Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1955
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1955

General Invasion History:

Conrad (1830) described Rangia cuneata as 'an inhabitant of the estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico and occurring in the upper Tertiary formation in the bank of the Potomac River in Maryland and on the Neuse River, North Carolina '. Rangia cuneata is found in Pleistocene deposits ranging from New Jersey southward through the entire northern Gulf coast and northern South America (Hopkins and Andrews 1970). Its recent native range is from the Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, Mexico (Wakida-Kusunoki and MacKenzie 2004) to at least to the tip of Florida. We considered populations along Florida’s Atlantic Coast to be cryptogenic. The earliest Atlantic Florida record that we found was from Lake Worth, Florida in 1946 (Museum of Comparative Zoology 2009). Rangia cuneata is found in the Indian River Lagoon, Daytona Beach Inlet, and the St. Johns River estuary (Florida Museum of Natural History 2009).

No living specimens were reported from the East Coast north of Florida until about 1955 (Hopkins and Andrews 1970; Wells 1961). Prior to its discovery on the Atlantic Coast, R. cuneata was considered to range from the Gulf Coast of northern Florida to Texas (Fairbanks 1963). In the 1960s, it became abundant north to the Chesapeake Bay, and by 1988, it had colonized the Hudson River estuary (Carlton 1992). In 2005, it was found fouling a power plant in Belgium (Kerckhof et al. 2007) and in 2010, it was found to be established in the Vistula Lagoon, Baltic Sea (Rudinskaya and Gusev 2012).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The first reported Atlantic coast collections, north of Florida, were from the Newport River, North Carolina in 1955-56 (Wells 1961). They were subsequently collected from the Altamaha River Delta, Georgia around 1958, and from Currituck Sound, North Carolina and Virginia in 1957 (Hopkins and Andrews 1970). In South Carolina, R. cuneata was reported as uncommon in oligohaline waters (Shoemaker 1978), but it was abundant and ecologically important in Pamlico Sound (Tenore 1968). Living R. cuneata were found in 1960 by W. G. Hewatt in Back Bay, Virginia an arm of Currituck Sound, near the North Carolina border (Hopkins and Andrews 1970).

In Chesapeake Bay, R. cuneata was first collected in 1963 in 'an excellent oyster setting area from which seed oysters have been transplanted to other regions of the Chesapeake Bay and upper tributaries of the Potomac River' (Pfitzenmeyer and Drobeck 1964). It was established in the York River in the 1960s – its range there expanded downriver from river mile 20 to 10 and 15 after tropical storm 'Agnes' in 1973 (Boesch et al. 1976). Rangia cuneata was first collected in the Rappahannock River in 1964 (Wass 1972), and was abundant by 1966-69 in the lower tidal-fresh oligohaline zone; between 30 and 40 miles from the river mouth (Davies 1972). In the upper Bay and tributaries, R. cuneata was present by 1967 and abundant by 1968-1969 in the Northeast, Sassafras, and Elk Rivers, and by 1969 in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (Gallagher and Wells 1969). It is now abundant from the Susquehanna Flats in tidal fresh water (Posey et al. 1993) to the mouth of the Patapsco River, and the northernmost edge of the mouth of Chester River, and is confined to sub-estuaries further south (Lippson 1973). Depending on winter cold, and on ambient salinity, it is occasionally abundant in the Rhode River (Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD) (Ruiz and Hines, unpublished data).

The first collection of R. cuneata in Delaware Bay was in 1971 at Oakwood Beach, New Jersey. It was considered abundant by 1974 between St. Jones River and Woodland Beach (Maurer et al. 1974). In 1979, R. cuneata was found at Delaware City, New Castle County, Delaware in the water system of the Getty Oil refinery, which it probably entered by way of the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (Counts 1980). In 1988 R. cuneata was discovered in Haverstraw Bay, New York, in the Hudson River estuary.

A major question about the rapid range expansion on the Atlantic coast is whether it’s the result of anthropogenic introductions or the resurgence of small, previously unnoticed relict populations (Pfitzenmeyer and Drobeck 1964; Hopkins and Andrews 1970; Foltz et al. 1995), perhaps sparked by 'some unknown ecological change' (Hopkins and Andrews 1970). Given the relatively large size of this clam and the abundance of collectors on the Atlantic Coast, it seems much more likely that it was transported north by human vectors. Possible modes of introduction include transplanted seed oysters, oyster shipments, ballast water, or barges and dredges on the Intracoastal Waterway (Pfitzenmeyer and Drobeck 1964; Carlton 1992; Mills et al. 1997). Gulf and Atlantic Coast populations appear to be genetically distinct at some loci, with an apparent boundary near Ocklochonee Bay, Florida (in the northeast Gulf of Mexico) (Foltz et al. 1995). These data would appear to support the 'resurgence' model rather than an introduction from the Gulf of Mexico. However, the authors point out that the genetic data do not rule out other introduction scenarios, including introductions from the Gulf or Atlantic coasts of Florida.

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In 2005-2006, large numbers of small bivalves were discovered in the Scheldt Estuary, Antwerp, Belgium, in bottom sediments and clogging the inlet pipes of a power-plant. These clams were identified as R. cuneata, probably transported as larvae in ballast water. This species now appears to be established in Belgium (Verween et al. 2006). In 2010, the Gulf Wedge Clam was discovered in the Vistula Lagoon, shared between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia. This population is increasing rapidly (Rudinskaya and Gusev 2012). In 2015, populations were found in two freshwater canals connected to the tidal River Witham, tributaries of the Wash estuary, Lincolnshire, England. The shells were estimated to be 5-6 years old (Willing 2015). Additional populations were found in 2013 at the North Sea end of the Kiel Canal (Bock et al. 2015) and in the Schellbruch Lagoon in Lubeck, on the Baltic Sea (Wiese et al. 2016). In 2017, a dense established population of R. cuneata, probably established in 2009, was found in the Canal de Caen, Nomandy (Failletaz et al., 2020).


Description

Rangia cuneata is a bivalve with a thick and heavy shell. It is oval-triangular in shape and dominated by a bulbous curved beak, which is anterior of the midpoint of the shell and is rolled inward, pointing anteriorly. The hinge has distinct lateral and cardinal teeth, with a spoon-shaped chondropore. The posterior edge of the shell drops off very steeply, while the anterior edge slopes gradually. The exterior has numerous concentric growth rings, covered by a flaky, grayish-brown periostracum. The interior is glossy and white, tinged with blue-gray. The anterior and posterior adductor muscle scars are prominent. The pallial sinus is small, but distinct. The intact animal is heart-shaped in cross-section. Occasionally, these clams may reach 100-110 mm in length (Fofonoff, personal observations), but in many populations, they rarely exceed 60-75 mm (Fairbanks 1963; Wolfe and Petteway 1968; LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985). Rangia cuneata is characteristic of brackish waters of estuaries, and is rare at salinities above 10-15 PSU. Description from: Abbott 1974; Morris 1975; Lippson and Lippson 1997.

The larval development of R. cuneata is described and illustrated by Chanley (1965) and Chanley and Andrews (1971). The veligers metamorphose at about 165 to 175 μm.


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Bivalvia
Subclass:   Heterodonta
Order:   Veneroida
Superfamily:   Mactroidea
Family:   Mactridae
Genus:   Rangia
Species:   cuneata

Synonyms

Clathrodon cuneata (Conrad, 1830)
Gnathodon cuneata (Gray, 1837)
Rangia cuneata (Conrad, 1868)
Rangia cyrenoides (Conrad, 1867)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Rangia flexuosa
Confined to the Gulf of Mexico (Abbott 1974)

Ecology

General:

Rangia cuneata is a bivalve which burrows in the muddy and sandy bottoms of estuaries, most commonly at salinities of 0-10 PSU, although salinities of 2.5-14 PSU are required for reproduction (Fairbanks 1963; Cain 1972; La Salle et al. 1985; Lippson and Lippson 1997). Adults can actually tolerate salinities as high as 33 PSU, but competition and predation may limit them to brackish water, where other bivalves are rare (Cooper 1981). Adults tolerate water temperatures at least as high as 33°C (Fairbanks 1963), but are prone to cold winter temperatures. At low temperatures, and low salinities , R. cuneata may move to the surface of the sediment, and close its shell, relying on anaerobic metabolism, which can exhaust its metabolic reserves and limit winter survival (Tuszer-Kunk et al. 2020). , However, some individuals survive temperatures as low as 1°C (Gallagher and Wells 1969; Cain 1972).

The sexes are separate in R. cuneata. Adults become mature at ~ 14-25 mm, in the second or third year (Cain 1972; Fairbanks 1963). Most populations spawn twice a year, once in spring to mid-summer, and once in late fall (Fairbanks 1963; Cain 1972; LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985). In the James River, Virginia spawning appeared to be triggered by a rapid raise in temperature (to 15°C), or a drop in salinity to ~5 PSU (Cain 1972). Overall, spawning and larval development has been reported over a wide range of temperature 18-32°C, and salinity 2.5-14 PSU (Fairbanks 1963; Cain 1972; Lasalle and de la Cruz 1985). Eggs and sperm are released into the water column and fertilized eggs go through a trochophore stage, becoming shelled veligers in less than 24 h at 30°C. Settlement occurred 7 days after fertilization, at a size of 165-175 mm (Chanley 1965; Chanley and Andrews 1971). Larvae prefer to settle in sand over silt or clay, especially when the sand comes from adult Rangia habitat (Sundberg and Kennedy 1993). These clams apparently show little horizontal movement after settlement, though they do move vertically in response to disturbance (LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985). Estimates of longevity range from an average of 4-6 years for Lake Pontchartrain and Potomac clams reaching 40-50 mm, to 10 years for a 75 mm clam (Fairbanks 1963; Wolfe and Petteway 1968). Maximum lifespan may be about 15 years (LaSalle and Parsons 1985).

Rangia cuneata are considered typical unselective suspension feeders, filtering water through their gills, trapping phytoplankton and detritus particles in mucus, and rejecting inedible or excess particles as pseudofeces (Barnes 1983). These clams are prey for a wide range of predators, including Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus), fishes (including drums and catfishes), waterfowl, raccoons, and otters (Cain 1972; LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985; Posey et al. 1993; Fofonoff, personal observations).

Food:

Phytoplankton

Consumers:

crabs, fishes, birds, raccoons, humans

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEndobenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)1Field data (Wolfe and Pettaway 1968; Gallagher and Wells 1969; Cain 1972).
Maximum Temperature (ºC)35Field data (Wolfe and Petteway 1968; Gallagher and Wells 1969; Cain 1972)
Minimum Salinity (‰)0Experimental data- Rangia possesses both extracellular (blood and body fluid) and intracellular mechanisms of osmoregulation, which enables it to cross the 'horohalinicum'- the 5-8 PSU salinity boundary which usually divides fresh and salt-water invertebrates. Competition and predation may explain its scarcity in high salinity environments (Cooper 1981). 'The distribution of Rangia in an estuary overlaps that of Crassostrea virginica, but R. cuneata becomes much more abundant farther up the estuary where the salinity, usually 0 to 10 ppt, is too low for oysters and for almost all other estuarine competitors or influents' (Hopkins and Andrews, 1970). Successful reproduction and larval settlement occurs at 2.5-14 ppt (Cain 1972).
Maximum Salinity (‰)33Experimental survival (Cooper 1981). However, R. cuneata is rare above 10 PSU in most estuaries (Fairbanks 1963; Cain 1972; La Salle et al. 1985; Lippson and Lippson 1997). In southwestern Florida estuaries, it was absent above 16 PSU (Montagna et al. 2008).
Minimum Reproductive Temperature18Cain 1972
Maximum Reproductive Temperature32Cain 1972
Minimum Reproductive Salinity2.5Cain 1972
Maximum Reproductive Salinity14Cain 1972
Minimum Duration6.7Egg + Larval period, observed in laboratory at 23-26 C, (Sundberg and Kennedy 1993)
Maximum Duration6.7Egg + Larval period, observed in laboratory at 23-26 C, (Sundberg and Kennedy 1993)
Minimum Length (mm)17Cain 1972, James River VA
Maximum Length (mm)110Paul Fofonoff, personal observations, Rhode River, MD. In many populations, they rarely exceed 60-75 mm (Fairbanks 1963; Wolfe and Petteway 1968; LaSalle and de la Cruz 1985).
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm Temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneOligohaline-Polyhaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts

Fisheries- Rangia cuneata supports a commercial fishery in the Gulf of Mexico. It is occasionally eaten by people working in the Chesapeake oyster industry, but is not commercially utilized here. The main drawback to harvesting R. cuneata in many estuaries is that of pollution, often from domestic sewage (Cain 1972; Hines personal observation). Rangia cuneata is important in that it is a food resource for ecologically and commercially important species, including Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab), Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot), Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic Croaker), Pogonias cromis (Black Drum), and waterfowl, especially diving ducks (Cain 1972; Ebersole and Kennedy 1994).

Industry- Rangia cuneata fouled pipes of the Getty oil refinery in Delaware City, Delaware (DE) clogging fire hoses. This was the first report of industrial fouling associated with this species (Counts 1980). In early 2006, in Antwerp, Belgium, a dense population of the estuarine bivalve was detected in the silt within pipes of an industrial cooling system indicating its potential as a nuisance fouling species (Verween et al. 2006).

Ecological Impacts

Food/Prey- Rangia cuneata is important as a food resource for ecologically and commercially important species, including Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab), Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot), Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic Croaker), Pogonias cromis (Black Drum), and waterfowl (Cain 1972; Ebersole and Kennedy 1994).

Competition- Effects of R. cuneata on the native clams Mya arenaria (Softshell Clams) and Macoma petalum (Baltic Clams) are complex and subtle. Competition for food is likely, since suspension feeders can deplete plankton in the immediate vicinity. Macoma petalum, in the presence of R. cuneata switched to deposit feeding, resulting in increased rates of partial predation (siphons nipped) (Skilleter and Peterson 1994). This results in energetic costs of regeneration and could slow growth. These effects are apparently partly offset by structural refuges provided by R. cuneata (Skilleter 1994).

Habitat Change- Survivorship of the native bivalves Mya arenaria and Macoma petalum was increased in the presence of R. cuneata, but empty shells had similar effects (or greater in M. arenaria) as live clams, indicating that the shells of R. cuneata were providing a physical refuge (Skilleter 1994). The seagrass Ruppia maritima (Widgeon Grass), when present, apparently removed this protective effect, perhaps by interfering with burrowing, or by attracting predators (Skilleter 1994). In in-situ experiments, R. cuneata altered the composition and abundance of infaunal communities in the surrounding sediments in the Rhode River, Maryland. Results are still being analyzed, and the effects appear to be complex (R. Everett, personal communication).

The invasion of Rangia cuneata into oligohaline parts of estuaries has resulted in large biomasses of suspension feeding bivalves where previously they were scarce. This has probably affected phytoplankton distribution and planktonic and benthic food webs in these regions, possibly in ways similar to those discussed by Phelps (1994) for Corbicula fluminea (Asian Freshwater Clam) in the tidal fresh Potomac River. However, the effects of R. cuneata filtration, pseudofeces deposition, and other possible effects have not been well documented (R. Everett personal communication). In Chesapeake Bay, the large suspension-feeding biomasses of Rangia cuneata and C. fluminea have been considered as beneficial, by partially offsetting phytoplankton blooms stimulated by eutrophication and partially compensating for the loss of oyster biomass (Cerco and Noel 2010).

Regional Impacts

M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Rangia cuneata is important as a food resource for commercially important species [Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab); Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot); Micropogonias undulatus (Atlantic Croaker); Pogonias cromis (Black Drum)] and for waterfowl (Cain 1972; Ebersole and Kennedy 1994).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactHerbivory
The invasion of Rangia cuneata into oligohaline parts of the Bay has resulted in large biomasses of suspension feeding bivalves where previously they were scarce. This has probably affected phytoplankton distribution and planktonic and benthic foodwebs in these regions, possibly in ways similar to those discussed by Phelps (1994) for Corbicula fluminea (Asian Freshwater Clam) in tidal fresh regions. However, the effects of R. cuneata, such as filtration, pseudofeces deposition, and other possible effects have not been well documented (R. Everett personal communication). Cerco and Noel (2010) estimated filtering rates for bivalves (Corbicula + Rangia in the oligohaline waters of Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Rangia comprised ~40-100% of the filter-feeding biomass in the major tributaries, being most abundant in the Potomac, but outweighed by Corbicula there. In the Rappahannock and Patuxent, it was the only significant bivalve filter-feeder, in biomass terms.The two species together removed 14% to 40% of the carbon load, 11% to 23% of the nitrogen load, and 37% to 84% of the phosphorus load from the water column (Cerco and Noel 2010).
CAR-VIICape Hatteras to Mid-East FloridaEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Habitat Change - Survivorship of the native bivalves Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica was increased in the presence of R. cuneata, but empty shells had similar effects (or greater in M. arenaria) as live clams, indicating that the shells of R. cuneata were providing a physical refuge (Skilleter 1994). The seagrass Ruppia maritima (Widgeon Grass), when present, apparently removed this protective effect, perhaps by interfering with burrowing, or by attracting predators (Skilleter 1994). 
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Rangia cuneata is important as a food resource for commercially important species [Callinectes sapidus (Blue Crab); Leiostomus xanthurus (Spot); Pogonias cromis (Black Drum)] and for waterfowl (Cain 1972; Ebersole and Kennedy 1994).
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEcological ImpactHerbivory
The invasion of Rangia cuneata into oligohaline parts of the Bay has resulted in large biomasses of suspension feeding bivalves where previously they were scarce. This has probably affected phytoplankton distribution and planktonic and benthic food webs in these regions, possibly in ways similar to those discussed by Phelps (1994) for Corbicula fluminea (Asian Freshwater Clam) in tidal fresh regions. However, the effects of R. cuneata filtration, pseudofeces deposition, and other possible effects have not been well documented (R. Everett personal communication). Cerco and Noel (2010) estimated filtering rates for bivalves (Corbicula + Rangia) in the oligohaline waters of Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Rangia comprised ~40-100% of the filter-feeding biomass in the major tributaries, being most abundant in the Potomac. The two species together removed 14% to 40% of the carbon load, 11% to 23% of the nitrogen load, and 37% to 84% of the phosphorus load from the water column (Cerco and Noel 2010).
M090Delaware BayEconomic ImpactIndustry
Rangia cuneata fouled pipes of the Getty oil refinery in Delaware City, Delaware, clogging fire hoses. This was the first report of industrial fouling associated with this species (Counts 1980).
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEconomic ImpactIndustry
Rangia cuneata fouled pipes of the Getty oil refinery in Delaware City, Delaware, clogging fire hoses. This was the first report of industrial fouling associated with this species (Counts 1980).
NEA-IINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
In early 2006, a dense population of Rangia cuneata was detected in the silt of pipes for an industrial cooling system indicating its potential as a nuisance fouling species (Verween et al. 2006).
CAR-VIICape Hatteras to Mid-East FloridaEcological ImpactCompetition
Competition - Effects of R. cuneata on the native clams Mya arenaria (Softshell Clams) and Macoma balthica (Baltic Clams) are complex and subtle. Competition for food is likely; since suspension feeders can deplete plankton in the immediate vicinity. Macoma balthica, in the presence of R. cuneata, switched to deposit feeding, resulting in increased rates of partial predation (siphons nipped) (Skilleter and Peterson 1994). This results in energetic costs of regeneration and could slow growth. These effects are apparently partly offset by structural refuges provided by R. cuneata (Skilleter 1994).
S020Pamlico SoundEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Habitat Change - Survivorship of the native bivalves Mya arenaria and Macoma balthica was increased in the presence of R. cuneata, but empty shells had similar effects (or greater in M. arenaria) as live clams, indicating that the shells of R. cuneata were providing a physical refuge (Skilleter 1994). The seagrass Ruppia maritima (Widgeon Grass), when present, apparently removed this protective effect, perhaps by interfering with burrowing, or by attracting predators (Skilleter 1994).
S020Pamlico SoundEcological ImpactCompetition
Competition - Effects of R. cuneata on the native clams Mya arenaria (Softshell Clams) and Macoma balthica (Baltic Clams) are complex and subtle. Competition for food is likely; since suspension feeders can deplete plankton in the immediate vicinity. Macoma balthica, in the presence of R. cuneata switched to deposit feeding, resulting in increased rates of partial predation (siphons nipped) (Skilleter and Peterson 1994). This results in energetic costs of regeneration and could slow growth. These effects are apparently partly offset by structural refuges provided by R. cuneata (Skilleter 1994).
B-IIINoneEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Eaten by crows and gulls, often by dropping shells on hard ground (Weise et al. 2015)

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1955 Def Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1957 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1988 Def Estab
S190 Indian River 1954 Crypto Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 1971 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1963 Def Estab
NEA-II None 2005 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 1978 Def Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 0 Native Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G090 Apalachee Bay 0 Native Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 0 Native Estab
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 1945 Crypto Estab
S180 St. Johns River 1937 Crypto Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
G150 Mobile Bay 0 Native Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 1957 Def Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 0 Native Estab
S020 Pamlico Sound 1968 Def Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 1955 Def Estab
S130 Ossabaw Sound 1958 Def Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 1950 Crypto Estab
G140 Perdido Bay 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 0 Native Estab
G080 Suwannee River 0 Native Estab
S060 Winyah Bay 1978 Def Estab
S070 North/South Santee Rivers 1978 Def Estab
S090 Stono/North Edisto Rivers 0 Def Estab
S100 St. Helena Sound 1978 Def Estab
S110 Broad River 1978 Def Estab
S120 Savannah River 1978 Def Estab
B-VII None 2010 Def Estab
B-III None 2015 Def Unk
B-VIII None 2014 Def Estab
B-VI None 2016 Def Estab
CAR-II None 2018 Native Estab
B-IV None 2016 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

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