Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1905
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1905
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Monocorophium acherusicum was originally described from Italy in 1857, but has been so widely dispersed by shipping that its native range is unknown. Some authors consider Europe its probable source region (Bousfield and Hoover 1997), while others consider it native to Eastern North America and introduced in European locations (Chapman 2000). It was collected in Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts as early as 1872 (Verrill and Smith 1873, as Corophium cylindricum Say 1818, re-identified as M. acherusicum; Yale Peabody Museum 2014). By 1937, it had also been collected from the Atlantic coasts of France, Holland, the Suez Canal, Senegal, South Africa, Hong Kong, New Zealand, and the West Coast of North America (Shoemaker 1934; Crawford 1937). It is also known from Texas to central Maine (Bousfield 1973; Lecroy 2004), Cuba (Ortiz et al. 2007), Venezuela (Ortiz et al. 2007), Brazil (Bahia to Sao Paulo 8-25°S; Valério-Berardo and Miyagi 2000), Australia (Fearn-Wannan 1968), Hawaii (Shoemaker 1947), Japan (Onbe 1966), the Black Sea and the Mediterranean (Bellan-Santini et al. 1982; Sezgün et al. 2001), the Azores (Chevreux 1900, cited by Lopes et al. 1992), and Spain to the Hebrides in Scotland (Lincoln 1979; Cacabelos et al. 2010). Recent new records from the Gulf of St Lawrence, Quebec (Adebayo et al. 2013); Dublin, Ireland (Daniels et al. 2015); and Helgoland, Germany, in the North Sea (Beerman and Franke 2011) suggest that this amphipod is still extending its range, possibly reflecting climate change and ship transport.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Monocorphium acherusicum was first collected in the Northeast Pacific as early as 1905 in Yaquina Bay, Oregon; 1915 in Puget Sound, Washington; and 1912 in San Francisco Bay, California. It now ranges from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada to Baja California, Mexico (Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton 1995). Early vectors for introduction included transfer with Eastern Oyster transplants and hull fouling (Carlton 1979). This amphipod was first reported from southern California in 1946 (Mohr and Leveque 1948, cited by Carlton 1979), in Los Angeles Long Beach Harbors, where it was very abundant by 1950 (Barnard 1958). It was collected in Newport Bay before 1947 (Shoemaker 1947), San Diego Bay in 1950 (Barnard 1958), and as far south as Bahia de San Quintin, Mexico in 1960 (Barnard 1964, cited by Carlton 1979). It is now known from most of the harbors and estuaries from San Diego to Port Hueneme (Carlton 1979; Cohen et al. 2002). Ballast water and fouling were/are probably important vectors in this region.

Monocorophium acherusicum was first collected in San Francisco Bay in 1912, and now ranges throughout the estuary, into the brackish waters of Suisun Bay and the Delta, where it has been collected as far upstream as Collinsville (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Light et al. 2005). On the central California Coast, it is also known from Morro Bay (Reish and Barnard 1960, cited by Carlton 1979), Elkhorn Slough (Shoemaker 1947; Carlton 1979; Wasson et al. 2001), Bolinas Lagoon (Light 1969, cited by Carlton 1979), Tomales Bay (Johnson and Juskevice 1965, cited by Carlton 1979; 2001, Fairey et al. 2002), and Bodega Harbor (Standing 1975, cited by Carlton 1979; Fairey et al. 2002).

In more northern waters, M. acherusicum was collected in 1905 in Yaquina Bay, Oregon (OR) and occurs in Humboldt Bay, California (1st record 1971; Stout 1971, cited by Carlton 1979; Boyd et al. 2002); Coos Bay, OR (1st record 1942, Barnard 1954, cited by Carlton 1979; Carlton 1989); Tillamook Bay, OR (1st record 1996, Golden et al. 1988), and Willapa Bay, Washington (WA) (1st record 2000, Cohen et al. 2001). Monocorophium acherusicum was found very early in Puget Sound, WA (1st record 1915, USNM specimen, Carlton 1979) and in the Straits of Georgia, British Columbia (1st record 1939, Bousfield and Hoover 1997).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Monocorophium acherusicum was first reported from Waikiki Bay, Oahu in 1943, and from Pearl Harbor in 1973. It was also collected in three small harbors in Honolulu, Keehi Lagoon, Ala Wai Harbor, and Kewalo Basin in 1997-98 (Coles et al. 1999a; Coles et al. 1999b; Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

As noted above, M. acherusicum was collected on both sides of the Atlantic in the mid-to-late 19th century, although most American specimens were identified as 'Corophium cylindricum Say 1818'. Some of the equatorial and southern records appear to be spotty, and reflective either of ship transport or limited collecting. However, populations in southern South America and South Africa are considered introduced. It was collected from the Rio de la Plata, Argentina in 1969 (U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2015), and has been collected as far south as Rio Gallegos, Argentina (51.5°S, Schwindt et al. 2014). This amphipod was first reported in South Africa in Durban, on the Indian Ocean, in 1915, but was widespread in most major ports by 1976 (Shoemaker 1947; Griffiths et al. 2009; Mead et al. 2011a; Mead et al. 2011b). By 1947, M. acherusicum was found in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Shoremaker 1947). It also occurs in Mauritius (Appado and Myers 2004) and India (Madras, Nayar 1959; Mumbai, Sivaprakasam 1970). It was collected in Hong Kong in 1937 (Crawford 1937; Shoemaker 1947), and by 1955, it was found in Japan at Fukuyama Harbor, in the Seto Inland Sea (1955, Onbe 1966; Doi et al. 2011). This amphipod is now widespread in the Northwest Pacific, in waters of China (Huang 2001), Korea (Hong 1993), and Vladivostok, Russia (1st record 1975, Zvyagintsev 2003). Its current northern limit is the eastern shelf of Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Japan (2002, Zvyagintsev 2003).

In the Southwest Pacific, M. acherusicum was first collected in Lyttelton Harbour, Christchurch, New Zealand in 1881 (Thomson 1881, cited by Hurley 1954). In more recent baseline port surveys, it was found in Tauranga, Gisborne, and Whangarei on the North Island and Timaru, Lyttelton, and Dunedin on the South Island, New Zealand (Inglis et al. 2005). In Australia, M. acherusicum was first discovered at Port Jackson, Sydney, New South Wales (Chilton 1921, cited by Poore and Storey 1999), and at Port Phillip Bay, in Victoria in 1963 (Fearn-Warren 1968; Poore and Storey 1999). It is also present in Western Australia in the Swan River estuary at Bunbury (Poore and Storey 1999) and at Esperance on the southern coast (Hewitt et al. unpublished).


Description

Monocorophium acherusicum has a slender, depressed body, with small, separated coxal plates. Its urosome segments are fused and it lacks a dorso-lateral ridge. The antennae and the anterior edge of the head are sexually dimorphic in this species. In males, the rostrum is very small and recessed behind the eyes, but much more prominent in females, and projecting ahead of the eyes. In males, the ocular lobes extend forward, and Antenna 2 is much larger and heavier than Antenna 1. While in females, Antenna 2 is only slightly longer, and somewhat more robust than Antenna 1. In males, the first segment (peduncle) of antenna 1 is enlarged at the proximal end, forming a dorsal bump. The inner margin of segment 1 has one small distal spine. The flagellum has 6-8 segments. In females, segment 1 of Antenna 1 is not enlarged, and the inner margin bears 3-4 stout spines, with 4-5 more spines on the ventral margin. The male Antenna 2 has segment 4 enlarged, with its distal end prolonged into a large, curved tooth. Segment 5 has a tooth near the proximal end which nearly opposes the tooth on segment 4. Segments 4 and 5 of the male's Antenna 2 have relatively few setae. In females, segment 4 of antenna 2 bears 3 pairs of stout posterior spines, and a single distal spine. Segments 4 and 5 of the female's Antenna 2 also have more setae than the males. 

The gnathopods are not especially large or conspicuous in this genus. Segment 5 of Gnathopod 1 is longer than segment 6, and the dactyl (segment 7) is longer than the palm of segment 6. On Gnathopod 2, segment 5 is longer than segment 2, and the dactyl bears 2 prominent teeth. Pereiopods 3 and 4 have segment 2 lacking setae, and have long, backward-curving dactyls. Pereiopod 7 is nearly twice as long as Pereiopod 6, and has a long, forward-curving dactyl. As noted above, the urosome segments are fused, without lateral ridges. The peduncle of Uropod 1 has 3 stout spines on the inner margin. The outer ramus of Uropod 2 is shorter than the inner one. Uropod 3 is uniramous, with the ramus shorter than the peduncle. Adults are about 3-6 mm long (Shoemaker 1934a; Bousfield 1973; Lincoln 1979; Bousfield and Hoover 1997; Lecroy 2004; Chapman 2007). The centers of the pleonites and the segments of Antenna 2 are dark brown, mottled with white. There is a patch of pigment between the eyes, but it does not extend to the back of the head (Bousfield 1973). The borders of the pleonites and most of the appendages are white (photo in Barnett 2013). Description based on: Shoemaker 1934a, Bousfield 1973, Lincoln 1979, Bousfield and Hoover 1997, Lecroy 2004, Chapman 2007 and Barnett 2013. 


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Gammaridea
Family:   Corophiidae
Genus:   Monocorophium
Species:   acherusicum

Synonyms

Andouinia acherusica (Costa, 1857)
Corophium cylindricum (Verrill and Smith, 1873)
Corophium acheruzicum (None, None)
Corophium ascherusicum (None, None)
Monocorophium acherusicum (Bousfield and Hoover, 1997)
Podocerus cylindricus (Say, 1818)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Crassicorophium bonellii
A species of uncertain taxonomic status, not reported from the Northeast Pacific, possibly a parthenogenetic form of M. acherusicum or M. insidiosum, reported from high latitudes of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, including the Northwest Pacific (Bousfield and Hoover 1997, Chapman 2007).

Monocorophium californiensis
Northeast Pacific native, Monterey Bay to British Columbia (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; Chapman 2007)

Monocorophium carlottensis
Northeast Pacific native, Puget Sound to Prince William Sound (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; Chapman 2007)

Monocorophium insidiosum
Native to North Atlantic, introduced to Pacific (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; Chapman 2007)

Monocorophium oaklandense
Possibly an intersex form of M. insidiosum (Chapman 2007)

Monocorophium uenoi
Native to Northwest Pacific, introduced from Humboldt Bay to Bahia San Quintin, Mexico (Carlton 1979; Chapman 2007).

Ecology

General:

Moncorophium acherusicum is a sedentary tube dwelling amphipod, which inhabits soft and hard substrates, as epifauna and infauna. Gammarid amphipods have separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). Females tend to be larger than males, reaching 6 mm, versus 4.5 mm for males (Onbe 1966; Bousfield 1973).  In temperate climates, breeding is seasonal, e.g. May-September in New England (Bousfield 1973), or year-round, but more frequent, and starting at smaller female body-sizes in summer (2.2 mm) and winter (3.0 mm) in Fukuyama Harbor, Japan (Onbe 1966). The brood size of females is related to body size, with 2-4 eggs for the smallest females, and 60-70 eggs for an ~6 mm female (Onbe 1966).

Moncorophium acherusicum ranges from cold-temperate to tropical climates, and tolerates ice-covered winter conditions and temperatures as high as 30C (Lee et al. 2005). In experiments, it tolerated salinities as low as 6 PSU (Onbe 1966). In San Francisco Bay, it was found in the Delta and Suisun Bay during drought periods at 5-15 PSU, but was most abundant in San Pablo Bay, and the South and Central Bays at 25-30 PSU (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Lee et al. 2003; Peterson and Vaysierres 2010). Monocorophium acherusicum secretes threads of 'amphipod silk', to which the sediment detritus is attached, to form its tubes. When the amphipods are abundant, the tubes form a mass in which the openings point outward or upward (Barnard et al. 1988). The tubes can be formed on the sediment surface, or attached to fouling on vertical surfaces such as rocks or pilings, or other fouling organisms (Barnard 1958). Monocorophium acherusicum is a sedentary tube dweller much of the time, but does swim and occurs in the zooplankton, especially at night, or following disturbance by storms and river runoff (Grabe 1996). 'Unlike other tubicolous animals, the amphipods are not obligatorily sessile, but move in and out of the tubes in search of food and to mate. Migration rates are high among the tubicolous amphipods, as evidence by their early appearance on fresh blocks (experimental substrates)' (Barnard 1958). Reported substrates of M. acherusicum include: rocks, pilings, pontoons, floats, buoys, ropes of set-nets, ships' hulls, oyster shells, Eelgrass (Zostera marina, Z. japonica), hydroids, macroalgae, and sponges (Crawford 1937; Barnard 1958; Onbe 1966; Fearn-Wannan 1968; Long 1968; Marsh 1972; Bellan-Santini et al. 1982; Berkenbusch and Rowden 2007).

When feeding, Moncorophium acherusicum sit at the mouths of their tubes, waving their antennae, capturing phytoplankton and organic detritus (Barnard 1958). We have not found studies of the feeding of M. acherusicum, but like other corophiid amphipods, it probably is capable of feeding on detritus and benthic microalgae on the sediment surface, and grazing on filamentous epiphytic algae growing on seaweeds and seagrasses (Bousfield 1973). Fishes appear to be the major predators on M. acherusicum. In a mesocosm experiment in the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, the exclusion of fishes led to a dramatic increase in this amphipod's abundance (Amundred et al. 2015).

Food:

Phytoplankton; Detritus

Consumers:

Fishes, crabs, shrimps

Competitors:

Other filter-feeding amphipods

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone
Vertical HabitatEndobenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Based on range (Bousfield 1973)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)30Experimental (Lee et al. 2005, highest tested), Korea
Minimum Salinity (‰)6Experimental (Onbe 1966)
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Experimental (Lee et al. 2005, highest tested), Korea
Minimum Length (mm)1.3Adult males, 2.2 for females (Onbe 1966, Japan)
Maximum Length (mm)6Adult females, 4.5 for males (Onbe 1966, Japan)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneMesohaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Monocorophium acherusicum is a widespread fouling organism, building masses of tubes, constructed of sediment and detritus, on ships' hulls, docks, and aquaculture structures (Crawford 1937; Shoemaker 1947; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952; Barnard 1958; Onbe 1966). It is also abundant in soft substrates of bays and estuaries, and is probably an important grazer of phytoplankton and benthic and epiphytic microalgae, as well as an important prey item for fishes. Monocorophium acherusicum's tube-building is a form of ecological engineering. It is often an early colonizer of fresh pilings, creating habitat which is used by other organisms (Barnard 1958).

Economic Impacts

Monocorophium acherusicum can foul pilings, covering them with masses of tubes covered with sediment, which is probably unattractive in marinas. However, the fouling perhaps provides a benefit by discouraging boring organisms such as shipworms and gribbles (Barnard 1958). In Japan, fouling by M. acherusicum affected the culture of seaweeds and oysters (Onbe 1966).

Ecological impacts

Monocorophium acherusicum's tubes on man-made and natural surfaces provide a major habitat alteration, probably facilitating settlement of some organisms, but discouraging others. Barnard (1958) described a pattern of succession in Los Angeles Harbor, in which corophiid amphipods, dominated by M. acherusicum, settled first on new pilings, followed by polychaetes and tunicates. However, Onbe (1966) found that few other organisms settled on surfaces heavily covered with M. acherusicum's tubes. As an opportunistic suspension/deposit feeder, M. acherusicum could affect the abundance of phytplankton in estuaries (Nichols and Thompson 1985a). High densities of corophiid amphipods could also affect the stability of sediments and the degree of erosion in estuaries (Talman et al. 1999).

Regional Impacts

NWP-3bNoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
The growth of cultured seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida was reduced by being fouled by the tubes of M. acherusicum and Erichthonius brasiliensis. The tubes were also found on the shells of cultivated edible and pearl oysters (Onbe 1966).
NWP-3bNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Onbe (1966) observed that no significant fouling by other organisms occurred on buoys which were completely covered by M. acherusicum's tubes.
NWP-3bNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Onbe (1966) observed that no significant fouling by other organisms occurred on buoys which were completely covered by M. acherusicum's tubes.
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Monocorophium acherusicum fouls pilings, covering them with masses of tubes covered with sediment, but perhaps a benefit by discouraging boring organisms (Barnard 1958).
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Dense masses of corophiid tubes may discourage settlement by boring organisms and by other foulers, such as the tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Barnard 1958). They also may provide habitat for other organisms, such as predatory polychaetes (Barnard 1958).
AUS-VIIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Talman et al. (1999, suggested that the very high densities of corophiids (presumably introduced) observed in Port Phillip Bay could decrease the stability of sediment, resulting in increased erosion.
P050San Pedro BayEconomic ImpactShipping/Boating
Fouling pilings, covering them with masses of tubes covered with sediment, but perhaps a benefit by discourage boring organisms (Barnard 1958).
P050San Pedro BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Dense masses of corophiid tubes may discourage settlement by boring organisms and by other foulers, such as the tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Barnard 1958). They also may provide habitat for other organisms, such as predatory polychaetes (Barnard 1958).
NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEcological ImpactHerbivory
Nichols and Thompson (1985) suggested that an upstream movement of abundant suspension-feeding benthos, including M. acherusicum, was responsible for a decline in phytoplankton biomass in Suisun Bay during 1976-1977, a dry period of high salinity (Nichols and Thompson 1985).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactHerbivory
Nichols and Thompson (1985) suggested that an upstream movement of abundant suspension-feeding benthos, including M. acherusicum, was responsible for a decline in phytoplankton biomass in Suisun Bay during 1976-1977, a dry period of high salinity (Nichols and Thompson 1985).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 1878 Crypto Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1872 Crypto Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1969 Crypto Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1938 Crypto Estab
SA-II None 2000 Crypto Estab
NEA-II None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-IV None 1899 Crypto Estab
NEA-V None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-I None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-II None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-III None 1857 Crypto Estab
MED-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-V None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-IX None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-I None 1937 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 1914 Def Estab
EA-III None 1947 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 1937 Def Estab
NWP-3b None 1955 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 1975 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 1963 Def Estab
AUS-X None 1921 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1999 Def Estab
AUS-IX None 1999 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1881 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1943 Def Estab
CIO-II None 1959 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1905 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1915 Def Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1912 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1946 Def Estab
SA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3a None 1956 Def Estab
AUS-V None 0 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1950 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1948 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1912 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1947 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 1971 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1942 Def Estab
P210 Yaquina Bay 1905 Def Estab
P270 Willapa Bay 1968 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1915 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2000 Def Estab
P027 _CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre) 2000 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1947 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 2000 Def Estab
P061 _CDA_P061 (Los Angeles) 1978 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 1962 Def Estab
P070 Morro Bay 1960 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 1961 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 1971 Def Estab
P240 Tillamook Bay 1996 Def Estab
EA-V None 1998 Def Estab
P095 _CDA_P095 (Tomales-Drakes Bay) 1969 Def Estab
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1912 Def Estab
CIO-I None 1970 Def Estab
NZ-VI None 2001 Def Estab
NEA-VI None 1899 Crypto Estab
SEP-A' None 0 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 2001 Def Estab
WA-IV None 1976 Def Estab
NA-S3 None 2010 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-III None 0 Crypto Estab
P065 _CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel) 2011 Def Estab
P058 _CDA_P058 (San Pedro Channel Islands) 2011 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 2011 Def Estab
P288 _CDA_P288 (Dungeness-Elwha) 1999 Def Estab
P280 Grays Harbor 1999 Def Estab
SA-II None 1969 Def Estab
AUS-XII None 1963 Def Estab
AUS-XI None 1999 Def Estab
SEP-C None 2015 Def Estab
SA-I None 2005 Prb Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
767317 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-13 Coast Guard, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3126 -123.0512
767341 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Lucas/Tides, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3284 -123.0445
767349 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Porto Bodega, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3333 -123.0525
767358 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-22 Tomales-Marshall, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1514 -122.8888
767372 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Tomales-Nick's Cove, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1980 -122.9222
767382 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-15 Tomales- Call Box 401, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1793 -122.9104
767416 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-19 SeaWorld Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7676 -117.2314
767432 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767449 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-29 Mission Bay Yacht Club, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7778 -117.2485
767468 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-04 Bahia Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7731 -117.2478
767487 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-31 Campland on the Bay, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7936 -117.2234
767500 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-01 Hyatt Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7634 -117.2397
767546 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-02 The Dana Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7671 -117.2363
767560 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-05 Paradise Point Resort, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7730 -117.2406
767572 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-30 201 Main, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3564 -120.8474
767585 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-27 City Harbor, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3709 -120.8582
767594 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-05 Launch Ramp, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3577 -120.8508
767608 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-29 Moorings, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3619 -120.8548
767617 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-31 Morro Bay Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3641 -120.8532
767629 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-28 Sealion Dock, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3658 -120.8555
767636 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-03 State Park Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3459 -120.8423
767648 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-04 Tidelands, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3602 -120.8521
767659 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-16 Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6886 -117.2343
767689 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-24 NAB ACU-1 Docks, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6786 -117.1615
767726 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-22 Coronado Cays Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6257 -117.1309
767738 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-18 NAB Fiddlers Cove, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6524 -117.1486
767779 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-28 Marriott Marquis and Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7059 -117.1655
767794 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-15 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9117 -122.3494
767873 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-15 Berkeley Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8758 -122.3181
767946 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-12 Paradise Cay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9156 -122.4769
767972 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
767994 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-23 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
768013 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-28 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8071 -122.4341
768026 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-27 Port of San Francisco Pier 31, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8078 -122.4060
768071 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768095 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768117 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-04 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5023 -122.2130
768141 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-06 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9736 -122.4802
768158 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-05 Port of Oakland, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7987 -122.3228
768205 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-31 Glen Cove Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0663 -122.2130
768218 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6962 -122.1919
768284 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768306 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-22 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7926 -122.2746
768344 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6639 -122.3821
768388 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768410 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-12 San Francisco Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8078 -122.4354
768425 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-21 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6980 -122.1908
768439 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-16 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8611 -122.4851

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