Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1999
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1999

General Invasion History:

Perna viridis is native to the Indo-Pacific, from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Thailand, south through Indonesia. It has been introduced to several parts of the world, including China and southern Japan, Polynesia, the Caribbean (Venezuela-Jamaica), and the southeastern US from the Gulf Coast of Florida north to the Carolinas (Agard et al. 1992; Iwasaki 2006; Baker et al. 2007). Genetic analyses suggest that there was a single introduction of a small population to the Western Atlantic (Gilg et al. 2013). Sporadic records are known from northern and western Australia (Baker et al. 2007; Stafford et al. 2007; McDonald 2012). It has been reported from South Africa, with no location, and no information on establishment (Mead et al. 2011). This mussel is easily transported in ship fouling, as larvae in ballast water, and also by official and unofficial planting as seafood (Baker et al. 2007; Rajagopal et al. 2006).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Although a few isolated dead specimens were found in Virginia Beach, Virginia (VA) in 2001, P. viridis was first reported to be established on the East Coast of the US at Ponce de Leon Inlet, at the north end of the Indian River Lagoon in October 2002 (USGS Nonindigenous Species Program 2002; Baker et al. 2007). In 2003, it was collected from Pablo Creek, Florida (FL) (south of St. Augustine) north to the Savannah River, Georgia (GA) (USGS Nonindigenous Species Program 2003; Power et al. 2004; Baker et al. 2007), and several dead specimens were found at Oregon Inlet, North Carolina (NC). Green Mussels were reportedly abundant as far north as Mayport, FL, at the mouth of the St. Johns River estuary, and seasonally common as far north as Charleston, South Carolina (SC) (Baker et al. 2007). In coastal waters, the northernmost established population is in the St Mary’s River, on the FL-GA border, while a population on an offshore artificial reef off Brunswick, GA probably owes its persistence to the Gulf Stream (Power et al. 2004; Baker et al. 2007). Perna viridis appears to be at its northern range limit in northern Florida - in experiments, it suffered 94% mortality over a 20 day exposure to 14⁰C seawater (Urian et al. 2011). Dramatic die-offs were observed during the winters of 2010 and 2011 near St. Augustine, FL (Matthew Gilg, cited by Edwards 2011).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Perna viridis was first reported in US waters in Tampa Bay, Florida (FL), in 1999, when it was found to be fouling power plants there. At the time of its discovery, it had already colonized shores north (Treasure Island, Anclote Key) and south (Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor) of Tampa Bay (Benson et al. 2001; Ingrao et al. 2001; Baker et al. 2007). Its range expansion on the northern shore of the Gulf has been limited to sporadic occurrences of a few specimens near Pensacola Bay, FL (2002), Panama City, FL (2008), and Perdido Bay, Alabama (Baker et al. 2007; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011). It has expanded its range southward towards the tip of Florida, reaching Naples (2001) and Marco Island (2003) (Baker et al. 2007). Its establishment is uncertain in Florida Bay, but one specimen was found in netting attached to the beak of a sawfish (Pristis pectinata) (Baker et al. 2007). The abundance and range of this tropical mussel in southeastern US waters fluctuates greatly with the severity of winter weather. At low tides in the winter of 2008, P. viridis was exposed to air temperatures below 2⁰C for periods of 6 h or more, while water temperature remained around 20⁰C. This was accompanied by extensive mortality. Subsequent winters (2009, 2010), were also accompanied by severe mortality (Firth et al. 2011). In the northern and western shore of the Gulf, water temperatures below 14⁰C may also limit survival (Urian et al. 2011). Attempts to obtain P. viridis for SERC experiments in 2011 from Tampa Bay were unsuccessful. Local researchers said that they were virtually absent from areas where they had been abundant several years earlier (Joao Canning-Clode, personal communication 2011). However, warming of the climate is likely to result in northward range expansion, with fluctuations due to occasional severe winter weather (Firth et al. 2011; Urian et al. 2011).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Perna viridis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in Trinidad, on the Caribbean Sea in 1990 (Agard et al. 1992). By 1993, they had colonized Isla Margarita, Venezuela and the Venezuelan mainland, where they displaced established populations of P. perna (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998; Perez et al. 2007). In 1998, they became established in Kingston Harbor, Jamaica (Buddo et al. 2003; Baker et al. 2007). Across the Atlantic, a deliberate introduction was made for aquaculture in the Cape Verde Islands in 1994, using mussels from China, but by 2004, none of these mussels had survived (Baker et al. 2007).

In the Pacific, Perna viridis was first reported from Japan in Tokyo Bay in 1967, and subsequently appeared in other ports (Osaka, Nagoya) where it was dependent on thermal effluents for winter survival. A warming climate may have permitted it to become established in Sagami Bay, and the Seto Inland Sea (Uemori and Horikoshi 1991; Ueda 2000; Iwasaki 2006; Baker et al. 2007). It has spread to other Asian coastal waters, including Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean, and Japanese waters of the East China Sea, Hong Kong, Hainan, and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan (Huang 2001; Iwasaki 2006; Baker et al. 2007; Lee et al. 2010). In northern Australia, P. viridis appeared in Trinity Inlet, Cairns (Queensland) in 2001. It was found on vessel hulls, buoys, and test substrates as late as 2004, but is 'presumed to be eradicated or died out' (Baker et al. 2007; Stafford et al. 2007). In a review of occurrences in Australia, there is no evidence of establishment, despite the arrival of hundreds of fouled ships, and modeling that indicated that northern Australia was a favorable environment. Bayesian analysis suggests that the probability of establishment is much lower than originally thought (Heersink et al. 2019). 


Green Mussels were deliberately introduced to several Pacific islands for fisheries and aquaculture in 1972-1982. Aquaculture operations are apparently successful and continuing in New Caledonia and Tahiti, but less profitable in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga. However, populations on these islands are established (Eldredge 1994; Baker et al. 2007). Perna viridis is native to the western portion of the Indonesian archipelago, but was absent from the eastern portion, separated by a biogeographical boundary, due to the emergence of the Sunda and Java Shelves during the Pleistocene. A population of this mussel was found on the island of Ambon in 1994 though 2013. Heavy fouling on inter-island ferries is a likely vector for introduction of this mussel (Huhn et al. 2015).


Description

Perna viridis is roughly oval in shape through its ventral region, but gradually curves to a more triangular shape in its dorsal half, with an apex at the hinge. The beak of the shell is downturned. The shell is narrower in the anterior-posterior direction than that of P. perna, and the ventral margin is concave. The anterior retractor muscle leaves a 3-part scar in Perna, as compared to a continuous, elongated scar in Mytilus. In live animals, P. viridis has less pronounced papillae along the mantle margin than P. perna. Juveniles of P. viridis are typically marked with brilliant green and red, while adult shells are less bright, and have more brown. In adults, abrasion removes the periostracum, leaving white or pink patches (Siddall 1980; Rajagopal et al. 2006). Larval morphology is described by Siddall (1980). The larvae settle at ~215 µm (Siddall 1980), after about 13 to 41 days in the plankton (Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003) and become mature at a shell length of 15-30 mm (Ingrao et al. 2001). They can grow to 168 mm in length, but more usually to 80-100 mm (Agard et al. 1992; Benson et al. 2001). Because morphological characteristics are variable, and somewhat overlapping, Ingrao et al. (2001) used chromosomes to distinguish species - P. perna has 14 homologous pairs, while P. viridis has 15. Molecular identification (mitochondrial DNA) was used by Benson et al. (2001).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Bivalvia
Subclass:   Pteriomorphia
Order:   Mytiloida
Family:   Mytilidae
Genus:   Perna
Species:   viridis

Synonyms

Chloromya smaragdinus (Jukes-Brown, 1905)
Chloromya viridis (Dodge, 1952)
Mytilus opalus ( Lamarck, 1819)
Mytilus smaragdinus (Chemnitz, 1785)
Mytilus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)
Perna viridis (Ahmed, 1974)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Perna canaliculus
None

Perna perna
None

Ecology

General:

Perna viridis has separate sexes and animals mature at 1 year of age or less. This species has a prolonged spawning season, and in some tropical regions, spawns year round (Barber et al. 2005). Fertilized eggs develop into a planktonic trochophore larva, then into a shelled veliger. The larvae settle at ~215 µm (Siddall 1980), after about 13-41 days in the plankton, and become mature at a shell length of 15-30 mm (Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003; Rajogoppal et al. 2006). Field collections in the Intracoastal Waterway, Florida, indicate that most larvae settle within 5 km of the parent population, but modeling suggests that some could disperse as far as 100 km (Gilg et al. 2014).

Larvae of P. viridis can settle and metamorphose on a wide variety of surfaces, including rock, wood and mollusk shells. As they grow, they are attracted to other mussels. Extensive beds develop on rocky surfaces, but also on soft sediments, in which mussels are connected to each other and the substrate by byssus threads, creating a complex habitat (Buschbaunm et al. 2009). Mussels are strong-filter feeders, and create substantial currents as they pump in water to ingest phytoplankton and other suspended material. They deposit the uneaten material as pseudofeces, creating deposits of silt around and within the mussel bed (Bertness 1999; Buschbaum et al. 2009).

Green Mussels are characteristic of shallow subtidal and lower intertidal zones, and can be subject to sharp changes in temperature when exposed to the air and changes in salinity due to rainfall and river flow. Adult P. viridis can feed and grow in salinities of 19-58 PSU (Rajogopal et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). With a closed shell, they can survive up to 11 days in fresh water without feeding (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998). The salinity range for successful larval development is narrower (25-35 PSU, Romero and Romeira 1981). Perna viridis' temperature range in water is ~12-14 to 32.5⁰C (Benson et al. 2001; Rajagopal et al. 2006; Urian et al. 2011). Its degree of tolerance to cold air exposure is limited, and exposures of several hours to temperatures of 0-2⁰C at low tide were followed by high mortality (Firth et al. 2011). Spawning has been reported over a range from 18 to 31.3⁰C, but larval development is optimal at about 29⁰C (Barber et al. 2005; Rajagopal et al. 2006). Spawning in Indian populations is often triggered by a drop in salinity to about 20 PSU (Rajagopal et al. 2006), but salinity of 36 PSU is considered optimal for larval development (Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003).

Food:

Phytoplankton, detritus

Consumers:

crabs, fishes, snails

Competitors:

Perna perna, Mytilus galloprovincialis

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Salinity RangeHyperhaline40+ PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)12Field data (Benson et al. 2001; McFarland et al. 2015). Experimental studies found increased mortality at or below 14 C, with ~50% survival for 12 days at 14 C (Urian et al. 2010).
Maximum Temperature (ºC)32.5Field data (Rajagpopal 2006; McFarland et al. 2015)
Minimum Salinity (‰)6Perna viridis tolerated gradual decreases in salinity with 40-50% survival over 50 days (McFarland et al. 2015); Segnini de Bravo et al. (1998) reported a much wider salinity range (0-64 PSU), by exposing animals to more rapid changes (2 PSU changed/every 2 days), but without previous acclimation. Most of the animals survived for 11 days with no mortality in freshwater (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998). However, they did not report whether feeding occurred. Mussels survived at and fed at 25 PSU, but did not feed, and died within 120 hours at 10 and 15 PSU (McFarland et al. 2013).
Maximum Salinity (‰)58Field, Venezuela (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998)
Minimum Reproductive Temperature18Field data, spawning adults November, Tampa Bay (Barber et al. 2005)
Maximum Reproductive Temperature31.3Field data, spawning adults, India (Rajagopal et al. 2006)
Minimum Reproductive Salinity20Spawning in Indian populations (Rajagopal et al. 2006)
Maximum Reproductive Salinity38Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003
Minimum Duration13Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003 (29 C)
Maximum Duration41Manoj Nair and Appukuttan 2003 (29 C) (24 C)
Minimum Length (mm)15Maturation at 15-30 mm (Ingrao et al. 2001).
Maximum Length (mm)168Agard et al. 1992, but more usually, 80-100 mm (Benson et al. 2001; Rajogopal et al. 2006).
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm-temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Perna viridis is a potential ecosystem engineer, a major fouling organism, and also a valuable human and wildlife food sources in its native and introduced ranges (Rajagopal et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). Consequently, its economic impacts are complex. In subtropical-warm-temperate regions of Asia and the southeast US, the range, abundance, and impacts of P. viridis are likely to fluctuate with episodes of severe winter weather (Baker et al. 2007; Firth et al. 2011; Urian et al. 2011). Baker et al. (2007) note that as an invader in diverse tropical marine systems, it increases the amount and costs of fouling impacts on industry, shipping, and fisheries, but unlike the Zebra Mussel, does not create novel fouling problems, where none or few previously existed.

Economic Impacts

Industry- Perna viridis is a major fouling organism of power plants in India, Japan, and in Tampa Bay, and probably in other coastal locations. The economic and environmental costs of chemicals used to control P. viridis and other fouler must be added to costs of increased cleaning and shutdowns of power plants (Ingrao et al. 2001; Iwasaki 2006; Rajagopal et al. 2006). This mussel also affects other users of seawater- it blocked the seawater system of Mote Marine Laboratories in Florida (Ingrao et al. 2001).

Shipping- Perna viridis is a frequent fouler of piers, jetties, buoys, and ships’ hulls (Baker et al. 2004; Rajagopal et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). As with industrial uses, the economic costs and toxic effects of antifouling paints should be considered as part of this mussel's economic impact.

Fisheries- Perna viridis is a desirable seafood species and is widely cultured in India, Malaysia, and the Philippines. It reaches marketable size in less than six months, compared to 1-2 years for temperate Mytilus spp (Rajagopal et al. 2006). It has been successfully introduced for culture in Tahiti and New Caledonia, but attempts at aquaculture in Samoa, Tonga, and Fiji were unsuccessful (Eldredge 1994; Baker et al. 2007). This mussel is commercially harvested in Venezuela (Segnini de Bravo 2003). However, it also fouls oysters and other commercially cultured and harvested shellfish (Baker et al. 2004; Chavanich et al. 2010). A major concern for human consumption, as with other bivalves, is accumulation of toxic pollutants, and 'red tide' toxins from phytoplankton, which may restrict harvesting (Buddo et al. 2003; Rajagopal et al. 2006; Buddo et al. 2012).

Ecological Impacts

Competition- In Venezuela, Perna viridis appeared to be replacing the previously introduced P. perna (Brown Mussel), possibly because of its greater environmental tolerances (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998). In Tampa Bay, P. viridis was common on oyster reefs, and was reported to cause high oyster mortalities (Baker et al. 2004), presumably through fouling. 'On pilings, green mussels displace oysters to a narrow band in the upper intertidal' (Baker et al. 2004). In experiments, however, oysters had better survival during air exposure at moderate (26ºC) air temperatures than P. viridis (McFarland et al. 2015) and are unlikely to compete with oysters in the intertidal zone. Barber et al. (2005) suggest that P. viridis might be able to out-compete the native Brachidontes exustus (Scorched Mussel) because of the former's faster growth, large size, and greater reproductive output.

Habitat Change- Intertidal mussels are significant ecosystem engineers, creating a structure of shells bound to the rocks and each other with byssal threads, creating surfaces for attachment and sheltered niches for attached and mobile organisms. On unstructured bottoms, mussel beds provide solid substrate where it was previously absent (Bertness et al. 1999; Buschbaum et al. 2010). Perna viridis has invaded mangrove communities, muddy sea bottoms, oyster beds, rocky shores and artificial substrates such as piers, seawalls, canals, and seawater intakes (Buddo et al. 2003; Rajagopal et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2007). However, we have little specific information on how beds of P. viridis affect local biota. In Japan, and probably in the southeast US, winter die-offs of P. viridis can cause hypoxia (Chavanich et al. 2010; Firth et al. 2011; Urian et al. 2011).

Regional Impacts

NWP-3bNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Competition between P. viridis and native benthic fauna is suspected (Chavanich et al. 2010).
NWP-3bNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Death and deposition of P. viridis in winter may cause hypoxic conditions (Chavanich et al. 2010).
NWP-3bNoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fouling of cultured bivalves by P. viridis is suspected to reduce their growth (Chavanich et al. 2010).
SP-XVINoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Aquaculture of P. viridis is continuing (Eldredge 1994; Baker et al. 2007)
SP-IVNoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Aquaculture of P. viridis is continuing (Eldredge 1994; Baker et al. 2007)
CAR-IIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Perna viridis has been replacing P. perna in Venezuelan estuaries (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998; Perez et al. 2007). This has been attributed to greater temperature-salinity tolerance in P. viridis (Segnini de Bravo et al. 1998).
G070Tampa BayEconomic ImpactIndustry
Perna viridis was discovered when it was found to be fouling Tampa Electric Company Gannon Station Power Plant, and several other power plants in Tampa Bay. This mussel increases the cost of fouling control (Baker et al. 2007).
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEconomic ImpactIndustry
Perna viridis was discovered when it was found to be fouling Tampa Electric Company Gannon Station Power Plant, and several other power plants in Tampa Bay. It also blocked seawater systems in the Mote Marine Laboratory, in Sarasota (Ingrao et al. 2001). This mussel increases the cost of fouling control in power plants (Baker et al. 2007).
G060Sarasota BayEconomic ImpactIndustry
Perna viridis blocked seawater systems in the Mote Marine Laboratory, in Sarasota (Ingrao et al. 2001).
G070Tampa BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Perna viridis is 'abundant on oyster reefs in Tampa Bay, and are correlated with high oyster mortalities' (Baker et al. 2004).
G070Tampa BayEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Perna viridis fouls US coast Guard buoys, threatening to sink them, and requiring increased cleaning efforts (Baker et al. 2004).
G070Tampa BayEcological ImpactCompetition
'Green mussels are abundant on oyster reefs in Tampa Bay, and are correlated with high oyster mortalities. On pilings, green mussels displace oysters to a narrow band in the upper intertidal' (Baker et al. 2004). Barber et al. (2005) suggest that P. viridis might be able to out-compete the native Brachidontes exustus (Scorched Mussel) because of the former's faster growth, large size, and greater reproductive output.
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEconomic ImpactFisheries
Perna viridis is 'abundant on oyster reefs in Tampa Bay, and are correlated with high oyster mortalities' (Baker et al. 2004).
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Perna viridis fouls US coast Guard buoys, threatening to sink them, and requiring increased cleaning efforts (Baker et al. 2004).
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEcological ImpactCompetition
'Green mussels are abundant on oyster reefs in Tampa Bay, and are correlated with high oyster mortalities. On pilings, green mussels displace oysters to a narrow band in the upper intertidal' (Baker et al. 2004). Barber et al. (2005) suggest that P. viridis might be able to out-compete the native Brachidontes exustus (Scorched Mussel) because of the former's faster growth, large size, and greater reproductive output. Baker et al. (2004) found that P. viridis co-occurred with B. exustus, and may exclude the oyster Crassostrea virginica in some habitats, but its impacts are limited by their preference for artificial structures, and their vulnerability to severe cold and toxic phytoplankton blooms (Baker et al. 2011). In experiments in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida, Perna viridis, on fouling plates, reduced the settlement of larvae of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica), but did not affect the growth of oyster spat (Yuan et al. 2016). Year-round high reproductive output and high energy reserves indicate a potential for competition with native Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica (McFarland et al. 2016).
NWP-3bNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Perna viridis is considered to be the second most expensive fouling organism of power plants in Japanese waters, next to Mytilus galloprovincialis, causing major expenses for damage and cleaning (Iwasaki 2006).
CAR-IIINoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Perna viridis is commercially harvested in Venezuela (Segnini de Bravo 2003).
CAR-IINoneEconomic ImpactHealth
Perna viridis in Kingston Harbor had significant fecal coliform and heavy metal contamination, and will require depuration, if human consumption is going to be encouraged as a form of population control (Buddo et al. 2012).
S190Indian RiverEcological ImpactCompetition
In experiments in Mosquito Lagoon, Florida, Perna viridis, on fouling plates, reduced the settlement of larvae of Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica), but did not affect the growth of oyster spat (Yuan et al. 2016).
G045_CDA_G045 (Big Cypress Swamp)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Year-round high reproductive output and high energy reserves indicate a potential for competition with native Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea virginica (McFarland et al. 2016).
S183_CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Competition between Perna viridis and native bivalves (Crassostrea virginica, Ostrea equestris, Ischadium recurvum, and Geukensia demissa. While these species have different habitat and depth prefernces, there is also considerable overlap (Raabe and Gilg 2020).
CAR-VIICape Hatteras to Mid-East FloridaEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Matanzas estuary, Florida, competition between Perna viridis and native bivalves (Crassostrea virginica, Ostrea equestris, Ischadium recurvum, and Geukensia demissa. While these species have different habitat and depth prefernces, there is also considerable overlap (Raabe and Gilg 2020).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-III None 1990 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1999 Def Estab
CAR-II None 1998 Def Estab
NWP-3b None 1967 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 2000 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 1964 Def Estab
EAS-I None 0 Native Estab
EAS-III None 0 Native Estab
EAS-IV None 0 Native Estab
EAS-VI None 0 Native Estab
CIO-II None 0 Native Estab
CIO-I None 0 Native Estab
IP-1 None 0 Native Estab
AG-5 None 0 Native Estab
AG-1 None 0 Native Estab
AG-4 None 0 Native Estab
AG-3 None 0 Native Estab
EAS-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
EAS-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-I None 2002 Def Unk
AUS-XII None 2001 Def Unk
SP-VII None 1975 Def Estab
SP-IV None 1972 Def Estab
SP-XVI None 1972 Def Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 2003 Def Estab
S180 St. Johns River 2003 Def Estab
S190 Indian River 2002 Def Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 2002 Def Unk
G070 Tampa Bay 1999 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 2006 Def Unk
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 1999 Def Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 2001 Def Failed
S020 Pamlico Sound 2003 Def Failed
S175 _CDA_S175 (Nassau) 2003 Def Estab
S160 St. Andrew/St. Simons Sounds 2003 Def Estab
S170 St. Marys River/Cumberland Sound 2005 Def Unk
S120 Savannah River 2003 Def Unk
WA-I None 1999 Def Failed
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 2003 Def Failed
G010 Florida Bay 2002 Def Unk
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 2003 Def Estab
G040 Rookery Bay 2001 Def Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 1999 Def Estab
G060 Sarasota Bay 1999 Def Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 2003 Def Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 2008 Def Unk
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 2009 Def Unk
S110 Broad River 2009 Def Unk
SP-VIII None 1972 Def Estab
SP-IX None 1982 Def Estab
G140 Perdido Bay 2011 Def Unk
S140 St. Catherines/Sapelo Sounds 2001 Def Unk
AUS-IV None 2011 Def Failed
G045 _CDA_G045 (Big Cypress Swamp) 2011 Def Estab
EAS-V None 0 Native Estab
EAS-II None 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 2018 Def Unk

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

References

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Baker, Patrick; Fajans, Jonathan S.; Arnold, William S.; Ingrao, Debra A.; Marelli, Dan C.; Baker, Shirley M. (2007) Range and dispersal of a tropical marine invader, the Asian green mussel, Perna viridis, in subtropical waters of the southeastern United States., Journal of Shellfish Research 26(2): 345-355

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Firth, Louise B.; Knights, Antony M.; Bell, Susan S. (2011) Air temperature and winter mortality: Implications for the persistence of the invasive mussel,Perna viridis in the intertidal zone of the south-eastern United States, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 400: 250-256

2021 GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility). http://www.gbif.org/what-is-gbif

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