Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1993
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1993
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Paranthura japonica was first described from Hokkaido, Japan by Richardson (1909). It is widely distributed in the Northwest Pacific, from Vladivostok and the southern Kuril Islands to Hong Kong (Golikov et al. 1976; Ong Che and Morton 1991; Moschenko and Zvyagintsev 2004; Lim et al. 2012). Paranthura japonica was introduced to San Francisco Bay before 1993 (Cohen and Carlton 1995), and was found to be widespread in Southern California Harbors in 2000 (Cohen et al. 2010). In 2010, it was found in Arcachon Bay, on the Atlantic coast of France (Frutos et al. 2011; Lavesque et al. 2013). In 2010-2013, it was found in five harbors, in the four seas surrounding the west, south, and east coasts of Italy (Marchini et al. 2014; Lorenti et al. 2015). Potential mechanisms for transport of P. japonica are hull fouling, ballast water, and oyster transplants.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Three museum records, identified as Paranthura japonica from Pacific Grove, California, collected in 1930-1943, may refer to the native P. elegans, not described until 1951 (USNM 63778, USNM 63779, USNM 86338, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2015). The first definite report of P. japonica was in South and Central San Francisco Bay in 1993 (Cohen and Carlton 1995). In 2005 surveys, it was found to be widespread in the Bay, including Benicia, on Carquinez Strait, and the Petaluma River, off San Pablo Bay (Foss 2009). Cohen et al. (2000) found P. japonica to be widespread in southern California harbors from Channel Islands Harbor and Port Hueneme to San Diego Bay. It occurs both in commercial ports, such as Los Angeles/Long Beach, and small boat harbors (Cohen et al. 2002).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In 2010-2012, Paranthura japonica was found in Arcachon Bay, France, off the Bay of Biscay (Frutos et al. 2011; Lavesque et al. 2013), and several harbors on the coast of Italy, including La Spezia, Olbia, Sardinia, Mar Piccolo, and the Venice Lagoon (Marchini et al. 2014; Lorenti et al. 2015). In 2019 they were found in the harbors of Le Havre and Cherbourg (Pezy et.al. 2019). Transplants of Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea gigas), Japanese Littleneck clams (Venerupis philippinarum), and hull fouling are likely vectors for the introduction of this species. Ballast water is a possible vector in commercial ports, but some of the invaded bays, such as Arcachon and the Mar Piccolo, do not receive commercial ships (Lavesque et al. 2013; Lorenti et al. 2015).


Description

The body of Paranthura japonica forms a narrow cylinder. Peraeonite 6 is about 2/3 the length of Peraeonite 5, and Peraeonite 7 is about 1/2 the length of Peraeonite 6. The abdomen, composed of 5 pleonites, is about equal to Peraeonite 6 in length. The pleonites are fused in the mid-dorsal region, but free on the sides. The telson and uropods are prominent and together form a fan about 2X the width of the body.

The head is about as long as it is wide, with the anterior margin concave and a small rostrum which is shorter than the lateral projections. The eyes are large, dark, and round, and located inside the antero-lateral angles of the head. Pereiopods 1-3 are prehensile, while Pereiopods 4-7 are ambulatory. The pleotelson is tongue-shaped, with a rounded tip, and does not extend beyond the tips of the uropods. The exopods of the uropods have a concavity on the distal margin. Illustrated specimens range from 6.8 to 11 mm long. The body is pale pinkish-brown, with scattered dark pigment spots. This description is based on Richardson 1909, Frutos et al. 2011, Lavesque et al. 2013, and Lorenti et al. 2015.


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Isopoda
Suborder:   Anthuridea
Family:   Paranthuridae
Genus:   Paranthura
Species:   japonica

Synonyms

Paranthura japonica (Richardson, 1909)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Paranthura elegans
Paranthura elegans (Menzies 1951) is native, and known from algal mats, coralline algae, kelp holdfasts, mud bottoms, and pier pilings from central California to Baja California, Mexico (Schultz 1969; Brusca et al. 2007).

Ecology

General:

Paranthura japonica, like many anthuridean isopods, is protogynous (sequential hermaphrodites), maturing first as female, with some individuals later changing to male. Males are often relatively rare, and are undescribed for some species. Fertilization is internal, and the young are brooded (Schultz 1969; Brusca et al. 2007). Females can carry ip to 78 eggs (Scribano et al. 2021).

Paranthura japonica is known from a variety of habitats, including: fouling communities on docks, floats, and aquaculture gear; mussel and oyster beds; burrows made by shipworms and gribbles (Limnoria spp.); seagrass and seaweed beds; salt marshes; and muddy sands (Kang and Yun 1988; Kang et al. 2007; Wang et al. 2010; Lavesque et al. 2013; Marchini et al. 2014; Lorenti et al. 2015). It is known from cold-temperate (e.g. Vladivostok, Russia, Moschenko and Zvyagintsev 2004) to subtropical climates (Ong Che and Morton 1991), and from salinities ranging from 13 to 40 PSU (Wang et al. 2010; Lorenti et al. 2015). Paranthura japonica has piercing mouthparts, and is considered carnivorous, feeding on amphipods (Marchini et al. 2014). However, stable isotope measurements from a population in a Korean saltmarsh suggest that the feeding was dominated by benthic microalgae (Kang et al. 2007). However, Parantura japonica is a predator on amphipods, isopods and tanaids, in experiments (Shiraki and Kakui 2022).

Food:

Benthic microalgae, amphipods

Trophic Status:

Omnivore

Omni

Habitats

General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Life History


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Temperature (ºC)31Field, Pearl River estuary, China (Wang et al. 2010)
Minimum Salinity (‰)13Field, Pearl River estuary, China (Wang et al. 2010)
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Field, Mar Piccolo, Italy (Lorenti et al. 2015)
Maximum Length (mm)11 Mar Piccolo, Italy (Lorenti et al. 2015)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneMesohaline-Polyhaline

General Impacts

Impacts of Paranthura japonica populations in West Coast and European waters are unknown. Anthuridean isopodspods, when abundant, are important components of benthic food webs (Schultz 1969).


Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1993 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1993 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 2000 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 2000 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 2000 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2000 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 2000 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 2000 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2000 Def Estab
NWP-4b None 1906 Native Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Native Estab
NWP-4a None 0 Native Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Native Estab
NEA-V None 2010 Def Estab
MED-II None 2010 Def Estab
MED-III None 2010 Def Estab
MED-VII None 2012 Def Estab
MED-IV None 2013 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Native Estab
NWP-5 None 0 Native Estab
NEA-II None 2019 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 2017 Def Estab
MED-I None 2015 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
767364 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-22 Tomales-Marshall, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1514 -122.8888
767387 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-15 Tomales- Call Box 401, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1793 -122.9104
767395 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-16 Tomales-SNPS, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1359 -122.8719
767423 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-19 SeaWorld Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7676 -117.2314
767437 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767477 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-04 Bahia Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7731 -117.2478
767491 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-31 Campland on the Bay, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7936 -117.2234
767524 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-03 Mission Bay Sport Center, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7857 -117.2495
767537 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-30 Hilton Resort Docks, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7791 -117.2128
767579 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-30 201 Main, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3564 -120.8474
767605 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-05 Launch Ramp, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3577 -120.8508
767613 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-29 Moorings, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3619 -120.8548
767626 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-31 Morro Bay Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3641 -120.8532
767633 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-28 Sealion Dock, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3658 -120.8555
767656 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-04 Tidelands, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3602 -120.8521
767677 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-17 Naval Station San Diego, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6867 -117.1333
767692 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-24 NAB ACU-1 Docks, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6786 -117.1615
767715 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-21 Cabrillo Isle Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7272 -117.1995
767729 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-22 Coronado Cays Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6257 -117.1309
767743 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-18 NAB Fiddlers Cove, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6524 -117.1486
767760 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-26 Pier 32 Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6516 -117.1077
767771 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-20 Chula Vista Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6252 -117.1036
767980 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
768003 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-23 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
768058 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-11 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
768079 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768103 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768125 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-04 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5023 -122.2130
768169 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-05 Port of Oakland, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7987 -122.3228
768192 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-07 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7940 -122.2787
768230 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6962 -122.1919
768246 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-12 Emeryville, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8396 -122.3133
768261 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 Port of Stockton, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9589 -121.3609
768271 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-15 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7656 -122.2858
768293 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768314 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-22 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7926 -122.2746
768332 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-23 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9723 -122.4829
768352 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6639 -122.3821
768373 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-14 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5024 -122.2134
768396 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768431 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-21 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6980 -122.1908
768447 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-16 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8611 -122.4851

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