Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1977
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1977
General Invasion History:
Laticorophium baconi is native to the Northeast Pacific, where it ranges from the Bering Sea to the Galapagos Islands and northern Peru, from polar to tropical environments, and open coasts to estuaries (Shoemaker 1934b; Shoemaker 1949; Bousfield and Hoover 1997). It has been introduced to Hawaii (Barnard 1970; Carlton and Eldredge 2009); Hong Kong (Hirayama 1990); Australia; New Zealand (Ahyong and Wilkens 2011); Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009), and the Gulf and Southern Atlantic coasts of North America from Mexico to South Carolina (LeCroy 2004; Winfield et al. 2015).
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the East Coast:
The earliest record of L. baconi in the Northwest Atlantic is from the Laguna Madre, Texas (McKinney, 1977, cited by LeCroy 2004). It was abundant in seagrass beds in the Indian River Lagoon in 1982 (Virnstein and Howard 1987). In Tampa and Boca Ciega Bays, it was collected in surveys in 1993-2002 at 18-33 PSU (Grabe 2006). Its northernmost records are from Murrells Inlet and Charleston, South Carolina (Foster et al. 2004; Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center, unpublished record, cited by LeCroy 2004). Laticorophium baconi is known from the southwestern tip of Florida, between Cape Sable and Cape Romano (LeCroy 2004), the Panhandle at Turkey Point (in 1982, Gotelli et al. 1987), St. Josephs Bay (in 2006, Huang et al. 2008), and St. Andrews Bay (in 1998-2002, Foster et al. 2004). In Mississippi it is known from Horn Island (LeCroy 2004). The southernmost record in the Gulf of Mexico is from Puerto Progreso, Yucatan, Mexico (in 2012, Winfield et al. 2015). Since this amphipod has not been reported from low salinities, ballast water may be the likeliest vector for transport through the Panama Canal. This amphipod is small (2-4 mm) in length and easily overlooked. Live specimens of L. baconi were found in ship fouling in Halifax harbor, Nova Scotia (in 2007-2009, Sylvester et al. 2011).
Invasion History in Hawaii:
Laticorophium baconi was first collected in 1967 in Kaneohe Bay (Barnard 1970) and 1978 in Pearl Harbor, Oahu (Coles et al. 1999b). It was also found in Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon, Ala Wai Harbor, and Kewalo Basin (Coles et al. 199b) on Oahu Island, and at Allen, on Kauai (Coles 2004). This amphipod was transported to Hawaii in ballast water or vessel hull fouling (Carlton and Eldredge 2009).
Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:
Laticorophium baconi was collected in 1985 in Hong Kong and is established there (Hirayama 1990; Lowry 2000). In 1990 it was found at Bass Point, New South Wales, Australia (Lowry and Stoddart 1997; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2006, it was collected from the hull of a boat at the northern tip of the North Island of New Zealand, but is not considered established there (McFadden et al. 2007; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2001, L. baconi was found in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009). Laticorophium baconi seems to be a good colonizer because of its wide temperature tolerance and range of habitats (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004).
Laticorophium baconi has a slender, depressed body, with small, separated coxal plates. Its urosome segments are fusednd are marked by a notch in the edge of the midpoint of the lateral ridge of the urosome. Another distinctive feature is a single tooth on the posterior edge of the dactyl of Gnathopod 2. Antenna 2 is strongly sexually dimorphic in this species, but the rostrum and Antenna 1 are somewhat similar. In both sexes, the rostrum is very blunt and triangular and ends about level with the eyes. Antenna 1 is slender. Peduncle segment 1 has 2 proximo-medial spines and 3-4 postero-medial spines. Segment 4 of Antenna 2 of the male is large and inflated, with 1 short and 2 large lower teeth in the ventro-distal corner. Peduncular segment 5 is shorter than segment 4, with a distinct distal median tooth and a strong curved distal process. The flagellum is short, with 3 segments. In females, peduncular segments 3 and 4 have short posterior marginal spines. Segment 4 is much less inflated and shorter than in the male.
The gnathopods are not especially prominent in the Corophiidae. In L. baconi, segment 5 of Gnathopod 1 is longer than segment 6, and the dactyl (segment 7) is longer than the palm of segment 6. On Gnathopod 2, segment 5 is longer than segment 2, and the dactyl bears 1 prominent tooth. As noted above, the urosome segments are fused, without lateral ridges, and a median notch. The uropods are inserted ventrally below the lateral ridges. Uropod 1 is biramous, and the peaduncle has 2-4 robust setae on the medial margin. Uropod 2 is very short, and biramous. Uropod 3 is uniramous and equal to Uropod 2, with the distal segment nearly circular. Adults range from 2-4 mm in length. Photographs show color patterns similar to those of other corophiids, with dark brown mottling in the center of larger body and appendage segments, and cream to tan background color (San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance 2011). This description is based on: Shoemaker 1934b; Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004; Chapman 2007; and Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009.
Laticorophium baconi (Bousfileld and Hoover, 1997)
Potentially Misidentified Species
Monocorophium acherusicum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).
Monocorophium insidiosum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).
Laticorophium baconi has separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). We have no specific information on the life history of L. baconi.
Given its wide native and introduced ranges, including Alaska, Peru, South Carolina and Brazil, L. baconi appears to tolerate a wide range of temperatures (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004). It is known from open coastal waters down to 55 m depth (Chapman 2007), but also occurs in estuaries, although it does not penetrate too far into low salinity waters. It has been reported over a range of 18 to 33 PSU (Grabe et al. 2006). Laticorophium baconi builds U-shaped tubes in shallow subtidal muddy substrates, and on hard substrates, including rock jetties, buoys, and oil platforms (LeCroy 2004). It occurs in and on seagrasses, including Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in San Quintin Bay, Baja California (Quiroz-Vázquez et al. 2005) and Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (Virstein et al. 1987). Barnard (1970) suggested that L. baconi was less abundant in harbors than other corophiids, because of a low tolerance to pollution, but Grabe et al. (2006) found it on moderately contaminated sediment in Tampa Bay.
Fishes, shrimps, crabs
Deposit Suspension FeederDepSusFed
|General Habitat||Salt-brackish marsh||None|
|General Habitat||Unstructured Bottom||None|
|General Habitat||Oyster Reef||None|
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks||None|
|General Habitat||Vessel Hull||None|
|General Habitat||Grass Bed||None|
|General Habitat||Coarse Woody Debris||None|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Euhaline||30-40 PSU|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Minimum Temperature (ºC)||0||Based on range, north to Bering Sea (Bousfield and Hoover 1997)|
|Minimum Salinity (‰)||18||Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay|
|Maximum Salinity (‰)||33||Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay|
|Minimum Length (mm)||2||LeCroy 2004|
|Maximum Length (mm)||4||LeCroy 2004|
|Broad Temperature Range||None||Cold temperate-Tropical|
|Broad Salinity Range||None||Polyhaline-Euhaline|
General ImpactsNo impacts have been reported for introduced populations of Laticorophium baconi.
Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NEP-II||Alaska south of Aluetians to the Alaskan panhandle||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-III||Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-IV||Puget Sound to Northern California||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||0||Native||Estab|
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||1977||Def||Estab|
|G108||_CDA_G108 (St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays)||2006||Def||Estab|
|CAR-VII||Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida||2002||Def||Estab|
|G110||St. Andrew Bay||1998||Def||Estab|
|G020||South Ten Thousand Islands||2004||Def||Estab|
|G030||North Ten Thousand Islands||2004||Def||Estab|
|G160||East Mississippi Sound||2004||Def||Estab|
|G330||Lower Laguna Madre||1977||Def||Estab|
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