Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1904
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1904
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Incisocalliope derzhavini was described from Petrov Island, Russia, in the Sea of Japan. Elsewhere in the Sea of Japan, it was collected on Ulleung Island, Korea (Kim and Kim 1991) and the west coast of Hokkaido. It has been reported from the northern Pacific coast of Japan, on Hokkaido and northern Honshu, but is not known from the southern coasts of Japan or Korea (Ishimaru 1984; Chapman 1988). On the West Coast of North America, I. derzhavini was first collected in 1904 in San Francisco Bay, California (CA) and is established from Puget Sound, WA to San Diego Bay, CA (Cohen et al. 1998; California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014). Barnard (1959) described a subspecies, I. derzhavini makiki from Hawaii, which has been considered indistinguishable from the stem species and treated as an introduction (Ishimaru 1984; Chapman 1988; Carlton and Eldredge 2009), or as a separate, native species (Bousfield and Hendryks 1995, cited by Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Incisocalliope derzhavini was collected near Oakland, California (CA), in San Francisco Bay in 1904 (Chapman 1988; USNM 235021, United States National Museum of Natural History 2007). In San Francisco Bay, it is frequently found among hydroids in fouling communities on floats and buoys in the central, South and San Pablo Bays. During dry/drought periods, it is found as far north as Collinsville in the Delta, over a salinity range of 6 to 32 PSU (Chapman 1988; Cohen and Carlton 1995). This amphipod was collected in Tomales Bay, CA in 1977 (Carlton 1979); Elkhorn Slough, CA in 1985 (Wasson et al. 2001); Coos Bay and Yaquina Bay, Oregon in 1986-1987 (Chapman 1988); Puget Sound, Washington in 1998 (Cohen et al. 1998); and Humboldt Bay, CA in 2000 (Boyd et al. 2002). The first collection in southern California may have been an amphipod identified as a new species, I. newportensis Barnard 1959, collected in Newport Bay in 1952. It was later re-identified by Barnard as Gnathopleustes pugettensis, but may have actually been I. derzhavini (Barnard and Reish 1959; Chapman 2007). Definite collections of I. derzhavini in Newport and San Diego Bays were made in 2011 (California Department of Fish and Wildlife 2014). Ballast water and hull fouling are considered the most likely vectors for the introduction of this amphipod.


Incisocalliope derzhavini is a small estuarine-marine amphipod, usually associated with intertidal and subtidal fouling invertebrates. It is a member of the family Pleustidae, which includes commensals, egg predators, and parasites of larger invertebrates. However, I. derzhavini is not known to have specialized associations. Incisocalliope derzhavini has a laterally compressed, roughly football-shaped body with a downward-curved abdomen. Coxal plates 1 to 4 are ovoid, overlapping, and increase in size posteriorly, while coxae 5-7 are smaller and vary in shape. Pereiopods 5-7 have enlarged ovoid bases, maintaining the body's outline. The dorsal pereonites are not keeled or ridged. The rostrum is of moderate length, with a blunt apex. The head is small, with a black, circular eye, surrounded by large, clear ommatidia. The head has a lateral lobe extended forward, with a blunt apex. Antenna 1 is ~60% of the body length, while Antenna 2 is about 40% of body length.

In the family Pleustidae, the portion of the left mandible called the 'lacinia mobilis' is a critical characteristic. In I. derzhavini, it has 8 denticles (Ishimaru 1984). The maxilliped has 2-3 short, stout spines on the distal medial edge of the inner plate, compared to 4-5 in Gnathopleustes pugettensis. The segments of the palp of the maxilliped are also more elongated in I. derzhavini than in G. pugettensis (Chapman 1988). Gnathopod 2 is somewhat longer than gnathopod 1, both have long dactyls, with the palms lined with spines and setae. Uropod 2 is 85% as long as Uropod 1; Uropod 3 is 60% as long. Each uropod is biramous and lined with spines. The telson is small and oval. The sexes do not show major morphological differences. Adults are 3.5 to 7.4 mm long. This sescription is based on: Ishimaru 1984, Chapman 1988, Kim and Kim 1991, and Chapman 2007.


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Gammaridea
Family:   Pleustidae
Genus:   Incisocalliope
Species:   derzhavini


Incisocalliope derzhavini (Bousfield and Hendryks, 1995)
Neopleustes derzhavini (Gurjanova, 1938)
Parapleustes derzhavini (Ishimaru, 1984)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Gnathopleustes pugettensis
Gnathopleustes pugettensis (Dana 1853) Northeast Pacific native

Incisocalliope aestuarius
Northwest Atlantic native, introduced to the Netherlands (Faasse and Van Moorsel 2004)

Incisocalliope makiki
It was described as a subspecies of I. derzhavini, but considered indinstinguishable by Ishimaru (1984) and Carlton and Eldredge (2009), who treated it as introduced to the Hawaiian islands. However, other sources (Bousfield and Hendryks 1995, cited by Carlton and Eldredge 2009; Integrated Taxonomic Information System 2015) consider I. makiki to be a full species, native to Hawaii.

Incisocalliope newportensis
Described from Newport Bay, doubtfully distinct from I. derzhavini.



Incisocalliope derzhavini has seperate sexes. Its young are brooded and development is direct (Bousfield 1973). One female contained 6 eggs (Kim and Kim 1991).

Based on its native range, from southern Pacific Russia, to South Korea and Japan, I. derzhavini tolerates a wide range of temperatures. In West Coast waters, I. derzhavini has been collected at salinities from 5.6-32 PSU (Chapman 1988). In Japan and Korea, this amphipod was collected from rocks and seaweeds, including Sargassum, Laminaria, and Leathesia spp. (Ishimaru 1984). In West Coast waters, I. derzhavini is closely associated with hydroids or bryozoans, often on artificial structures (Chapman 1988). It often occurs on marinas and docks, floats, and buoys (Chapman 1988), and was found in hull fouling on a retired ship in Suisun Bay (Llanso et al. 2011). Chapman (1988) suggests that I. derzhavini 's mouthparts are better suited for ectoparasitism than grazing.

Trophic Status:




General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Salinity (‰)5.6Field data, San Francisco Bay (Chapman 1988)
Maximum Salinity (‰)32Field data, San Francisco Bay (Chapman 1988)
Minimum Length (mm)3.5Adult female, Japan (Ishimaru 1984)
Maximum Length (mm)7.4Adult female, Japan (Ishimaru 1984)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneMesohaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

No impacts have been reported for Incisocalliope derzhavini on the West Coast.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1904 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1985 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1904 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 1977 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 2000 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1986 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1986 Def Estab
P210 Yaquina Bay 1987 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1998 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 1938 Native Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1998 Def Estab
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1904 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1967 Crypto Estab
P040 Newport Bay 2011 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 2011 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 0 Def Estab
NWP-4b None 0 Native Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2015 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
768139 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-06 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9736 -122.4802


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