Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1977
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1977

General Invasion History:

Laticorophium baconi is native to the Northeast Pacific, where it ranges from the Bering Sea to the Galapagos Islands and northern Peru, from polar to tropical environments, and open coasts to estuaries (Shoemaker 1934b; Shoemaker 1949; Bousfield and Hoover 1997). It has been introduced to Hawaii (Barnard 1970; Carlton and Eldredge 2009); Hong Kong (Hirayama 1990); Portugal and Atlantic Spain; the Mediterranean Sea from Spain to Egypt (Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023);  Australia; New Caledonia and New Zealand (Ahyong and Wilkens 2011; Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023); Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009); and the Gulf and Southern Atlantic coasts of North America from Mexico to South Carolina (LeCroy 2004; Winfield et al. 2015).  This amphipod is known from a wide range of temperatures, salinities, and artificial and natural habitats.  It has been found in ship fouling and ballast water (Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The earliest record of L. baconi in the Northwest Atlantic is from the Laguna Madre, Texas (McKinney, 1977, cited by LeCroy 2004). It was abundant in seagrass beds in the Indian River Lagoon in 1982 (Virnstein and Howard 1987). Its northernmost records are from Murrells Inlet and Charleston, South Carolina (Foster et al. 2004; Southeastern Regional Taxonomic Center, unpublished record, cited by LeCroy 2004).  Since this amphipod has not been reported from low salinities, ballast water may be the likeliest vector for transport through the Panama Canal. This amphipod is small (2–4 mm) in length and easily overlooked. Live specimens of L. baconi were found in ship fouling in Halifax harbor, Nova Scotia (in 2007–2009, Sylvester et al. 2011).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

The earliest record of L. baconi in the Northwest Atlantic is from the Laguna Madre, Texas (McKinney, 1977, cited by LeCroy 2004).  Laticorophium baconi is known from the southwestern tip of Florida, between Cape Sable and Cape Romano (LeCroy 2004), the Panhandle at Turkey Point (in 1982, Gotelli et al. 1987), St. Josephs Bay (in 2006, Huang et al. 2008), and St. Andrews Bay (in 1998–2002, Foster et al. 2004). In Mississippi it is known from Horn Island (LeCroy 2004). In Tampa and Boca Ciega Bays, it was collected in surveys in 1993–2002 at 18-33 PSU (Grabe 2006). The southernmost record in the Gulf of Mexico is from Puerto Progreso, Yucatan, Mexico (in 2012, Winfield et al. 2015).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Laticorophium baconi was first collected in 1967 in Kaneohe Bay (Barnard 1970) and 1978 in Pearl Harbor, Oahu (Coles et al. 1999b). It was also found in Honolulu Harbor, Keehi Lagoon, Ala Wai Harbor, and Kewalo Basin (Coles et al. 199b) on Oahu Island, and at Allen, on Kauai (Coles 2004). This amphipod was transported to Hawaii in ballast water or vessel hull fouling (Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Laticorophium baconi was collected in 1985 in Hong Kong and is established there (Hirayama 1990; Lowry 2000). In 1990 it was found at Bass Point, New South Wales, Australia, and later in other locations on the east, west, and north coasts of the continent (Lowry and Stoddart 1997; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011; Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023). In 2006, it was collected from the hull of a boat at the northern tip of the North Island of New Zealand, but is not considered established there (McFadden et al. 2007; Ahyong and Wilkens 2011). In 2001, L. baconi was found in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009). Laticorophium baconi seems to be a good colonizer because of its wide temperature tolerance and range of habitats (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004).  In a series of standardized surveys, from 2010 to 2023,  it has been found in many marinas and ports in the Atlantic coast of Spain, Portugal, Madeira, and Morocco, and in the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt, in Saudi Arabia, and in New Caledonia (Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023).  



Laticorophium baconi has a slender, depressed body, with small, separated coxal plates. Its urosome segments are fused, and are marked by a notch in the edge of the midpoint of the lateral ridge of the urosome. Another distinctive feature is a single tooth on the posterior edge of the dactyl of Gnathopod 2. Antenna 2 is strongly sexually dimorphic in this species, but the rostrum and Antenna 1 are somewhat similar. In both sexes, the rostrum is very blunt and triangular and ends about level with the eyes. Antenna 1 is slender. Peduncle segment 1 has 2 proximo-medial spines and 3-4 postero-medial spines. Segment 4 of Antenna 2 of the male is large and inflated, with 1 short and 2 large lower teeth in the ventro-distal corner. Peduncular segment 5 is shorter than segment 4, with a distinct distal median tooth and a strong curved distal process. The flagellum is short, with 3 segments. In females, peduncular segments 3 and 4 have short posterior marginal spines. Segment 4 is much less inflated and shorter than in the male.

The gnathopods are not especially prominent in the Corophiidae. In L. baconi, segment 5 of Gnathopod 1 is longer than segment 6, and the dactyl (segment 7) is longer than the palm of segment 6. On Gnathopod 2, segment 5 is longer than segment 2, and the dactyl bears 1 prominent tooth. As noted above, the urosome segments are fused, without lateral ridges, and a median notch. The uropods are inserted ventrally below the lateral ridges. Uropod 1 is biramous, and the peduncle has 2–4 robust setae on the medial margin. Uropod 2 is very short, and biramous. Uropod 3 is uniramous and equal to Uropod 2, with the distal segment nearly circular. Adults range from 2–4 mm in length. Photographs show color patterns similar to those of other corophiids, with dark brown mottling in the center of larger body and appendage segments, and cream to tan background color (San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance 2011). This description is based on: Shoemaker 1934b; Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004; Chapman 2007; and Valerio-Berardo and de Souza 2009.


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Gammaridea
Family:   Corophiidae
Genus:   Laticorophium
Species:   baconi


Corophium baconi (Shoemaker, 1934)
Laticorophium baconi (Bousfileld and Hoover, 1997)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Monocorophium acherusicum

Monocorophium acherusicum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worldwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).

Monocorophium insidiosum

Monocorophium insidiosum is probably of Atlantic origin, and is widely distributed in West Coast estuaries, and in temperate and subtropical water worldwide (Bousfield and Hoover 1997).



Given its wide native and introduced ranges, including Alaska, Peru, South Carolina and Brazil, L. baconi appears to tolerate a wide range of temperatures (Bousfield and Hoover 1997; LeCroy 2004). It is known from open coastal waters down to 55 m depth (Chapman 2007), but also occurs in estuaries, although it does not penetrate too far into low salinity waters. It has been reported over a range of 18 to 42 PSU (Grabe et al. 2006; Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023). Laticorophium baconi builds U-shaped tubes in shallow, subtidal muddy substrates, and on hard substrates, including rock jetties, buoys, and oil platforms (LeCroy 2004). It occurs on seagrasses, including Eelgrass (Zostera marina) in San Quintin Bay, Baja California (Quiroz-Vázquez et al. 2005) and Manatee Grass (Syringodium filiforme) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (Virstein et al. 1987). In Puerto América marina, Cadiz, Spain, L. baconi  was found in association with the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum and the bryozoan Amathia verticillata (Guerra-Garcia et al. 2023). Barnard (1970) suggested that L. baconi was less abundant in harbors than other corophiids, because of a low tolerance to pollution, but Grabe et al. (2006) found it on moderately contaminated sediment in Tampa Bay, and Guerra-Garcia et al. (2023) found it in very wide range of harbors.


Phytoplankton, detritus


Fishes, shrimps, crabs


Trophic Status:

Deposit Suspension Feeder



General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Life History

Laticorophium baconi has separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). We have no specific information on the life history of L. baconi.

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Based on range, north to Bering Sea (Bousfield and Hoover 1997)
Minimum Salinity (‰)18Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay
Maximum Salinity (‰)33Grabe et al. 2006, Tampa Bay
Minimum Length (mm)2LeCroy 2004
Maximum Length (mm)4LeCroy 2004
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

No impacts have been reported for introduced populations of Laticorophium baconi.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEP-II Alaska south of the Aleutians to the Alaskan panhandle 0 Native Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 0 Native Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 0 Native Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 0 Native Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 0 Native Estab
NEP-VII None 0 Native Estab
SEP-Z None 0 Native Estab
SEP-I None 0 Native Estab
SP-XXI None 1967 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 1985 Def Estab
AUS-X None 1996 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1977 Def Estab
G095 _CDA_G095 (New) 1982 Def Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 1993 Def Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 1992 Def Estab
G108 _CDA_G108 (St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays) 2006 Def Estab
SA-II None 2001 Def Estab
S190 Indian River 1982 Def Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 2002 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 2002 Def Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 1998 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 2006 Def Unk
S060 Winyah Bay 2005 Def Estab
G010 Florida Bay 2004 Def Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 2004 Def Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 2004 Def Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 2004 Def Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 1977 Def Estab
SEP-H None 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 2018 Def Estab
NEA-V None 2011 Def Estab
MED-I None 2021 Def Estab
WA-I None 2022 Def Estab
MED-III None 2010 Def Estab
MED-IV None 2021 Def Estab
MED-VI None 2023 Def Estab
MED-V None 2022 Def Estab
RS-2 None 2011 Def Estab
AUS-II None 2011 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1999 Def Estab
SP-IV None 2019 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Ahyong, Shane T.; Wilkens, Serena L. (2011) In the wrong place- Alien marine crustaceans: Distribution, biology, impacts, Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. Pp. 451-485

Atlas of Living Australia 2013-2016 Atlas of Living Australia. <missing URL>

Barnard, J. Laurens (1958) Amphipod crustaceans as fouling organisms in Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbors, with reference to the influence of seawater turbidity, California Fish and Game 44(2): 161-170

Barnard, J. Laurens (1970) Sublittoral gammaridean Amphipoda of the Hawaiian Islands, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 34: 1-283

Barnard, J. Laurens (1979) Littoral gammaridean Amphipoda from the Gulf of California and the Galapagos Islands, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 271: 1-149

Bousfield, E. L.; Hoover, P. M. (1997) The amphipod superfamily Corophioidea on the Pacific coast of North America. Part V. Family Corophiidae: Corophiinae, new subfamily. Systematics and distributional ecology., Amphipacifica 2(3): 67-139

Carlton, James T. (Ed.) (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon Fourth Edition, Completely Revised and Expanded, University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. <missing location>

Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202

Chapman, John W. (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th edition), University of California Press, Berkeley CA. Pp. 545-611

Coles S. L., DeFelice R. C., Eldredge, L. G. (1999a) Nonindigenous marine species introductions in the harbors of the south and west shores of Oahu, Hawaii., Bishop Museum Technical Report 15: 1-212

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Eldredge, L. G.; Carlton, J. T. (1999b) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands., Marine Biology 135(1): 147-158

Coles, S. L.; Reath, P. R.; Longenecker, K.; Bolick, Holly; Eldredge, L. G. (2004) <missing title>, Hawai‘i Community Foundation and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Pp. 1-187

Foster, John M.; Heard, Richard W.; Knott, David M. (2004) Northern range extensions for Caprella scaura (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) on the Florida Gulf Coast and in South Carolina., Gulf Research Reports 16: 65-69

Goodbody, Ivan (2004) Diversity and distribution of Ascidians (Tuniucata) at Twin Cays, Belize, Atoll Research Bulletin 524: 1-20

Gotelli, N.J.; Lewis, F.G. III; Young, C.M. (1987) Body-size differences in a colonizing amphipod-mollusc assemblage, Oecologia 72: 104-108

Grabe, Stephen A.; Karlen, David J.; Holden, Christina M.; Goetting, Barbara K.; Markham, Sara E; Dix, Thomas L. (2006) <missing title>, Tampa Bay Estuary Program, St. Petersbrug FL. Pp. 1-88

Guerra-Garcia, José Manuel and 21 authors (2023) Quick spreading of the exotic amphipod Laticorophium baconi (Shoemaker, 1934): another small stowaway overlooked?, Mediterranean Marine Science 24(3): 644-665

Hines, Anson H.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Chapman, John; Hansen, Gayl; Carlton, James T.; Foster, Nora; Feder, Howard M. (1998) <missing title>, Regional Citizens Advisory Council of Prince William Sound, Valdez, Alaska.. Pp. <missing location>

Hines, Anson H.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Godwin, L. Scott (2000) Assessing the risk of nonindigenous species invasion in a high-latitude ecosystem: ballast water treatment facility in Port Valdez, Alaska., In: Pederson, Judith(Eds.) Marine Bioinvasions. , Cambridge. Pp. 81-88

Hirayama, Akira (1986) Marine gammaridean amphipoda (Crustacea from Hong Kong: the family Corophiidae, genus Corophium., In: Morton, B.(Eds.) Proceedings of the Second International Marine Biological Workshop: The marine fauna and flora of Hong Kong and southern China.. , Hong Kong. Pp. 449-484

Huang, J. P.; McClintock, J. B.; Amsler, C. D.; Huang, Y. M. (2008) Mesofauna associated with the marine sponge Amphimedon viridis. Do its physical or chemical attributes provide a prospective refuge from fish predation?, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 362: 95-100

LeCroy, Sara E. (2004) <missing title>, 3 Florida Department of Environmental Protection, <missing place>. Pp. 411-500

Lowry, J. K.; Stoddart, H. E. (2003) <missing title>, 19.2B CSIRO Publishing, Canberra, Australia. Pp. <missing location>

McFadden, Andrew; Rawdon, Tom; Gould, Brendan (2007) Response to a marine incursion of Styela clava, Surveillance 34(1): 1-8

Quiroz-Vázquez, Patricia; Ibarra-Obando, Silvia E. ; Meling-López, Alf E. (2005) Composition of the epifaunal community associated with the seagrass Zostera marina in San Quintin Bay, Baja California, Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 104(2): 102-112

San Luis Obispo Science and Ecosystem Alliance 2011 Bay invasive species of concern: <em>Laticorophium baconi</em>. <missing URL>

Shoemaker, C. R. (1934b) Two species of Corophium form the west ocast of America, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 24(8): 356-360

Shoemaker, Clarence R. (1949) The amphipod genus Corophium on the west coast of America, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 39(2): 66-82

Sylvester, Francisco and 8 authors (2011) Hull fouling as an invasion vector: can simple models explain a complex problem?, Journal of Applied Ecology 48: 415-423

Valério-Berardo, Maria Teresa; de Souza, Ana Maria Thiago (2009) Description of two new species of the Corophiidae (Amphipoda, Crustacea) and register of Laticorophium baconi (Shoemaker, 1934) from Brazilian waters, Zootaxa 2215: 55-68

Virnstein, Robert W.; Howard, Robert K. (1987) Motile epifauna of marine macrophytes in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. I. Comparisons among three species of seagrasses from adjacent beds, Bulletin of Marine Science 41(1): 1-12

Winfield, Ignacio; Mucino-Reyes, María del Refugio; Ortiza, Manuel; Cházaro-Olveraay, Sergio; Lozano-Aburto, Miguel Ángel (2015) [Biodiversity of benthic amphipods (Peracarida: Amphipoda) associated with algal beds from Puerto Progreso, Yucatán, Mexico], Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 86: 613-619