Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1955
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1959
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1955

General Invasion History:

Procambarus clarkii, the Red Swamp Crayfish, is native to the Mississippi and Gulf of Mexico drainages from Florida, Mexico (the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo basin), and New Mexico north to Ohio and Illinois (Hobbs 1989; Campos et al. 1992). It is primarily found in marshes, swamps, and slow-flowing rivers, and is tolerant of hypoxic conditions, poor water quality, and salinities up to 20 PSU (Huner and Barr 1991). It is now the most cosmopolitan crayfish species. Procambarus clarkii was listed as being introduced in 12 states by Hobbs et al. (1989) and 14 states by Taylor et al. (1996). Currently, it is introduced and established in at least 21 US states (Cooper et al. 1998; Taylor et al. 1996; Lieb et al. 2011; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011). This crayfish is widely cultured as food, and sometimes used as bait, an aquarium pet, or a laboratory animal for teaching and research (Huner and Barr 1991; Hobbs et al. 1989; Larson and Olden 2008). It has been introduced into every continent except Antarctica. It is well established in France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Japan, China, Taiwan, Kenya, and Brazil, among other countries (Hobbs et al. 1989, Huner and Barr 1984; Huner and Barr 1991; Taylor et al. 1996; Kawai and Kobayashi 2005).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Procambarus clarkii was introduced to California by 1924 near Pasadena, and was reared near San Diego in 1932 (Riegel 1959; Cohen and Carlton 1995). By 1959, P. clarkii was widely established in California non-tidal watersheds. It was found in the watershed near the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta (Riegel 1959), and was established by 1966 (Hazel and Kelly 1966, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995). Two records in or near tidal wetlands are from Tembladero Slough near the Salinas River mouth and Monterey Bay (Riegel 1959) and from the Sweetwater River National Wildlife Refuge at the head of San Diego Bay (2005, USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011).

Procambarus clarkii has become established in at least 13 lakes in the Puget Sound drainage, Washington State, since 2000, and three streams in Oregon (two Willamette River tributaries, and one Umpqua River tributary, USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011). A single specimen was collected near Kenai, Alaska, in 2004 (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Isolated collections of Procambarus clarkii are known from interior watersheds in New England and New York, the Sebasticook River between Benton and Burnham, Maine, and from private ponds in Rhode Island (1 specimen, Crocker 1979), Long Island and the lower Hudson Valley (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011). Red Swamp Crayfish have been collected in or near tidal wetlands in the Delaware River, Chesapeake Bay, and North Carolina estuaries (Cooper et al. 1998; Kilian et al. 2009; Lieb et al. 2011). They are known to be introduced and present in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (Huner 1986; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2011), but specific records from estuarine areas are not available.

Delaware River estuary- Procambarus clarkii was found in Long Hook Creek, adjacent to the tidal Delaware River, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 2007. It was also present at two Piedmont sites in the Schuylkill River drainage (Lieb et al. 2011).

Chesapeake Bay- Procambarus clarkii was first introduced to the Chesapeake Bay watershed in 1963, in the Patuxent National Wildlife Refuge. It is now common in the freshwater portions of the lower Patuxent watershed (Arnold Norden 1995, personal communication; Kilian et al. 2009; Kilian et al. 2010). In 1981, the Worcester County Soil Conservation Service began trials of crayfish aquaculture on the Eastern Shore of Maryland (Associated Press 1986; Kilian et al. 2009). In 2007, established populations of P. clarkii were found at 33 locations in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, most of them near seven known crayfish aquaculture operations (Kilian et al. 2009). The distribution of P. clarkii is not well-known in Virginia, but one specimen was collected in 1972 in the York-Pamunkey drainage (USNM 133668), and another in the Potomac watershed in 1992 (USNM 192902, US National Museum of Natural History 2011), both within about 5 km of tidal waters.

North Carolina Estuaries- Huner (1986) listed North Carolina as one of many states to which P. clarkii had been introduced, but gave no details. In 1997-1998, Cooper et al. (1998) collected P. clarkii in many Coastal Plain locations, including two which appear to be in or near tidal wetlands (Horsepen Swamp, Pamlico River drainage and Wilmington, Burnt Mill Creek, a tributary of the Cape Fear River tributary). Additional North Carolina records are reported by the USGS Nonindigenous Species Program (2011), and indicate that this crayfish is widespread in tributaries of Albermarle and Bogue Sound.

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Procambarus clarkii is native to the Gulf Coast from the Rio Grande, Mexico and the Rio Bravo, Texas to the Pensacola Bay drainage in Florida (Hobbs 1989; Huner and Barr 1991). This crayfish has been introduced to Pasco County, north of Tampa Bay (in 1955, Franz and Franz 1990; Taylor et al. 1996), and probably occurs elsewhere on the Florida Peninsula.

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Crayfish (initially thought to be Pacifastacus leniusculus, Signal Crayfish) were introduced from California to Oahu, Hawaii in 1923 and 1927. In 1937 and 1939, 3,225 crayfish were transplanted from Oahu to the islands of Hawaii and Maui. These crayfish were apparently all Procambarus clarkii, and are now found on all of the major Hawaiian Islands (Brock 1960). This crayfish was collected near areas of tidal influence in a survey of streams in Oahu (Englund et al. 2000).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In Mexico, Procambarus clarkii has been introduced to the Colorado River delta, a number of Pacific tributaries along the Baja California peninsula, and the Rio Culiacan, Sinaloa. In the last two decades, the range of P. clarkii in Mexico has greatly expanded (Campos 1992; Hernandez et al. 2008). It has been widely introduced to Caribbean Islands (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic), Central America (Guatemala, Belize, Nicaragua, Costa Rica) and South America (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil) (Hobbs et al. 1989; Huner and Barr 1991; Invasive Species Specialist Group 2011).

In Europe, P. clarkii was first introduced to Spain in 1973, where it is now widespread. Populations are most dense in southern Europe (Spain, Portugal, Italy), but scattered populations are found in England, Belgium, Germany, Poland, Switzerland and Austria, as well as the Azores and Madiera (Holdich et al. 2009). Invaded habitats include brackish coastal wetlands in Italy, Portugal, and Spain (Scalici et al. 2010; Invasive Species Specialist Group 2011).

The Red Swamp Crayfish is widespread in Africa (Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, South Africa) and Asia (Israel, China, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines) (Hobbs et al. 1989). In Japan, P. clarkii was first imported as food for Bullfrogs (Rana catesbiana) in a private pond in Kamkura City, Honshu in 1922. It is now found in at least 20 bodies of water on Kyuhsu, Honshu, and Hokkaido (Kawai and Kobayashi 2005). Procambarus clarkii was introduced from Japan to Nanjing, China, in 1929, and is now widespread in most provinces across the country. The low genetic diversity of P. clarkii is consistent with a single or very few introductions, and constitutes a 'genetic bottleneck' (Yue et al. 2010).


Procambarus clarkii, the Red Swamp Crayfish, has an ovoid carapace and chelae (claws) covered with tubercles and granules. It has a prominent rostrum, which is strongly triangular with a median keel and a pointed tip. The chelae are large and elongated, and have a large gap at the base of the movable finger. The carpus or wrist joint bears three spines, one very large, on its interior edge. In the males, the 3rd segment (ischia) of the 3rd pair of walking legs bears copulatory hooks. The annulus ventralis (seminal receptacle) of the female is an ovoid structure located between the 4th and 5th pair of walking legs, with a sigmoid (a reverse-S shaped) groove running across the center, and two tubercles at the anterior border. The adults are dark red or reddish-brown, with bright red tubercles and a wedge-shaped black stripe on the abdomen (Riegel 1959). These crayfish mature at 57 to 110 mm. The largest reported specimen, from Kenya, was 160 mm (Huner and Barr 1991).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Eucarida
Order:   Decapoda
Suborder:   Pleocyemata
Infraorder:   Stenopodidea
Superfamily:   Astacoidea
Family:   Cambaridae
Genus:   Procambarus
Species:   clarkii


Cambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Procambarus acutus
White River Crayfish, species complex, widely native in Eastern US

Procambarus zonangulus
Southern White River Crayfish, native to Gulf drainages, probably widely introduced with P. clarkii but often confused with P. clarkii or P. acutus.



Life History- Procambarus clarkii is considered a 'tertiary burrowing' crayfish (primary burrowers burrow year-round, secondary burrowers leave the burrow during rainy periods, and tertiary burrowers inhabit the burrow during the breeding season and during droughts, but are found in open water the rest of the year). Freshwater crayfishes, of the family Cambaridae, mate by internal fertilization, with the male inserting pleopods into the females seminal (annulus ventralis) between the 4th and 5th walking legs. The female curls her abdomen far forward, to create a chamber in which the eggs are driven by the pleopods. The mass of eggs becomes attached under the tail. Larval development takes place inside the egg and the young hatch as miniature adults (Barnes 1983).

Male cambarid crayfish show sharp morphological changes with season. At the start of the breeding season, they molt into a sexually competent stage (Form I), marked by lengthening and stiffening of the modified 1st pleopods, more pronounced ischial spines (in the basal segments of the 3rd walking leg) and enlarged chelipeds. After breeding, the crayfish molts back into Form II, with the 1st pleopods less differentiated and soft, ischial spines reduced, and less robust chelipeds (Hobbs 1989).

Ecology- Procambarus clarkii constructs burrows near the water's edge which are usually under 0.5 m in length, but may extend to 4.5 m depending on soil and moisture conditions. Burrows are often partly filled with water, but crayfish are frequently out of the water because of low oxygen concentrations (Correia and Ferreira 1995; Huner and Barr 1984). Overland movements may occur in response to heavy rains, flooding, or anoxia in burrow water (Huner 1989). In the early part of its life, it is found in deeper water (up to two or three feet) in marsh lagoons. As it attains maturity, and the spawning season approaches, it migrates to the shallow water of open marshes (usually less than six inches deep). Culture ponds are usually 0.3-0.7 m deep (Huner and Barr 1991). These crayfish tolerate salinities of 20-30 PSU. In Italy and Portugal, they have become abundant in brackish wetlands and lagoons (Huner and Barr 1991; Scalici et al. 2010).


detritus; carrion; vascular plants; invertebrates


Fish, mammals, birds, crabs


Other crayfishes, crabs

Trophic Status:




General HabitatTerrestrialNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatSwampNone
General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatTidal Fresh MarshNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatFresh (nontidal) MarshNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeMid IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeHigh IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeSupratidalNone
Tidal RangeTerrestrialNone
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone
Vertical HabitatEndobenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)3Procambarus clarkii cannot survive freezing conditons F in air, water, or burrows (field observations, Huner and Barr 1991). However, in experiments, P. clarkii survived for 200 days at 3 C, with ~10% mortality (Vesely et al. 2018).
Maximum Temperature (ºC)39Procambarus clarkii cannot survive much above 95 F in air or water (field observations, Huner and Barr 1991)
Minimum Salinity (‰)0Freshwater
Maximum Salinity (‰)30 Salinity- Procambarus clarkii survived 3-4 weeks at 20 PSU (Huner and Barr 1991). A population in a brackish lagoon in Italy survivess at salinities of 16-30 PSU (Scalici et al. 2010).
Minimum Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)NoneHypoxic (Huner and Barr 1991)
Minimum pH5.8Field, Huner and Barr 1991
Maximum pH10Field, Huner and Barr 1991
Minimum Reproductive Temperature18Field observations, Louisiana (Penn 1943)
Maximum Reproductive Temperature36Field observations, Louisiana (Penn 1943)
Maximum Length (mm)160Huner and Barr 1991; Penn 1943
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Subtropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneNontidal Limnetic-Mesohaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts

Fisheries- Due to its large size, hardiness, rapid growth, and prolific reproduction, Procambarus clarkii is the crayfish most frequently cultured, fished, sold, and eaten in the United States and throughout most of its introduced range. It is the 'Crawdad' of Cajun cooking and more than 125,000 acres of land in Louisiana is used for crayfish farming, and more than 10,000 acres in other states (Huner and Barr 1991). In years with normal rainfall cycles, the ratio between farmed and wild-caught crayfish harvests is about 40%:60%, but wild harvest decreases in years with abnormal weather. The farmed harvest in Louisiana is ~ 28,350 tonnes/yr. At an average price of ~ 50 cents/lb, an average total annual harvest for Louisiana is worth on the order of $50 million per year (calculated from Huner and Barr 1991). In China, the harvest was 300,000 tonnes in 2008 (Yue et al. 2010).

Crayfish may negatively impact fisheries by destroying aquatic vegetation, eating fish in nets, damaging nets, etc. (Huner and Barr 1991; Yue et al 2010). In Lake Navaisha, Kenya, introduced P. clarkii contributed to the rapid growth of an introduced Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) population, but then aided its decline through destruction of underwater vegetation and bioturbation of sediment during foraging, reducing water quality for the bass (Britton et al. 2010).

Agriculture- The burrowing activity of Procambarus clarkii can damage crops, such as rice and taro, and may weaken earthen irrigation dams and levees. Further, this crayfish may eat some types of crops. Problems are especially great where crayfish are not eaten for cultural reasons (e.g. Japan, Kenya), however, even where there is large-scale harvesting (e.g. Spain, Portugal, China), damage to rice fields is considerable (Brock 1960; Correia and Ferreira 1995; Huner and Barr 1991; Yue et al. 2010). Red Swamp Crayfish are considered a serious pest in rice fields of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Riegel 1959; Cohen and Carlton 1995).

Ecological Impacts

Competition- Procambarus clarkii is considered a serious competitor with native crayfish (Astacus astacus, Austropotomobius pallipes and A. torrentium) in Spain, France, and Italy, through aggression and predation (Holdich et al. 2009). In experiments conducted in Delaware, P. clarkii displaced the native P. acutus acutus from shelters (Gherardi and Daniels 2004).

Habitat Change - Burrowing by P. clarkii has been known to undermine riverbanks, levees, dikes, etc., increasing erosion and suspended sediment. Procambarus clarkii appears to have larger impacts due to burrowing than most other crayfishes, because of its large size and rapid reproduction (Hobbs et al. 1989; Correia and Ferreira 1995; Hobbs et al. 1989). In Lake Navaisha, Kenya, it, together with the introduced fish Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) is believed to have adversely affected fish habitat through destruction of vegetation and bioturbation, resulting in a decline of the introduced Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides).

Procambarus clarkii can affect habitats through consuming and destroying underwater plants and through bioturbation during foraging, suspending sediments and releasing nutrients. In Coyote Hills Marsh, Alameda, Procambarus clarkii reduced the abundance of Sago Pondweed (Stukenia pectinata), reducing habitat for attached organisms and cover for prey species (Feminella and Resh 1989, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995).

Food/Prey- Procambarus clarkii, as a large, introduced crayfish in shallow waters, may be beneficial to some predators. It was deliberately introduced to Patuxent National Wildlife Research Center, Maryland, in 1963, as food for wading birds (Kilian et al. 2009). In the Guadalquivir marshes, Spain, increased feeding on P. clarkii was associated with population increases in 41 species of birds (Tablado et al. 2010). In Lake Navaisha, Kenya, the introduced Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) initially increased due to feeding on P. clarkii, but later declined, apparently due to decreased water clarity and habitat quality, attributed in part to impacts of P. clarkii.

Herbivory- Procambarus clarkii is largely herbivorous, consuming submerged and emergent aquatic plants (Huner and Barr 1991). In Coyote Hills Marsh, Alameda, California P. clarkii reduced the abundance of Sago Pondweed (Stukenia pectinata) (Feminella and Resh 1989, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995). In Lake Navaisha, Kenya, P. clarkii greatly reduced submerged vegetation, adversely affecting fisheries (Huner and Barr 1991; Britton et al. 2010).

Parasitism (Vector)- In southern Europe, P. clarkii has contributed to the spread of the crayfish plague fungus (Aphanomyces astaci) (Holdich et al. 2009).

Regional Impacts

P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Procambarus clarkii is reported to support commerical fisheries in the Delta, but may largely be taken incidentally for food and bait (Cohen and Carlton 1995).
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactIndustry
Agriculture- Procambarus clarkii damages dikes and levees in rice fields (Riegel 1959; Cohen and Carlton 1995).
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Burrowing by Procambarus clarkii is destructive to riverbanks, dikes and levees (Cohen and Carlton 1995).
M130Chesapeake BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Aquaculture of P. clarkii began on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1981. By 1986, commercial crayfish farming had become widespread in ponds on the lower Delmarva peninsula in MD and VA. The number of farmers grew from about 8 to about 45 between 1980 and 1986. The 1986 harvest was expected to be 12,000 lbs, selling at an average wholesale price of $2.10/lb, or ~ $25,000. The crayfish were sold locally and also exported. Most of the crop goes to Baltimore restaurants (Associated Press 1986). By 2009, only two operations were known in Maryland, although some may be unregistered (Kilian et al. 2009).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactHerbivory
In Coyote Hills Marsh, Alameda, Procambarus clarkii reduced the abundance of Sago Pondweed (Stukenia pectinata) (Feminella and Resh 1989, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In Coyote Hills Marsh, Alameda, Procambarus clarkii reduced the abundance of Sago Pondweed (Stukenia pectinata), reducing habitat for attached organisms and cover for prey species (Feminella and Resh 1989, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995).
P023_CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido)Ecological ImpactPredation
Red Swamp Crayfish were removed from the San Mateo Creek Lagoon, and were treated as a threat to native fishes, particularly the Southern Tidewater Goby (Eucyclogobius kristinae).
P023_CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Red Swamp Crayfish were removed from the San Mateo Creek Lagoon, and were treated as a threat to native fishes, particularly the Southern Tidewater Goby (Eucyclogobius kristinae).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1981 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1966 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 2005 Def Unk
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G280 Matagorda Bay 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 0 Native Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G150 Mobile Bay 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 1955 Def Estab
L096 _CDA_L096 (Sandusky) 1982 Def Estab
S020 Pamlico Sound 1997 Def Estab
S050 Cape Fear River 1998 Def Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 2000 Def Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 2003 Def Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 2007 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1959 Def Unk
M120 Chincoteague Bay 2006 Def Estab
P135 _CDA_P135 (Mad-Redwood) 2012 Def Unk
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 1998 Def Unk

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Aquiloni, Laura and 6 authors (2010) Biological control of invasive populations of crayfish: the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) as a predator of Procambarus clarkii, Biological Invasions 12: 3817-3824

November 24, 1986 Farmers raising crawfish: Maryland goes Cajun. <missing description>

Barnes, Robert D. (1983) Invertebrate Zoology, Saunders, Philadelphia. Pp. 883

Britton, J. Robert; Harper, David M.; Oyugi, Dalmas O.; Grey, Jonathan (2010) The introduced Micropterus salmoides in an equatorial lake: a paradoxical loser in an invasion meltdown scenario?, Biological Invasions 12: 3439-3448

Brock, Vernon E. (1960) The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters, Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 45(4): 463-480

Campos, Ernesto Rodríguez-Almaraz, Gabino A. (1992) Distribution of the Red Swamp Crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in Mexico: An update., Journal of Crustacean Biology 12(4): 627-630

Caphina, Cesar; Larson, Eric R.; Tricarico, Elena; Olden, Julian D.; Francesca Gherardi (2013) Effects of climate change, invasive xpecies, and disease on the distribution of native European crayfishes, Conservation Biology published online: <missing location>

Capinha, Cesar; Anastacio, Pedro; Tenedorio, Jose Antonio (2012) Predicting the impact of climate change on the invasive decapods of the Iberian inland waters: an assessment of reliability, Biological Invasions 14: 1737-1751

Capinha, Cesar; Larson, Eric R.; Tricarico, Elena; Olden, Julian D.; Gherardi, Francesca (2013) Effects of climate change, invasive species, and disease on the distribution of native European crayfishes, Conservation Biology 27(4): 731-740

Chucholl, Christoph (2012) Invaders for sale: trade and determinants of introduction of ornamental freshwater crayfish, Biological Invasions published online: <missing location>

Cohen, Andrew N., Carlton, James T. (1998) Accelerating invasion rate in a highly invaded estuary., Science 279: 555-558

Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Sea Grant College Program (Connecticut Sea Grant), Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp. <missing location>

Cooper, John E.; Braswell, Alvin L; McGrath, Christopher (1998) Noteworthy distribution records for crayfishes (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in North Carolina, Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 114(1): 1-10

Correia, Alexandra M.; Ferreira, Óscar (1995) Burrowing behavior of the introduced red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in Portugal, Journal of Crustacean Biology 15(2): 248-257

Covich, A. P.; Dye, L. L.; Mattice, J. S. (1981) Crayfish predation on Corbicula under laboratory conditions, American Midland Naturalist 105(1): 181-188

Crocker, Denton W. (1979) The crayfishes of New England, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 92(2): 225-252

da Silva, Eder Carvalho; Barros, Francisco (2011) [Benthic macrofauna introduced in Brazil: List of marine and freshwater species and actual distribution], Oecologia Australis 15(2): 326-344

Deng, Xuehuai; Bechler, David L.; Lee, Kwan R. (1993) Comparative life history studies of two sympatric Procambarus crawfish, Journal of Shellfish Research 12(2): 343-350

Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve (2002) <missing title>, Elkhorn Slough National Estuarine Research Reserve; Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, <missing place>. Pp. <missing location>

Englund, R.A.; Arakaki, K.; Preston, D.J.; Coles, S.L.; Eldredge, L.G. (2000) <missing title>, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, Honolulu. Pp. <missing location>

Faxon, Walter (1884) Descriptions of a new species of Cambarus, to which is added a synonymical list of the known species of Cambarus and Astacus., Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 20: 107-158

Franz, Richard; Franz, Shelley E. (1990) A review of the Florida crayfish fauna, with comments on nomenclature, distribution, and conservation., Florida Scientist 53(4): 286-296

Fullerton, A. H.; Watson, B. T. (2001) New distributional records for two nonindigenous and one native crayfish in North Carolina, Journal of Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 117(1): 66-70

Gelder, Stuart R.; Messick, Gretchen (2006) First report of the aberrant association of branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata) on blue crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda) in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, USA., Invertebrate Biology 125(1): 51-55.

Gherardi, Francesca; Coignet, Aurore; Souty-Grosset, Catherine; Spigoli, Daniele ; Aquiloni, Laura (2013) Climate warming and the agonistic behaviour of invasive crayfishes in Europe, Freshwater Biology 58: 1958-1967

Gherardi, Francesca; Daniels, William H. (2004) Agonism and shelter competition between invasive and indigenous crayfish species, Canadian Journal of Zoology 82: 1923-1932

Grey, Jonathan; Jackson, Michelle C. (2012) ‘Leaves and eats shoots’: direct terrestrial feeding can supplement invasive red swamp crayfish in times of need, PLOS ONE 7(8): e42575

Harrell, Reginal M. (1987) <missing title>, University of Maryland Sea Grant, College Park. Pp. <missing location>

Hernandez, Luis and 5 authors (2008) Geographic expansion of the invasive red crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) (Crustacea: Decapoda) in Mexico, Biological Invasions 10: 977-984

Hobbs III, H. H.; Jass, Joan P.; Huner, Jay V. (1989) A review of global crayfish introductions with particular emphasis on two North American species (Decapoda, Cambaridae)., Crustaceana 56(3): 299-316

Hobbs, Horton H. (1989) An illustrated checklist of the crayfishes of American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae), Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology <missing volume>(480): 1-92

Hogger, J. B. (1989) <missing title>, Croome Helm, London. Pp. 114-144

Holdich, D. M.; Reynolds, J. D.; Souty-Grosset, C.; Sibley, P. J. (2009) A review of the ever increasing threat to European crayfish from non-indigenous crayfish species, Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 11: 394-395

Huner, Jay V. (1986) Crawfish introductions affect Louisiana industry, Crawfish Tales 5(3): 16-18

Huner, J. V. (1989) Freshwater Crayfish: Biology, Management, and Exploitation, Croome Helm, London. Pp. 239-261

Huner, J. V.; Barr, J. E. (1984) <missing title>, Louisiana Sea Grant Program, Sea Grant College, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Pp. <missing location>

Huner, J. V.; Barr, J. E. (1991) <missing title>, Louisiana Sea Grant Program, Sea Grant College, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. Pp. <missing location>

2001-2016 100 Of The World's Worst Invasive Species.

Jackson, Michelle C. and 5 authors (2012) Population-level metrics of trophic structure based on stable isotopes and their application to invasion ecology, PLOS ONE 7(2): e31757

Kawai, T.; Kobayashi, Y. (2005) Origin and current distribution of the alien crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852) in Japan, Crustaceana 78(9): 1143-1149

Kilian, Jay V. and 6 authors (2010) The status and distribution of Maryland crayfishes, Southeastern Naturalist 9(Special Issue 3): 11-32

Kilian, Jay V; Frentress, Jason; Klauda, Ronald J.; Becker, Andrew J.; Stranko, Scott A. (2009) The invasion of Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda: Cambaridae) into Maryland streams following its introduction in outdoor aquaculture ponds, Northeastern Naturalist 16(4): 655-663

Larson, Eric R.; Olden, Julian D. (2008) Do schools and golf courses represent emerging pathways for crayfish invasions?, Aquatic Invasions 3(4): 465-468

Lieb, David A. and 5 authors (2011) Conservation and management of crayfishes: lessons from Pennsylvania, Fisheries 36(10): 489-507

Lieb, David A.; Bouchard, Raymond W.; Carline, Robert F. (2011) Crayfish fauna of southeastern Pennsylvania: distributions, ecology, and changes over the last century, Journal of Crustacean Biology 31(1): 166-178

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