Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1965
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1965
General Invasion History:
Paradella dianae was described from Bahia de San Quintin, on the Pacific Coast of Mexico, and is known from San Diego Bay, California to Mazatlan, Mexico, including the Gulf of California. An occurrence in Pisco, Peru could be part of the natural range, or an introduction (Menzies 1962; García-Guerrero and Hendrickx 2005; U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2016). Paradella dianae has been widely introduced in warm-temperate and tropical harbors and coastal waters around the world. It is found on the coasts of every continent except Antarctica, and on oceanic islands (e.g. Hawaii, the Marshall Islands, and Bermuda). Early introductions include Fernandina Beach and Key West, Florida in 1965 and 1968, respectively (US National Museum of Natural History 2016); Puerto Rico in 1966 (Glynn 1970); Eniwetok Atoll in 1967 (Glynn 1970); Queensland, Australia in 1971 (Harrison and Holdich 1982); Brazil in 1978 (Pires 1980); and Italy in 1985 (Forniz and Maggiore 1985).
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the East Coast:
The earliest record of Paradella dianae in the Atlantic Ocean is from Fernandina Beach, in northeast Florida, in 1965 (USNM 84387, US National Museum of Natural History 2016). Subsequently, P. dianae has been found north to Charlestown, South Carolina (Knott et al. 2011), and south to Key Biscayne, Florida (USNM 205734, US National Museum of Natural History 2016). In the Gulf of Mexico, it was collected at Key West in 1969 (USNM 205734, US National Museum of Natural History 2016) and from Matagorda Bay to South Padre Island, Texas in 1978 (Clark and Robertson 1982). Kensley and Schotte (1999) collected many specimens from a wide variety of habitats in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida.
Invasion History in Hawaii:
In 2002-2003, Paradella dianae was found in Port Allen Harbor, Kauai, and Kahului Harbor, Maui (Coles et al. 2004; Carlton and Eldredge 2009). It is probably more widespread in the islands than currently reported.
Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:
In the Caribbean Sea, Paradella dianae was collected in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico in 1966 (Menzies and Glynn 1968; USNM 128324, US National Museum of Natural History 2016). It was found in Santos, Sao Paulo State, Brazil in 1978, and Cabo Frio, in Rio de Janeiro State (Pires 1980; Pires 1982). In 1981, it was collected on Bermuda (USNM 236261, US National Museum of Natural History 2016).
In European waters, P. dianae was first reported from Civitavecchia, Italy, on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Forniz and Maggiore 1985). It was subsequently found in other parts of the Mediterranean (from west to east): Bay of Algeciras, Spain in 1992 (Castello and Carballo 2002); Lake of Tunis, Tunisia (Bey 2001 cited by Amor et al.2016); Izmir, Turkey, Aegean Sea (Cinar et al. 2008, cited by Ates et al. 2013); Cyprus in 2002 (Kirkim et al. 2010); and Alexandria, Egypt (Atta 1991; Ramadan et al. 2006). In 1988, it was first collected on the open Atlantic coast of Europe, in Cadiz Harbor, Spain (Rodriguez et al.1992).
In the Indo-Pacific region, it was first seen on Eniwetok Atoll, in the Marshall Islands in 1967 (Glynn 1979). This was a site of naval operations and nuclear testing, so transport by military vessels is likely. Other appearances were mostly near shipping ports. The first record in Australia is from Brisbane, Queensland in 1971 (Harrison and Holdich 1982). It was later found in Townsville, Queensland in 1976 (Harrison and Holdich 1982); in the Swan River estuary, Western Australia in 1978 (Harrison and Holdich 1982); and in 1995 in Bunbury Harbor, also in Western Australia (Hass and Knott 1998). Elsewhere in the Indo-West Pacific, it was found in Buleji, near Karachi, Pakistan, on the Arabian Sea in 1984 (Javed and Ahmed, 1987); Hong Kong in 1986 (Bruce 1992); and Singapore in 2003 (Bruce and Wong 2015).
Paradella dianae has a rectangular-ovoid body shape, with a crescent-shaped cephalon and prominent eyes. Especially in the, male, the posterior border of the cephalon is a shelf-like ridge. The flagellum of Antenna 1 has 12 segments; while the flagellum of antenna 2 has 13 segments. The posterior edge of peraeonite 7 is bilobed, with a small central indentation and two ovoid lateral lobes. Pleonite 1 has two rounded median tubercles. In the male, the pleotelson is roughly triangular, with a heart-shaped opening (foramen) at the apex. Anterior to the cleft are 4 elongated tubercles, arranged in a rectangle- the male also has a small tubercle anterior to the foramen. Pleopods 2 of the male bear a long extension, twice the length of the endopod. The rami of the uropods are broad, oval, and paddle-like, and broader in males than in females. The endopods of the uropods extend beyond the tip of the pleotelson. In the female, the apex of the pleotelson has a simple notch, with no anterior tubercle. The endopod of the uropod ends level with the apex of the pleotelson. Males reach 3.5-5.6 mm in size, while females are usually smaller (2.1-5.6 mm). Live animals are mottled brown and yellowish white, with a broad yellowish white patch, and two black or orange dots in the center of Pleonite 1. This description is based on: Menzies 1962; Glynn 1970; Pires 1980; Harrison and Holdich 1983; Forniz and Maggiore 1985; Kensley and Schotte 1989; Atta 1991; Garcia-Guerero and Hendrickx 2005; and Knott et al. 2011.
Dynamenopsis dianae (Menzies, 1962)
Paradella dianae (Harrison and Holdich, 1982)
Potentially Misidentified Species
Tropical West Atlantic, Jamaica-Venezuela (Glynn 1970; Kensley and Schotte 1989).
Florida-Caribbean (Kensley and Schotte 1989).
As with most isopods, Paradella dianae has separate sexes and fertilization is internal. However, an unusual feature of this isopod is that this species is a protogynous hermaphrodite. The young mature as females, brood and bear young, and then transform into males. Females are generally smaller (2.1-4.0mm) than males (3.5-5.6 mm) (Menzies 1962; Glynn 1970; Pires 1980; Harrison and Holdich 1983; Forniz and Maggiore 1985; Kensley and Schotte 1989; Kensley and Schotte 1999; Atta 1991; Knott et al. 2011). Ovigerous females have penises similar to those of subadult males. The young are brooded by the female and development is direct (Kensley and Schotte 1999). The number of embryos increases with body size, from 14 to 24, over a size range of 2.4 to 5.6 mm (Garcia-Guerrero and Hendrickx 2005).
Paradella dianae is widespread in warm-temperate to tropical climates (13-30°C) and tidal fresh to euhaline salinities (0-39 PSU, Nelson and Demetriades 1992; Rodriguez et al. 1992; Kensley and Schotte 1999). It is known from a wide range of intertidal and shallow-water habitats, including invertebrate fouling communities, seaweeds, mangrove roots, wharf pilings, rock crevices, and tubeworm colonies, but also from soft sediments (Clark and Robertson 1982; Forniz and Maggiore 1985; Nelson and Demeriades 1994; Hass and Knott 1998; Kensley and Schotte 1999; Garcia-Guerrero and Hendrickx 2005). Paradella dianae feeds by scraping algae and biofilms from surfaces (Harrison and Holdich 1982; Mungia and Alenius 2016).
Algal-Bacterial Films; Filamentous algae
|General Habitat||Coarse Woody Debris||None|
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks||None|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Euhaline||30-40 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Limnetic||0-0.5 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Oligohaline||0.5-5 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Mesohaline||5-18 PSU|
|Tidal Range||Low Intertidal||None|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Minimum Temperature (ºC)||13||Field data, Cadiz, Spain (Rodriguez et al. 1992)|
|Maximum Temperature (ºC)||30||Field data, Indian River Lagoon FL (Nelson and Demetriades 1992)|
|Minimum Salinity (‰)||0||Field data, Indian River Lagoon FL (Kensley and Schotte 1999)|
|Maximum Salinity (‰)||39||Field data, Cadiz, Spain (Rodriguez et al. 1992)|
|Minimum pH||7.6||70% survival|
|Maximum pH||8.2||Natural pH, control (Munguia and Alenius 2016)|
|Maximum Length (mm)||5.6||Male, Brazil (Pires 1980)|
|Broad Temperature Range||None||Warm temperate-Subtropical|
|Broad Salinity Range||None||Tidal Limnetic-Euhaline|
General ImpactsOn jetties in the Gulf of Mexico, Paradella dianae 'seems to replace Sphaeroma quadridentatum, the most abundant isopod on the northern jetties' (Clark and Robertson 1982). However, interactions between the two species, have not been quantified, to our knowledge.
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||Ecological Impact||Competition|
|Paradella dianae 'seems to replace Sphaeroma quadridentatum, as the most abundant isopod on the northern jetties' on the Texas coast (Clark and Robertson 1982).|
Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||1962||Native||Estab|
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||1968||Def||Estab|
|CAR-VII||Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida||1965||Def||Estab|
|S183||_CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine)||1965||Def||Estab|
|S180||St. Johns River||1965||Def||Estab|
|S206||_CDA_S206 (Vero Beach)||1968||Def||Estab|
|G290||San Antonio Bay||1978||Def||Estab|
|G310||Corpus Christi Bay||1978||Def||Estab|
|G320||Upper Laguna Madre||1978||Def||Estab|
|G330||Lower Laguna Madre||1978||Def||Estab|
|P020||San Diego Bay||0||Native||Estab|
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