Regional Distribution Map
|Bioregion||Region Name||Year||Invasion Status||Population Status|
|NEP-II||Alaska south of Aluetians to the Alaskan panhandle||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-III||Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-IV||Puget Sound to Northern California||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-V||Northern California to Mid Channel Islands||0||Native||Estab|
|NEP-VI||Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California||0||Native||Estab|
|CAR-I||Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida||1977||Def||Estab|
|G108||_CDA_G108 (St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays)||2006||Def||Estab|
|CAR-VII||Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida||2002||Def||Estab|
|G110||St. Andrew Bay||1998||Def||Estab|
|G020||South Ten Thousand Islands||2004||Def||Estab|
|G030||North Ten Thousand Islands||2004||Def||Estab|
|G160||East Mississippi Sound||2004||Def||Estab|
|G330||Lower Laguna Madre||1977||Def||Estab|
Laticorophium baconi has a slender, depressed body, with small, separated coxal plates. Its urosome segments are fusednd are marked by a notch in the edge of the midpoint of the lateral ridge of the urosome. Another distinctive feature is a single tooth on the posterior edge of the dactyl of Gnathopod 2. Antenna 2 is strongly sexually dimorphic in this species, but the rostrum and Antenna 1 are somewhat similar. In both sexes, the rostrum is very blunt and triangular and ends about level with the eyes. Antenna 1 is slender. Peduncle segment 1 has 2 proximo-medial spines and 3-4 postero-medial spines. Segment 4 of Antenna 2 of the male is large and inflated, with 1 short and 2 large lower teeth in the ventro-distal corner. Peduncular segment 5 is shorter than segment 4, with a distinct distal median tooth and a strong curved distal process. The flagellum is short, with 3 segments. In females, peduncular segments 3 and 4 have short posterior marginal spines. Segment 4 is much less inflated and shorter than in the male.
The gnathopods are not especially prominent in the Corophiidae. In L. baconi, segment 5 of Gnathopod 1 is longer than segment 6, and the dactyl (segment 7) is longer than the palm of segment 6. On Gnathopod 2, segment 5 is longer than segment 2, and the dactyl bears 1 prominent tooth. As noted above, the urosome segments are fused, without lateral ridges, and a median notch. The uropods are inserted ventrally below the lateral ridges. Uropod 1 is biramous, and the peaduncle has 2-4 robust setae on the medial margin. Uropod 2 is very short, and biramous. Uropod 3 is uniramous and equal to Uropod 2, with the distal segment nearly circular. Adults range from 2-4 mm in length. Photographs show color patterns similar to those of other corophiids, with dark brown mottling in the center of larger body and appendage segments, and cream to tan background color (San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance 2011). This description is based on: Shoemaker 1934b; Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004; Chapman 2007; and Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009.
Laticorophium baconi (Bousfileld and Hoover, 1997)
Potentially Misidentified Species
Monocorophium acherusicum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).
Monocorophium insidiosum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).
Invasion HistoryFirst Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1977
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1977
General Invasion History:
Laticorophium baconi is native to the Northeast Pacific, where it ranges from the Bering Sea to the Galapagos Islands and northern Peru, from polar to tropical environments, and open coasts to estuaries (Shoemaker 1934b; Shoemaker 1949; Bousfield and Hoover 1997). It has been introduced to Hawaii (Barnard 1970; Carlton and Eldredge 2009); Hong Kong (Hirayama 1990); Australia; New Zealand (Ahyong and Wilkens 2011); Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009), and the Gulf and Southern Atlantic coasts of North America from Mexico to South Carolina (LeCroy 2004; Winfield et al. 2015).
North American Invasion History:
Invasion History on the East Coast:
The earliest record of L. baconi in the Northwest Atlantic is from the Laguna Madre, Texas (McKinney, 1977, cited by LeCroy 2004). It was abundant in seagrass beds in the Indian River Lagoon in 1982 (Virnstein and Howard 1987). In Tampa and Boca Ciega Bays, it was collected in surveys in 1993-2002 at 18-33 PSU (Grabe 2006). Its northernmost records are from Murrells Inlet and Charleston, South Carolina (Foster et al. 2004; Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center, unpublished record, cited by LeCroy 2004). Laticorophium baconi is known from the southwestern tip of Florida, between Cape Sable and Cape Romano (LeCroy 2004), the Panhandle at Turkey Point (in 1982, Gotelli et al. 1987), St. Josephs Bay (in 2006, Huang et al. 2008), and St. Andrews Bay (in 1998-2002, Foster et al. 2004). In Mississippi it is known from Horn Island (LeCroy 2004). The southernmost record in the Gulf of Mexico is from Puerto Progreso, Yucatan, Mexico (in 2012, Winfield et al. 2015). Since this amphipod has not been reported from low salinities, ballast water may be the likeliest vector for transport through the Panama Canal. This amphipod is small (2-4 mm) in length and easily overlooked. Live specimens of L. baconi were found in ship fouling in Halifax harbor, Nova Scotia (in 2007-2009, Sylvester et al. 2011).
Invasion History on the Hawaii:
Laticorophium baconi was first collected in 1967 in Kaneohe Bay (Barnard 1970) and 1978 in Pearl Harbor, Oahu (Coles et al. 1999b). It was also found in Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon, Ala Wai Harbor, and Kewalo Basin (Coles et al. 199b) on Oahu Island, and at Allen, on Kauai (Coles 2004). This amphipod was transported to Hawaii in ballast water or vessel hull fouling (Carlton and Eldredge 2009).
Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:
Laticorophium baconi was collected in 1985 in Hong Kong and is established there (Hirayama 1990; Lowry 2000). In 1990 it was found at Bass Point, New South Wales, Australia (Lowry and Stoddart 1997; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2006, it was collected from the hull of a boat at the northern tip of the North Island of New Zealand, but is not considered established there (McFadden et al. 2007; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2001, L. baconi was found in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009). Laticorophium baconi seems to be a good colonizer because of its wide temperature tolerance and range of habitats (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004).
Laticorophium baconi has separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). We have no specific information on the life history of L. baconi.
Given its wide native and introduced ranges, including Alaska, Peru, South Carolina and Brazil, L. baconi appears to tolerate a wide range of temperatures (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004). It is known from open coastal waters down to 55 m depth (Chapman 2007), but also occurs in estuaries, although it does not penetrate too far into low salinity waters. It has been reported over a range of 18 to 33 PSU (Grabe et al. 2006). Laticorophium baconi builds U-shaped tubes in shallow subtidal muddy substrates, and on hard substrates, including rock jetties, buoys, and oil platforms (LeCroy 2004). It occurs in and on seagrasses, including Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in San Quintin Bay, Baja California (Quiroz-Vázquez et al. 2005) and Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (Virstein et al. 1987). Barnard (1970) suggested that L. baconi was less abundant in harbors than other corophiids, because of a low tolerance to pollution, but Grabe et al. (2006) found it on moderately contaminated sediment in Tampa Bay.
Fishes, shrimps, crabs
Deposit Suspension Feeder
|General Habitat||Vessel Hull|
|General Habitat||Grass Bed|
|General Habitat||Coarse Woody Debris|
|General Habitat||Salt-brackish marsh|
|General Habitat||Unstructured Bottom|
|General Habitat||Oyster Reef|
|General Habitat||Marinas & Docks|
|Salinity Range||Polyhaline||18-30 PSU|
|Salinity Range||Euhaline||30-40 PSU|
Tolerances and Life History Parameters
|Minimum Temperature (ºC)||0||Based on range, north to Bering Sea (Bousfield and Hoover 1997)|
|Minimum Salinity (‰)||18||Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay|
|Maximum Salinity (‰)||33||Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay|
|Minimum Length (mm)||2||LeCroy 2004|
|Maximum Length (mm)||4||LeCroy 2004|
|Broad Temperature Range||Cold temperate-Tropical|
|Broad Salinity Range||Polyhaline-Euhaline|
General ImpactsNo impacts have been reported for introduced populations of Laticorophium baconi.
ReferencesAhyong, Shane T.; Wilkens, Serena L. (2011) Aliens in the Antipodes: Nonindigenous marine crustaceans of New Zealand and Australia, None , Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pp. 451-485
2013-2016 Atlas of Living Australia. http://www.ala.org.au/
Barnard, J. Laurens (1958) Amphipod crustaceans as fouling organisms in Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, with reference to the influence of seawater turbidity, California Fish and Game 44: 161-170
Barnard, J. Laurens (1970) Sublittoral gammaridean Amphipoda of the Hawaiian Islands, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 34: 1-283
Barnard, J. Laurens (1979) Littoral gammaridean Amphipoda from the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 271: 1-149
Bousfield, E. L.; Hoover, P. M. (1997) The amphipod superfamily Corophioidea on the Pacific coast of North America. Part V. Family Corophiidae: Corophiinae, new subfamily. Systematics and distributional ecology., Amphipacifica 2: 67-139
Carlton, James T. (Ed.) (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th edition), None , Berkeley. Pp. None
Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202
Coles S. L., DeFelice R. C., Eldredge, L. G. (1999a) Nonindigenous marine species introductions in the harbors of the south and west shores of Oahu, Hawaii., Bishop Museum Technical Report 15: 1-212
Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Eldredge, L. G.; Carlton, J. T. (1999b) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands., Marine Biology 135: 147-158
Coles, S. L.; Reath, P. R.; Longenecker, K.; Bolick, Holly; Eldredge, L. G. (2004) Assessment of nonindigenous marine species in harbors and on nearby coral reefs on Kau‘i, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii., None , Honolulu. Pp. 1-187
Foster, John M.; Heard, Richard W.; Knott, David M. (2004) Northern range extensions for Caprella scaura (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) on the Florida Gulf Coast and in South Carolina., Gulf Research Reports 16: 65-69
Gotelli, N.J.; Lewis, F.G. III; Young, C.M. (1987) Body-size differences in a colonizing amphipod-mollusc assemblage, Oecologia 72: 104-108
Grabe, Stephen A.; Karlen, David J.; Holden, Christina M.; Goetting, Barbara K.; Markham, Sara E; Dix, Thomas L. (2006) Gammaridean Amphipoda of Tampa Bay, Florida (Gulf of Mexico): Taxonomic composition, distribution, and association with abiotic variables, None , St. Petersbrug FL. Pp. 1-88
Hines, Anson H.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Chapman, John; Hansen, Gayl; Carlton, James T.; Foster, Nora; Feder, Howard M. (1998) Biological invasions of cold-water ecosystems: ballast-mediated introductions in Port Valdez / Prince William Sound, Alaska., , Valdez, Alaska.. Pp.
Hines, Anson H.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Godwin, L. Scott (2000) Assessing the risk of nonindigenous species invasion in a high-latitude ecosystem: ballast water treatment facility in Port Valdez, Alaska., In: Pederson, Judith(Eds.) Marine Bioinvasions. , Cambridge. Pp. 81-88
Hirayama, Akira (1986) Marine gammaridean amphipoda (Crustacea from Hong Kong: the family Corophiidae, genus Corophium., In: Morton, B.(Eds.) Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biological Workshop: The marine fauna and flora of Hong Kong and southern China.. , Hong Kong. Pp. 449-484
Huang, J. P.; McClintock, J. B.; Amsler, C. D.; Huang, Y. M. (2008) Mesofauna associated with the marine sponge Amphimedon viridis. Do its physical or chemical attributes provide a prospective refuge from fish predation?, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 362: 95-100
LeCroy, Sara E. (2004) An illustrated identification guide to the nearshore marine and estuarine gammaridean Amphipoda of Florida Vol. 3: Families Bateidae, Biancolinidae, Cheluridae, Colomastigidae, Corophiidae, Cyproideidae and Dexaminidae, 3 , . Pp. 411-500
Lowry, J. K.; Stoddart, H. E. (2003) Zoological Catalogue of Australia: Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida: Amphipoda, Cumacea, Msidacea, 19.2B , Canberra, Australia. Pp. None
McFadden, Andrew; Rawdon, Tom; Gould, Brendan (2007) Response to a marine incursion of Styela clava, Surveillance 34: 1-8
Quiroz-Vázquez, Patricia; Ibarra-Obando, Silvia E. ; Meling-López, Alf E. (2005) Composition of the epifaunal community associated with the seagrass Zostera marina in San Quintin Bay, Baja California, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 104: 102-112
2011 Bay invasive species of concern: <em>Laticorophium baconi</em>.
Shoemaker, C. R. (1934b) Two species of Corophium form the west ocast of America, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24: 356-360
Shoemaker, Clarence R. (1949) The amphipod genus Corophium on the west coast of America, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 39: 66-82
Sylvester, Francisco and 8 authors (2011) Hull fouling as an invasion vector: can simple models explain a complex problem?, Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 415-423
Valério-Berardo, Maria Teresa; de Souza, Ana Maria Thiago (2009) Description of two new species of the Corophiidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) and register of Laticorophium baconi (Shoemaker, 1934) from Brazilian waters, Zootaxa 2215: 55-68
Virnstein, Robert W.; Howard, Robert K. (1987) Motile epifauna of marine macrophytes in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. I. Comparisons among three species of seagrasses from adjacent beds, Bulletin of Marine Science 41: 1-12
Winfield, Ignacio; Mucino-Reyes, María del Refugio; Ortiza, Manuel; Cházaro-Olveraay, Sergio; Lozano-Aburto, Miguel Ángel (2015) [Biodiversity of benthic amphipods (Peracarida: Amphipoda) associated with algal beds from Puerto Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico], Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 86: 613-619