Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Maxillopoda
Subclass:   Thecostraca
Infraclass:   Cirripedia
Superorder:   Thoracica
Order:   Sessilia
Suborder:   Balanomorpha
Superfamily:   Chthamaloidea
Family:   Chthamalidae
Genus:   Chthamalus
Species:   proteus


Chthamalus bisinuatus (Southward, 1975)
Chthamalus proteus (Dando and Southward, 1980)
Chthamalus stellatus bisinuatus (Wells, 1966)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Chthamalus fragilis
Cape Cod MA-Dauphin Island AL (Dando and Southward 1980)

Chthamalus angustitergum
South FL-Trinidad (Dando and Southward 1980)

Chthamalus bisinuatus
Fortaleza, Brazil- Uruguay (Dando and Southward 1980)



Chthamalus proteus is exclusively intertidal and favors relatively clear water of high salinity (Dando and Southward 1980; Zabin et al. 2007)


Phtyplankton, detritus

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeMid IntertidalNone
Tidal RangeHigh IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)16Field temperature (Brazil, Neto 2003 cited by Zabin et al. 2007)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)38Field temperature (Panama, Cubit 1990, cited by Zabin et al. 2007)
Minimum Salinity (‰)22Field (Dando and Southward 1980; Zabin et al. 2007)
Minimum Duration9Nauplius release to cypris stage, 28 C, high food (Zabin et al. 2007)
Maximum Duration17Nauplius release to cypris stage, 24 C, low food (Zabin et al. 2007)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneSubtropical-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Regional Impacts

SP-XXINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
The invasion of C. proteus in the Hawaiian Islands has coincided with reductions in abundance of the introduced barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite and A. reticulatus. In experiments in which settling C. proteus were removed from fouling plates, numbers of settling A. reticulatus increased, but no A. amphitrite occurred on plates. The effect of competition with C. proteus is to compress the vertical distribution of A. reticulatus and exclude it from much of the intertidal zone through competition for space (Zabin et al. 2007). High densities of C. proteus also reduce densities of the native high intertidal limpet Siphonaria normalis in manipulative experiments (Zabin and Altieri 2007).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-III None 1970 Native Estab
CAR-II None 0 Native Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
SA-III None 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 0 Native Estab
SP-XXI None 1993 Def Estab
SP-XII None 1997 Def Estab
SP-XVI None 2001 Def Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Native Estab
SA-IV None 0 Native Estab
SP-XIII None 2007 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 1970 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Ashton, G. V.; Davidson, I. C.; Geller, J.; Ruiz, G. M. (2016) Disentangling the biogeography of ship biofouling: barnacles in the Northeast Pacific, Global Ecology and Biogeography 25: 739;750

Campbell, Marnie L] ; Hewitt, Chad L.[ Miles, Joel (2016) Marine pests in paradise: capacity building, awareness raising and preliminary introduced species port survey results in the Republic of Palau, Biological Invasions 7(4): 351-363

Dando, P. R.; Southward, A.J. (1980) A new species of Chthamalus (Crustacea: Cirripedia) characterized by enzyme electrophoresis and shell morphology: with a revision of other species of Chthamalus from the Western shores of the Atlantic Ocean., Journal of the Marine Biological Association 60: 787-831

Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Smith, Craig R. (2010) Invasive mangroves alter macrofaunal community structure and facilitate opportunistic exotics, Marine Ecology Progress Series 404: 51-67

Farrapeira, Cristiane Maria Rocha (2010) Shallow water Cirripedia of the northeastern coast of Brazil: The impact of life history and invasion on biogeography, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 392: 210-219

Gonzalez, J. A.; Martin, L. Herrera, R.; Gonzalez Lorenzo, G.; Espino. F.; Barquin-Diez, J.; Southward, A.J. (2011) Cirripedia of the Canary Islands: distribution and ecological notes, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 92: 129-141

Paulay, Gustav; Kirkendale, Lisa; Lambert, Gretchen; Meyer, Chris (2002) Anthropogenic biotic interchange in a coral reef ecosystem: a case study from Guam, Pacific Science 56(2): 403-422

Paulay, Gustav; Ross, Arnold (2003) An annotated checklist of the shallow water Cirripedia of Guam, Micronesica 35-36: 303-314

Southward, A. J. (1975) Intertidal and shallow water Cirripedia of the Caribbean., Studies of the Fauna of Curacao and other Caribbean Islands 150: 1-153

Southward, A. J., Burton, R. S., Coles, S. L., Dando, P. R., DeFelice, R., Hoover, J., Parnell, P. E., Yamaguchi, T., Newman, W. A. (1998) Invasion of Hawaiian shores by an Atlantic barnacle, Marine Ecology Progress Series 165: 119-126

Zabin, Chela J. (2009) Battle of the barnacle newcomers: niche compression in invading species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii, Marine Ecology Progress Series 381: 175-182

Zabin, Chela J. (2015) Patterns of adult abundance vary with recruitment of an invasive barnacle species on Oahu, Hawaii, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 464: 44-51

Zabin, Chela J.; Zardus, John; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Fread, Vanessa; Hadfield, Michael G. (2007) A tale of three seas: consistency of natural history traits in a Caribbean-Atlantic barnacle introduced to Hawaii., Biological Invasions 9: 523-544

Zabin, Chela J.; Altieri, Andrew (2007) A Hawaiian limpet facilitates recruitment of a competitively dominant invasive barnacle., Marine Ecologiy Progress Series 337: 175-185

Zabin, Chela; Hadfield, M. G. (2002) Do locals rule? Interactions between native intertidal animals and a Caribbean barnacle in Hawaii., Pacific Science 56(2): 235-236

Zardus, John D.; Hadfield, Michael G. (2005) Multiple origins and incursions of the Atlantic barnacle Chthamalus proteus in the Pacific., Molecular Ecology 14: 3719-3733