Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Mollusca
Class:   Gastropoda
Subclass:   Opisthobranchia
Order:   Nudibranchia
Family:   Polyceridae
Genus:   Polycera
Species:   hedgpethi


Potentially Misidentified Species



Bryozoans (Bugula spp.)

Trophic Status:




General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
NZ-IV None 1964 Def Estab
WA-V None 1972 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 1998 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 1973 Def Estab
NEP-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-IX None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-H None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-X None 1979 Def Estab
AUS-XII None 1998 Def Unk
AUS-V None 1993 Def Unk
NWP-3b None 2000 Def Estab
MED-II None 2003 Def Estab
NEA-V None 2002 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 2005 Def Estab
MED-VII None 0 Def Estab
WA-IV None 0 Def Estab
MED-III None 0 Def Estab
WA-I None 2009 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 0 Crypto Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Caballer, M.; Ortea, J. (2002) [First record of Polycera hedgpethi Marcus 1964 (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) for the Iberian Peninsula., Noticario de la Sociedad Espaniola de Malacologie 37: 55-56

Carlton, James T. (Ed.) (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon Fourth Edition, Completely Revised and Expanded, University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. <missing location>

Cervera, J. L.; Garcia-Gomez, J. C.; Toscano, F.; Garcia, J. F. (1988) [Polycera hedgpethi Marcus 1964 (Gastropoda: Nudibranchia), an Indo-Pacific species discovered in the Mediterranean Sea.], Iberus 8(2): 225-231

Cervera, Juan Lucas; Tamsouri, Naoufal; Moukrim, Abdellatif; Villani, Guido (2010) New records of two alien opisthobranch molluscs from the north-eastern Atlantic: Polycera hedgpethi and Godiva quadricolor, Marine Biodiversity Records 3: 1-4

Gosliner, Terence M. (1982) A new record of the nudibranch gastropod Polycera hedgpethi Marcus from the Indian Ocean coast of South Africa., Journal of Molluscan Studies 48(1): 30-35

International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CEISM) (2001) <missing title>, <missing publisher>, <missing place>. Pp. <missing location>

Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L. Rius, M. (2011b) Introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine species of South Africa, Journal of Natural History 39-40: 2463-2524

Miller, M. C. (2001) Descriptions of the dorid nudibranchs Polycera hedgpethi Marcus, 1964 and P. fujitai Baba, 1937 in New Zealand (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)., Journal of Molluscan Studies 67: 491-499

Rudman, W. B. 1997-2016 Sea Slug Forum.

Valles, Yvonne; Valles, Angel, Ortea, Jesus (2000) On the phaneroibranch dorids of Angola: A crossroads of temperate and tropical species., Zoosystema 22(1): 15-32

Wilson, Nerida (2006) New record of the nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964, in South Australia, with a discussion on its occurrence in Australia, Records of the Western Australia Museum Supplement No. 69:: 137-140

Wiltshire, K.; Rowling, K.; Deveney, M. (2010) <missing title>, South Australian Research and Development Institute, Adelaide. Pp. 1-232