Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1941
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1941
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Musculista senhousia is native from the southern Kurile Islands, Sakhalin, Russia, and the north coast of Hokkaido, Japan (Golikov et al. 1976) to Singapore (Willan 1987). It is also established in the Indian Ocean from Thailand to the Red Sea, and the coast of east Africa. The extent to which it is native in the Indian Ocean is unknown (Hewitt 2002; Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; Bachelet et al. 2009). This mussel has been widely introduced with Japanese oysters, ship fouling, and ballast water, and has invaded the northwest Pacific (from Mexico to British Columbia), the southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand), the northeast Atlantic (Mediterranean and Atlantic France), and the tropical west Atlantic (Venezuela) (Carlton 1979; Willan 1987; Zenentos et al. 2003; Bachelet et al. 2009). Asif and Krug (2012) found that different lineages were involved in invasions in different parts of the world. A cool-water lineage, found in northern South Korea predominated in Puget Sound, Tomales Bay, San Diego and the Mediterranean, while in other parts of Southern California and New Zealand, a warm-water lineage, found in Tokyo, was the predominant form (Asif and Krug 2012).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Musculista senhousia was first collected in northeast Pacific waters in Samish Bay, Washington (WA) in 1924 'on planted beds of oysters', but was not found later at this site (Kincaid 1947, cited by Carlton 1979). Established populations were found at Olympia, WA, in Puget Sound in 1959 (Rice 1971, cited by Carlton 1979) and a number of subsequent populations have been reported throughout the Sound (Carlton 1979; USGS Nonindigenous Species Program 2009). In the 1990s, M. senhousia was collected in Georgia Straits, British Columbia, and now ranges north to Barkley and Desolation Sounds on Vancouver Island (2006, Gillespie et al. 2007). It was introduced to Willapa Bay, WA with planted clams (Venerupis phillipinarum) but did not persist (Cohen et al. 2001). Populations are not yet known from bays or estuaries in Oregon.

In Northern California, M. senhousia was reported as 'rare' by one survey (in 2001, Fairey et al. 2002) in Humboldt Bay, but this identification has not been confirmed and this species was not mentioned by another study of exotic species (Boyd et al. 2002). In central California, M. senhousia was first collected in Tomales Bay in 1941 (Pitelka and Paulson 1942, cited by Carlton 1979). In 1946, it was collected in Bolinas Lagoon, where it did not become established, and in San Francisco Bay, where it became abundant and widespread (Smith 1947, cited by Carlton 1979). Within San Francisco Bay, M. senhousia is found in South, Central, and San Pablo bays, and upstream to Honker Bay (Carlton 1979; Nichols and Thompson 1985; Cohen and Carlton 1995; Cohen et al. 2005). In 1971, it was collected in Bodega Harbor, and became established (Carlton 1979). However, in Elkhorn Slough, where it was reported in 1965, it did not persist (McDonald 1969; Carlton 1979; Wasson et al. 2001). In southern California, M. senhousia was first collected in 1965 in Mission Bay (McDonald 1969; Carlton 1979), in 1976 in San Diego Bay and in Newport Bay in 1997 (Carlton 1979). In surveys in 1998-2001, it was found in other estuaries, including the Tijuana River estuary, Oceanside Harbor, Huntington Harbor, Alamitos Bay, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, Rainbow Lagoon, Marina del Rey, and Port Hueneme (Cohen et al. 2002; Fairey et al. 2002; deRivera et al. 2005; Ranasinghe et al. 2005). Currently, this mussel occurs southward to the Estero de Punta Banda, Baja California, Mexico (Cohen 2005).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

This mussel was found in fouling on ships arriving in Halifax Harbor, Nova Scotia, Canada in 2007-2009 (Sylvester et al. 2011).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In 1964, M. senhousia was discovered in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, at Tel Aviv, Israel and later the Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt. In 1978, this mussel appeared in lagoons, such as the Etang de Thau, on the French Mediterranean coast, where Pacific Oysters were cultured (Zenetos et al. 2003). Subsequently, M. senhousia has appeared in other parts of the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic (Ravenna Lagoon in 1986, Zenetos et al. 2003); Po River Delta (in 1994, Mistri et al. 2002); Lagoon of Venice (in 2002, Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia 2013), and the Gulf of Taranto (in 2001, Mastrotaro and Dappiano 2005). In 2002, it was discovered in Arcachon Bay, on the Biscay coast of France, where it now occurs in several lagoons on the France/Spain border (Bachelet et al. 2009). The introductions to the Eastern Mediterranean may have occurred through the Suez Canal, but western Mediterranean and Biscay introductions are closely associated with Japanese oyster culture (Zenetos et al. 2003; Bachelet et al. 2009).

In the Southwest Pacific, M. senhousia was first collected in Waitemata Harbour, North Island, New Zealand, in 1980, and subsequently found in several other harbors on the North Island, sometimes in very high abundances (Willan 1987). In 1982, the mussel colonized the Swan River Estuary, near Perth, Western Australia (Willan 1987). Although this population reached very high densities, it disappeared completely in 2000, after a very heavy rain, forming an extensive freshwater lens, accompanied by a toxic algae bloom (McDonald and Wells 2010). In the late 1980s, M. senhousia appeared in Port Phillip and Westernport Bays, Victoria (Boyd 1999), in St. Vincent Gulf, South Australia, and in the Tamar estuary, Tasmania (1995, Hewitt 2002).

In 2002, M. senhousia was discovered for the first time in the Western Atlantic, in the Caribbean Sea of Delta Amacuro State, Venezuela. Specimens were growing on mangroves in Boca Pedernales, Gulf of Paria and the Orinoco Delta (2002, Martinez-Escarbassiro et al. 2004; Perez et al. 2007).


Description

Arcuatula senhousia (Senhouse Mussel) is rather fragile, smooth, and thin-shelled, 2ith a rounded triangular shape. The two valves are equal. The beak is near the anterior end, but not terminal. There are concentric lines in the middle of the shell, while the posterior and anterior ends have fine radiating striae. The lunule (depressed area near the beak) has a crenulated margin. There are also crenulations along and behind the ligament. The exterior of the shell is green to bluish green, and the periostracum is shiny. Adult mussels are ~10-30 mm in size. When settling on soft surfaces, this mussel creates "bags" from byssal threads which enclose the mussel and whole colonies, creating mats of mussels and byssus. (Description from: Abbott 1974; Willan 1987; Coan et al. 2000; Zenetos et al. 2003; Coan and Valentich-Scott, in Carlton 2007)

Larvae are described by Semenikhina et al. (2008). They settled at a size of about 280 µm after 18 days in the plankton at 25-30⁰C. At 15⁰C, they remained in the plankton for 60 days but did not settle (Kimura and Sekiguchi 1996).

The name Musculista senhousia is still widely used, but Arcuatula senhousia is recommended by WoRMS (World Registry of Marine Species, Appeltans et al. 2020).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Bivalvia
Subclass:   Pteriomorphia
Order:   Mytiloida
Family:   Mytilidae
Genus:   Arcuatula
Species:   senhousia

Synonyms

Brachidontes aquarius (Grabau and King, 1928)
Modiola bellardiana (Tapparonme-Canefri, 1874)
Modiolus senhousii (Reeve, 1857)
Musculista senhausia (None, None)
Musculus senhasei (None, None)
Musculus senhousia (Benson, 1842)
Arcuatula senhousia ((Benson), 1842)
Musculista senhousia (Yamamota and Habe, 1955)
(None, None)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Ecology

General:

Arcuatula senhousia has separate sexes, as other mussels do (Mistri 2002). Animals mature in about one year, and die in their second year (Creese et al. 1997; Mistri 2002). Eggs are brooded, but sperm are released into the water column. A single female may release as many as 137,000 eggs (Sgro et al. 2002). Fertilized eggs develop into a planktonic trochophore larva, then into a shelled veliger. The larvae settle at 280 µm (Semenikhina et al. 2008) after about 2-6 weeks in the plankton (Kimura and Sekiguchi 1996). In San Diego County, California larvae dispersed over a mean distance of 15 km, with much genetic exchange between Mission and San Diego Bays, but also much local recruitment within bays (Lopez-Duarte et al. 2012), as determined by genetic and trace-metal analysis.

When settling on soft surfaces, this mussel creates bags of byssal threads which enclose the mussel and whole colonies, creating mats, which can provide a major element of structure in mudflats (Willan 1987; Crooks 1998; Buschbaum et al. 2010). When settling on hard surfaces, A. senhousia does not create mats, and occurs in lower densities (Willan 1987). Like other mussels, A. senhousia is a suspension feeder, and filters phytoplankton and other suspended particles out of the water column. Arcuatula senhousia tolerates a wide range of temperatures and can tolerate salinities over the whole polyhaline-euhaline range (17-27 PSU) (Mistri 2002; Cohen 2005; Galil 2006). It is intolerant of prolonged hypoxia (Mistri 2002).

Food:

Phytoplankton; Detritus

Consumers:

crabs, fishes, spiny lobsters, birds, snails

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeMid IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)5(Mistri 2002, Italy)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)31(Mistri 2002, Italy)
Minimum Salinity (‰)17Field data, San Francisco Bay (Cohen 2005)
Maximum Salinity (‰)37Field data, San Francisco Bay (Cohen 2005)
Minimum Reproductive Temperature25Development incomplete at 15 C, no intermediate temperatures tested (Kimura and Sekiguchi 1996)
Maximum Reproductive Temperature30Highest tested (Kimura and Sekiguchi 1996)
Minimum Duration1825 & 30 C- Kimura and Sekiguchi 1996
Maximum Duration42Uchida 1965, cited by Mistri 2002
Minimum Length (mm)14Mistri 2002, age at maturity, Italy
Maximum Length (mm)32Mistri 2002, age at maturity, Italy
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Ecological Impacts

Competition- The invasion of Musculista senhousia in Mission Bay, California; the Po River Delta, Italy; and New Zealand estuaries has resulted in the decline, and sometimes disappearance of some suspension feeding bivalves and serpulid polychaetes. This species reaches very high densities and biomasses on mudflats, and presumably competes with other suspension-feeders (Willan 1987; Creese et al. 1997; Crooks 2001; Mistri 2003; Hayward et al. 2008). The mats provide structure for some organisms, providing protection from predation and sites of attachment.

Habitat Change- In its native and invaded ranges, M. senhousia creates large mats of mussels surrounded by byssus threads and embedded in the sediment, increasing shear strength and stability of the sediment, and creating a new habitat which can be colonized by some organisms, but can have negative impacts on others. The mats provide protection from predation, and also concentrate organic matter favoring some deposit feeders (Buschbaum et al. 2010; Crooks 1998; Crooks and Khim 1999; Mistri 2003; Munari et al. 2008). In brackish water, the shells of Musculista favored foraminifera communities by stabilizing pH (Hayward et al. 2008). Negative impacts may include the alteration of sediment structure and texture, interfering with burrowing, or chemical effects on sediment due to deposition of organic compounds (Munari et al. 2008). Impacts on eelgrass (Zostera marina) were mixed, with decreased rhizome growth, but increased leaf growth due to increased sediment ammonium (Dexter and Crooks 2000).

Food/Prey- The development of large biomasses of mussels in intertidal mudflats provide a major food resource for predators, including fishes, invertebrates, and birds. In Mission Bay, California, abundances of M. senhousia decline in a seaward direction, due largely to predation by spiny lobsters and murex snails (Cheng and Hovel 2011). However, effects on predator populations are not known.

Regional Impacts

NZ-IVNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Arcuatula senhousia replaced most of the native bivalve fauna in the Tamaki Estuary, North Island, New Zealand (Hayward et al. 2008). Its invasion resulted in the reduction of infauna diversity, particularly bivalves, under mussel mats (Creese et al. 1997). Arcuatula senhousia replaced a subtidal scallop bed. It appears to be competing with, and reducing the abundance of the native mussel Xenostrobus pulex (Willan 1987).
NZ-IVNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
At lower salinities, shells buffer pH changes resulting from land clearance, causing persistence of some foraminifera in mussel sites. Sites invaded by mussels showed changes in ostracod species composition (Hayward et al. 2008).
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactCompetition
The invasion of Arcutatuls senhousia was accompanied by the disappearance of the native bivalve Chione fluctifraga. In experiments, survival and growth of C. fluctifraga and C. undatella was reduced in the presence of A. senhousia's mats. Competition for food with M. senhousia may be a factor in the decline of these suspension-feeding clams (Crooks 2001). In experiments in Mission and San Diego Bays, settling young of M. senhousia out-compete native bivalves (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum) for space, by overgrowing them (Castorani and Hovel 2015).
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Arcuatula senhousia's mats cover large areas of subtidal flats in Mission Bay, San Diego, California. These mats increase the shear strength and stability of the sediment, favoring increased densities of other benthic organisms in the mats, including the tanaid, Leptochelia dubia, and the gastropod Barleia subtenus. The mats provide structure for tube-building organisms such as L. dubia. The mats also concentrate organic matter, favoring deposit-feeding organisms. (Crooks 1998; Crooks and Khim 1999). Negative impacts of A. senhousia are not obvious or numerous, but negative correlations were seen with the deposit-feeding bivalve Solen rostriformis, and the polychaetes Euchone limnicola and Diplocirrus sp. (Dexter and Crooks 2000). Alteration of sediments by A. senhousia may be a factor in the decline of Chione fluctifraga and C. undatella (Crooks 2001). In San Diego Bay, A. senhousia had both negative and positive effects on the eelgrass Zostera marina, in experiments, reducing rhizome growth, but increasing sediment ammonium and enhancing leaf growth (Dexter and Williams 1998).
P030Mission BayEcological ImpactCompetition
The invasion of Arcuatula senhousia was accompanied by the disappearance of the native bivalve Chione fluctifraga. In experiments, survival and growth of C. fluctifraga and C. undatella was reduced in the presence of A. senhousia's mats. Competition for food with M. senhousia may be a factor in the decline of these suspension-feeding clams (Crooks 2001). In experiments in Mission and San Diego Bays, settling young of A. senhousia out-compete native bivalves (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum) for space, by overgrowing them (Castorani and Hovel 2015).
P030Mission BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Arcuatula senhousia's mats cover large areas of subtidal flats in Mission Bay, San Diego, California. These mats increase the shear strength and stability of the sediment, favoring increased densities of other benthic organisms in the mats, including the tanaid, Leptochelia dubia, and the gastropod Barleia subtenus. The mats provide structure for tube-building organisms such as L. dubia. The mats also concentrate organic matter, favoring deposit-feeding organisms (Crooks 1998; Crooks and Khim 1999). Negative impacts of A. senhousia are not obvious or numerous, but negative correlations were seen with the deposit-feeding bivalve Solen rostriformis, and the polychaetes Euchone limnicola and Diplocirrus sp. (Dexter and Crooks 2000). Alteration of sediments by A. senhousia may be a factor in the decline of Chione fluctifraga and C. undatella (Crooks 2001).
P020San Diego BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In San Diego Bay, A. senhousia had both negative and positive effects on the eelgrass Zostera marina in experiments, reducing rhizome growth, but increasing sediment ammonium and enhancing leaf growth (Dexter and Williams 1998).
MED-VIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Sacco di Goro, in the Po River delta, the invasion of A. senhousia was accompanied by the decline of the exotic suspension-feeders Ficopomatus enigmaticus, Hydroides dianthus, and the native Mytilaster minimus, presumably due to competition for suspended food particles (Mistri 2003).
MED-VIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Sacco di Goro, in the Po River delta, the invasion of M\A. senhousia was accompanied by the increase of deposit-feeding taxa (Neanthes succinea, Streblospio shrubsolei, and Microdeutopus gryllotalpa), probably favored by changes in the sediment (Mistri 2003). Patches of mussels of moderate density, had higher abundances, biomasses and species richness than areas without mussels, but at extremely high mussel densities, benthic diversity decreased (Munari et al. 2008).
MED-IIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Rio di Padrongiano Delta, Tyrhennian Sea (Munari et al. 2008) patches of mussels of moderate density, had higher abundances, biomasses and species richness than areas without mussels, but at extremely high mussel densities, benthic diversity decreased (Munari et al. 2008).
P030Mission BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Arcuatula senhousia populations in Mission Bay decline in a seaward direction, as a result of predation by Spiny Lobsters (Panulirus interruptus) and murex snails (Pteropurpura festiva) (Cheng and Hovel 2011). However, effects on predator populations are not known.
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Arcuatula senhousia populations in Mission Bay decline in a seaward direction, as a result of predation by Spiny Lobsters (Panulirus interruptus) and murex snails (Pteropurpura festiva) (Cheng and Hovel 2011). However, effects on predator populations are not known.
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
One factor in the replacement of native bivalves by Arcuatula senhousia is that the heavy settlement of the mussel attract native predators (Castorani and Hovel 2015)
P030Mission BayEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
One factor in the replacement of native bivalves by Arcuatula senhousia is that the heavy settlement of the mussel attract native predators(Castorani and Hovel 2015)
P020San Diego BayEcological ImpactCompetition
In experiments in Mission and San Diego Bays, settling young of A. senhousia out-compete native bivalves (Chione undatella and Laevicardium substriatum) for space, by overgrowing them (Castorani and Hovel 2015).
P020San Diego BayEcological ImpactTrophic Cascade
ne factor in the replacement of native bivalves by Arcuatula senhousia is that the heavy settlement of the mussel attract native perdators(Castorani and Hovel 2015)
NZ-IVNoneEcological ImpactToxic
In 2009, dogs in New Zealand died after consuming a native sea-slug, Pleurobranchaea maculata. The slugs contained high levels of tetradotoxin (TTX), accumulated from predation on Arculatula senhousia, which had been feeding on toxic phytoplankton (Taylor et al. 2015).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NWP-4a None 0 Native Estab
NWP-5 None 0 Native Estab
NWP-4b None 0 Native Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Native Estab
NWP-3a None 1842 Native Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Native Estab
EAS-I None 0 Native Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1965 Def Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1941 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1959 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1982 Def Extinct
AUS-VIII None 1987 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1980 Def Estab
MED-V None 1964 Def Estab
MED-VII None 1986 Def Estab
MED-II None 1978 Def Estab
EAS-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
EAS-III None 0 Crypto Estab
EAS-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
CIO-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
CIO-III None 0 Crypto Estab
GA None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-1 None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-3 None 0 Crypto Estab
EA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
EA-V None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-V None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1995 Def Unk
MED-IV None 2001 Def Estab
MED-III None 2000 Def Estab
CAR-III None 2002 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1998 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1976 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 2001 Def Estab
P010 Tijuana Estuary 1995 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1965 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2001 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1977 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1998 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2001 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1969 Def Extinct
P090 San Francisco Bay 1946 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 1941 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 1971 Def Estab
P270 Willapa Bay 1995 Def Failed
P290 Puget Sound 1959 Def Estab
P293 _CDA_P293 (Strait of Georgia) 1924 Def Failed
AUS-VII None 2001 Def Unk
P095 _CDA_P095 (Tomales-Drakes Bay) 1944 Def Unk
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1946 Def Estab
NEA-V None 2002 Def Estab
CIO-I None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-IX None 2004 Def Estab
CIO-II None 0 Crypto Estab
P022 _CDA_P022 (San Diego) 1995 Def Estab
NEA-III None 2017 Def Estab
NEA-II None 2017 Def Estab
MED-VIII None 2012 Def Estab
MED-V None 2007 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
26717 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-19 Mare Island Strait - Navy Def 38.1015 -122.2695
26783 Cohen et al. 2005 2004 2004-05-27 Petes Harbor, San Francisco Bay Def 37.5006 -122.2242
26819 Foss 2009 2005 2005-11-14 Cal Maritime Academy/Vallejo Def 38.0661 -122.2299
27152 Foss 2009 2005 2005-11-16 Alcatraz Def 37.8253 -122.4223
27233 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-08-15 Newport Beach Epifaunal 04 Def 33.6085 -117.9202
27248 Foss 2009 2005 2005-07-07 Tiburon Def 37.8883 -122.4445
27400 California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014 2011 2011-05-04 Ski Islands Marina, Mission Bay Def 32.7939 -117.2232
27434 Foss 2011 2010 2010-06-02 Port of Oakland Office Def 37.7954 -122.2804
27435 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-05 Port of Oakland Office Def 37.7954 -122.2804
27534 Cohen et al. 2005 2004 2004-05-24 Fruitvale Bridge, San Francisco Bay Def 37.7690 -122.2296
27568 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-06 Point Richmond Piers Def 37.9085 -122.3913
27603 Foss 2009 2005 2005-09-09 San Mateo Bridge Def 37.5806 -122.2543
27648 California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014 2011 2011-05-04 Hilton Resort Dock Def 32.7788 -117.2127
27651 Introduced Species Study 2006 2006-09-12 Hilton Resort Dock, Mission Bay Def 32.7788 -117.2127
27834 Foss 2011 2010 2010-07-01 Loch Lomond Marina Area Def 37.9720 -122.4832
27891 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-21 Richardson Bay Def 37.8588 -122.4798
28176 California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014 2011 2011-05-03 Marine Terminal (Paco) Def 32.6584 -117.1191
28419 Foss 2011 2010 2010-07-14 Point San Pablo Yacht Harbor Def 37.9643 -122.4185
28607 Foss 2011 2010 2010-07-14 Paradise Cay Def 37.9146 -122.4776
28709 Foss 2011 2010 2010-06-03 Treasure Island Def 37.8149 -122.3702
28763 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-04 Oakland Inner Harbor - Shipping cranes Def 37.7947 -122.3095
29027 Cohen, et al. 2005 (SF Bay Area RAS) 2004 2004-05-26 Point San Pablo Yacht Harbor, San Pablo Bay Def 37.9624 -122.4188
29112 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-10-09 Bulk Carrier Terminal Def 32.6969 -117.1526
29446 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-08-14 Oceanside Epifaunal 06 Def 33.2052 -117.3908
29471 Foss 2011 2010 2010-06-12 McNears Beach, San Pablo Bay Def 37.9962 -122.4556
29779 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-04 Berkeley Flats/Berkeley Pier Def 37.8600 -122.3256
29872 California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014 2011 2011-04-19 Near Huntington Launch Ramp Def 33.7279 -118.0786
29897 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-08-16 Long Beach Epifaunal 04 Def 33.7709 -118.2113
29928 Foss 2009 2005 2005-09-09 Coyote Point Marina Def 37.5905 -122.3177
30213 Introduced Species Study 2006 2006-07-28 Derelict Boat, Morro Bay Def 35.3589 -120.8524
30243 Foss 3009 2005 2005-09-09 Sea Plane Harbor Def 37.6349 -122.3848
30429 MacDonald 1969 1965 1965-01-01 Mission Bay Def 32.7791 -117.2288
30769 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-06 Santa Fe Channel - Back Def 37.9207 -122.3684
31232 Smith 1974, cited by Carlton 1979 1944 1944-01-01 Bolinas Lagoon Def 37.9189 -122.6816
31378 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-09-19 Tomales Bay Infaunal 04 Def 38.1444 -122.9006
31636 Foss 2009 2005 2005-08-25 Central Basin Def 37.7643 -122.3863
31710 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-21 Ayala Cove Def 37.8680 -122.4350
31847 Introduced Species Study 2006 2006-08-10 Tonys Place Def 38.1466 -122.8832
31916 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-10-10 Mission Bay Epifaunal 01 Def 32.7791 -117.2128
31952 Foss 2009 2005 2005-10-06 Richmond Marina Def 37.9137 -122.3504
32706 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-10-09 Coronado Cays Def 32.6274 -117.1329
33111 Foss 2009 2005 2005-06-08 Crown Beach Def 37.7603 -122.2737
33753 Fairey et al. 2002 2001 2001-07-12 Huntington Harbour Epifaunal 01 Def 33.7128 -118.0543
33883 Foss 2009 2005 2005-09-09 Sierra Point Marina Def 37.6740 -122.3792

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