1924 1924-01-01 Montevideo Native -34.7861 -56.3583
3414 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 1926 1926-01-01 Montevideo Native -34.8581 -56.1708
3415 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 1925 1925-01-01 Puerto de la Paloma Native -34.6667 -54.1500
3416 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 1922 1922-11-27 Pocitos Native -34.9097 -56.1522
3417 U.S. Museum of Natural History 2002 1982 1982-09-01 Bahia Samborombon Native -37.0000 -57.2000
3418 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1934 1934-12-22 Puna Island Def -2.8333 -80.1333
3419 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1966 1966-05-07 Posorja Native -2.7000 -80.2500
3421 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1963 1963-05-05 Posorja Def -2.7000 -80.2500
3422 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1963 1963-05-13 Playas Def -2.6333 -80.3833
3423 Henry and McLaughlin 1975 1963 1963-09-05 Punto Carnero Def -3.0333 -80.2500
3425 Zullo 1966 1963 1963-07-02 off Racoon Key Native 32.7067 -79.4250
3426 Utinomi 1970 1968 1968-03-01 Wakasa Bay Def 35.7500 135.6667
3428 Utinomi 1970 1968 1968-08-08 Sakai Def 34.5833 135.4667
3429 Utinomi 1970 1968 1968-08-05 Lake Zinzai ko, Sea of Japan Def 35.3167 132.6833
3430 Asakura 1992 1952 1952-01-01 Ago-Wan Def 34.2833 136.7667
3431 Asakura 1992 1963 1963-01-01 Tokyo Bay Def 35.4169 139.7836
3432 Yamanishi et al. 1991 et al. 1991) 1991 1991-01-01 Osaka Def 34.6833 135.5167
3433 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Kansong Def 38.4000 128.5000
3434 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Yangyang Def 38.0000 128.9000
3435 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Yangyang Def 37.8000 129.0000
3436 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Pon'chon Def 36.6000 129.4000
3437 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Po'hang Def 36.0000 129.4000
3438 Kim 1992 1992 1992-01-01 near Pusan Def 35.0000 129.0000
3439 Kim 1992 None 1992-01-01 near Chinhae Def 35.0000 128.8000
3440 Zvyagintsev 2003 1969 1969-01-01 Vladivostok Def 43.0000 132.5000
3441 Zvyagintsev 2003 2003 2003-01-01 Amur Bay Def 43.3000 131.8000
3442 Laguna 1985 1984 1984-01-01 Panama, Caribbean Sea (Colon) Native 9.3592 -79.9014
3444 Ortiz 1987 1987 1987-01-01 Bahia de Jururu Native 21.0719 -76.0378
3445 Zvyaginstsev et al. 2004 2002 2002-05-01 Vladivostok Def 43.1333 131.9000
3446 Korn 1999 1995 1995-09-01 vicinity of Nakhodka Def 42.8000 132.9500
3447 Zvyaginstev 1992 None 1986-01-10 Amur Bay Def 43.3000 131.8000
3462 Shalaeva and Lisitskaya 2004 2000 2000-01-01 Balaklava Bay Def 44.3000 33.6000
3463 Aladin et al. 2002; Grigorevich et al. 2003 1955 1955-01-01 Caspian Sea Def 42.0000 50.0000
3464 Zevina and Goryn 1971 1969 1971-01-01 Pos'yet Bay Def 42.5694 130.9961
3465 Zevina and Goryn 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Slavyanka Def 42.8650 131.3864
3466 Zevina and Goryn 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Yaskol'd Island Def 42.7000 132.5000
3467 Furman 1989; Furman 1990 1989 1989-01-01 Kotka Def 60.4667 26.9167
3468 Furman 1989; Furman 1990 1989 1989-01-01 Helsinki Def 60.1756 24.9342
3469 Furman 1989; Furman 1990 1989 1989-01-01 Tvarminne Def 59.8333 23.2000
3470 Furman 1989 1989 1989-01-01 Uusikaupunki Def 60.8000 21.4167
3471 Furman 1989 1989 1989-01-01 Geta (Alands Island) Def 60.3833 19.8500
3472 Furman 1989 1989 1989-01-01 Okno Def 57.0000 16.5167
3473 Furman 1989 1989 1989-01-01 Raa Def 56.0000 12.7333
3474 Furman 1989; Furman 1990 1989 1989-01-01 Galto Def 58.8167 11.2167
3475 Furman 1990 1990 1990-01-01 Gdynia Def 54.5000 18.5500
3476 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Cabedelo Native -6.9667 -34.8333
3477 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 João Pessoa Native -7.1167 -34.8667
3478 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Maceio Native -9.5000 -35.5000
3479 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Sao Cristovao Native -10.5000 -37.5000
3480 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Santo Amaro Native -13.0000 -39.5000
3481 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Caravelas Native -18.0000 -39.0000
3482 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Guarapari Native -20.6667 -40.5000
3483 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Rio de Janeiro Native -22.9000 -43.2333
3484 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Mangaratiba Native -22.9500 -44.0333
3485 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Angra dos Reis Native -23.0000 -44.3000
3486 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Guaruja Native -24.0000 -46.2667
3487 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Santos Native -24.0000 -46.3000
3488 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Antonina Native -25.4500 -48.7167
3489 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Paranagua Native -25.5167 -48.5000
3490 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Caioba Native -25.8500 -48.5500
3491 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Sao Francisco do Sul Native -26.5000 -48.5000
3492 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Florianopolis Native -27.5833 -48.5667
3493 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Araranguá Native -28.9333 -49.4833
3494 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Torres Native -29.3500 -49.7333
3495 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Tramandaí Native -29.6667 -50.1333
3496 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Pelotas Native -31.7667 -52.3333
3497 Young 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Rio Grande Native -32.0333 -52.0833
3757 Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle 2006 None 9999-01-01 Sette Def 43.3833 3.6000
3758 Pavlova et al. 2007 None 9999-01-01 Sevastopol Def 44.6000 33.5278
3760 Costa et al. 1976 None 9999-01-01 Scardovari Inlet Def 44.8942 12.4594
3762 Kasymov 1982 1982 1988-01-01 Baku Def 40.3711 49.8933
3765 Kasymov 1982 1974 1974-01-01 Turkmen Bay Def 38.5000 54.0000
3766 Artuz 2005 2003 2003-01-01 Sea of Marmara Def 40.6667 28.2500
4019 Orensanz et al. 2002 None 9999-01-01 Mar Chiquita Lagoon Native -37.7500 -57.4167
4020 Kocak and Kucuksezgin 2000 1994 1994-01-01 Kusadasi Def 37.8500 27.2500
4386 Cohen et al. 2005 2004 2004-05-01 Rodeo Marina Def 38.0391 -122.2709
6039 Lu et al. 2007 2005 2005-09-20 Port Alberni Def 49.2369 -124.8161
6043 Bayer et al. 1970, cited by Spivey 1976 1970 1970-01-01 Christobal Native 9.3522 -79.9044
6825 Farrapeira 2010 2009 2009-01-01 São Luís Island Native -2.5300 -44.3000
6842 Montalvo-Urgel et al. 2010 2010 2010-01-01 Laguna San Pedrito Native 18.3583 -92.5833
6843 Montalvo-Urgel et al. 2010 2010 2919-01-01 La Pesca Native 23.7667 -97.7833
6862 Riedel et al. 2006 2004 2004-05-01 45 km north of Makhachkala Def 43.3833 47.4833
6872 Chavanich et al. 2010 1978 978-01-01 Qingdao Def 36.0986 120.3720
6935 Lang and Marcy 1982 1982 1982-01-01 Pettaquamscutt River Native 41.5204 -71.4448
6936 Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001; Partaly 2003 None 9999-01-01 Taganrog Def 47.2214 38.9094
6937 Darwin 1854 1854 1854-01-01 Ramsgate Def 51.3333 1.4333
8310 Buschbaum et al. 2012 1951 9999-01-01 Brunsbüttel Def 53.8964 9.1386
8311 Smidt 1951, cited by Buschbaum et al. 2012) 1951 9999-01-01 Isle of Sylt Def 54.9000 8.3333
8325 Wittfoth and Zettler 2013 2013 2013-01-01 Rostock Def 54.1667 12.0833
8326 Wittfoth and Zettler 2013 2013 9999-01-01 Darß-Zingst-Bodden-Chain Def 54.3933 12.6178
8327 Wittfoth and Zettler 2013 2013 9999-01-01 Szczecin Lagoon Def 53.8044 14.1403
767800 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-15 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9117 -122.3494
767812 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-20 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6979 -122.1912
767833 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-14 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5880 -122.3160
767843 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-16 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9724 -122.4796
767854 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6725 -122.3864
767861 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-27 Petaluma Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.2304 -122.6136
767868 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8046 -122.3985
767878 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-15 Berkeley Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8758 -122.3181
767896 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-27 Vallejo Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.1086 -122.2694
767904 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-21 South Beach Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7797 -122.3871
767917 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-20 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7947 -122.2822
767929 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-22 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
767943 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-28 Glen Cove Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0663 -122.2130
767950 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-12 Paradise Cay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9156 -122.4769
767958 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-28 Benicia Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0453 -122.1561
767965 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-12 Corinthian Yacht Club, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8103 -122.3228
767979 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
768034 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-27 Port of San Francisco Pier 31, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8078 -122.4060
768056 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-11 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
768078 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768102 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768124 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-04 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5023 -122.2130
768167 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-05 Port of Oakland, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7987 -122.3228
768190 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-07 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7940 -122.2787
768207 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-31 Glen Cove Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0663 -122.2130
768215 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-10 Pittsburg Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0346 -121.8829
768269 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-15 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7656 -122.2858
768292 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768313 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-22 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7926 -122.2746
768330 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-23 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9723 -122.4829
768351 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6639 -122.3821
768372 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-14 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5024 -122.2134
768395 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768415 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-12 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8078 -122.4354

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