Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1977
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1977

General Invasion History:

Laticorophium baconi is native to the Northeast Pacific, where it ranges from the Bering Sea to the Galapagos Islands and northern Peru, from polar to tropical environments, and open coasts to estuaries (Shoemaker 1934b; Shoemaker 1949; Bousfield and Hoover 1997). It has been introduced to Hawaii (Barnard 1970; Carlton and Eldredge 2009); Hong Kong (Hirayama 1990); Australia; New Zealand (Ahyong and Wilkens 2011); Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009), and the Gulf and Southern Atlantic coasts of North America from Mexico to South Carolina (LeCroy 2004; Winfield et al. 2015).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The earliest record of L. baconi in the Northwest Atlantic is from the Laguna Madre, Texas (McKinney, 1977, cited by LeCroy 2004). It was abundant in seagrass beds in the Indian River Lagoon in 1982 (Virnstein and Howard 1987). In Tampa and Boca Ciega Bays, it was collected in surveys in 1993-2002 at 18-33 PSU (Grabe 2006). Its northernmost records are from Murrells Inlet and Charleston, South Carolina (Foster et al. 2004; Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center, unpublished record, cited by LeCroy 2004). Laticorophium baconi is known from the southwestern tip of Florida, between Cape Sable and Cape Romano (LeCroy 2004), the Panhandle at Turkey Point (in 1982, Gotelli et al. 1987), St. Josephs Bay (in 2006, Huang et al. 2008), and St. Andrews Bay (in 1998-2002, Foster et al. 2004). In Mississippi it is known from Horn Island (LeCroy 2004). The southernmost record in the Gulf of Mexico is from Puerto Progreso, Yucatan, Mexico (in 2012, Winfield et al. 2015). Since this amphipod has not been reported from low salinities, ballast water may be the likeliest vector for transport through the Panama Canal. This amphipod is small (2-4 mm) in length and easily overlooked. Live specimens of L. baconi were found in ship fouling in Halifax harbor, Nova Scotia (in 2007-2009, Sylvester et al. 2011).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Laticorophium baconi was first collected in 1967 in Kaneohe Bay (Barnard 1970) and 1978 in Pearl Harbor, Oahu (Coles et al. 1999b). It was also found in Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon, Ala Wai Harbor, and Kewalo Basin (Coles et al. 199b) on Oahu Island, and at Allen, on Kauai (Coles 2004). This amphipod was transported to Hawaii in ballast water or vessel hull fouling (Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Laticorophium baconi was collected in 1985 in Hong Kong and is established there (Hirayama 1990; Lowry 2000). In 1990 it was found at Bass Point, New South Wales, Australia (Lowry and Stoddart 1997; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2006, it was collected from the hull of a boat at the northern tip of the North Island of New Zealand, but is not considered established there (McFadden et al. 2007; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2001, L. baconi was found in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009). Laticorophium baconi seems to be a good colonizer because of its wide temperature tolerance and range of habitats (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004).


Description

Laticorophium baconi has a slender, depressed body, with small, separated coxal plates. Its urosome segments are fusednd are marked by a notch in the edge of the midpoint of the lateral ridge of the urosome. Another distinctive feature is a single tooth on the posterior edge of the dactyl of Gnathopod 2. Antenna 2 is strongly sexually dimorphic in this species, but the rostrum and Antenna 1 are somewhat similar. In both sexes, the rostrum is very blunt and triangular and ends about level with the eyes. Antenna 1 is slender. Peduncle segment 1 has 2 proximo-medial spines and 3-4 postero-medial spines. Segment 4 of Antenna 2 of the male is large and inflated, with 1 short and 2 large lower teeth in the ventro-distal corner. Peduncular segment 5 is shorter than segment 4, with a distinct distal median tooth and a strong curved distal process. The flagellum is short, with 3 segments. In females, peduncular segments 3 and 4 have short posterior marginal spines. Segment 4 is much less inflated and shorter than in the male.

The gnathopods are not especially prominent in the Corophiidae. In L. baconi, segment 5 of Gnathopod 1 is longer than segment 6, and the dactyl (segment 7) is longer than the palm of segment 6. On Gnathopod 2, segment 5 is longer than segment 2, and the dactyl bears 1 prominent tooth. As noted above, the urosome segments are fused, without lateral ridges, and a median notch. The uropods are inserted ventrally below the lateral ridges. Uropod 1 is biramous, and the peaduncle has 2-4 robust setae on the medial margin. Uropod 2 is very short, and biramous. Uropod 3 is uniramous and equal to Uropod 2, with the distal segment nearly circular. Adults range from 2-4 mm in length. Photographs show color patterns similar to those of other corophiids, with dark brown mottling in the center of larger body and appendage segments, and cream to tan background color (San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance 2011). This description is based on: Shoemaker 1934b; Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004; Chapman 2007; and Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009.


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Gammaridea
Family:   Corophiidae
Genus:   Laticorophium
Species:   baconi

Synonyms

Corophium baconi (Shoemaker, 1934)
Laticorophium baconi (Bousfileld and Hoover, 1997)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Monocorophium acherusicum
Monocorophium acherusicum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).

Monocorophium insidiosum
Monocorophium insidiosum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worlwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).

Ecology

General:

Laticorophium baconi has separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). We have no specific information on the life history of L. baconi.

Given its wide native and introduced ranges, including Alaska, Peru, South Carolina and Brazil, L. baconi appears to tolerate a wide range of temperatures (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004). It is known from open coastal waters down to 55 m depth (Chapman 2007), but also occurs in estuaries, although it does not penetrate too far into low salinity waters. It has been reported over a range of 18 to 33 PSU (Grabe et al. 2006). Laticorophium baconi builds U-shaped tubes in shallow subtidal muddy substrates, and on hard substrates, including rock jetties, buoys, and oil platforms (LeCroy 2004). It occurs in and on seagrasses, including Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in San Quintin Bay, Baja California (Quiroz-Vázquez et al. 2005) and Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (Virstein et al. 1987). Barnard (1970) suggested that L. baconi was less abundant in harbors than other corophiids, because of a low tolerance to pollution, but Grabe et al. (2006) found it on moderately contaminated sediment in Tampa Bay.

Food:

Phytoplankton, detritus

Consumers:

Fishes, shrimps, crabs

Trophic Status:

Deposit Suspension Feeder

DepSusFed

Habitats

General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Based on range, north to Bering Sea (Bousfield and Hoover 1997)
Minimum Salinity (‰)18Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay
Maximum Salinity (‰)33Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay
Minimum Length (mm)2LeCroy 2004
Maximum Length (mm)4LeCroy 2004
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

No impacts have been reported for introduced populations of Laticorophium baconi.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEP-II Alaska south of Aluetians to the Alaskan panhandle 0 Native Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 0 Native Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 0 Native Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 0 Native Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 0 Native Estab
NEP-VII None 0 Native Estab
SEP-Z None 0 Native Estab
SEP-I None 0 Native Estab
SP-XXI None 1967 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 1985 Def Estab
AUS-X None 1996 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1977 Def Estab
G095 _CDA_G095 (New) 1982 Def Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 1993 Def Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 1992 Def Estab
G108 _CDA_G108 (St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays) 2006 Def Estab
SA-II None 2001 Def Estab
S190 Indian River 1982 Def Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 2002 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 2002 Def Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 1998 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 2006 Def Unk
S060 Winyah Bay 2005 Def Estab
G010 Florida Bay 2004 Def Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 2004 Def Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 2004 Def Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 2004 Def Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 1977 Def Estab
SEP-H None 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 2018 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

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