Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Vertebrata
Superclass:   Osteichthyes
Class:   Actinopterygii
Subclass:   Neopterygii
Infraclass:   Teleostei
Superorder:   Acanthopterygii
Order:   Perciformes
Suborder:   Gobioidei
Family:   Eleotridae
Genus:   Butis
Species:   koilomatodon


Butis caperatus (Smith, 1949)
Butis koilomatodon (Jordan & Richardson, 1908)
Butis serrifrons (Jordan & Scale, 1907)
Eleotris (Butis) koilomatodon (Weber, 1911)
Eleotris caperata (Gunther, 1861)
Eleotris caperatus (Cantor, 1850)
Eleotris delagoensis (Barnard, 1927)
Eleotris koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1849)
Prionobutis (Themistocles) wardi (Whitley, 1939)
Prionobutis koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1877)
Prionobutis serrifrons (Rutter, 1897)

Potentially Misidentified Species




Trophic Status:




General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatNektonicNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Temperature (ºC)33Yokoo et al. 2006, Field, Thailand.
Minimum Salinity (‰)10Yokoo et al. 2006, Field, Thailand. Some field record notes suggest occurrence in freshwater.
Maximum Salinity (‰)35Yokoo et al. 2006, Field, Thailand
Maximum Length (mm)107Robertson and Allen 2015
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneMesohaline-Polyhaline

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
SEP-H None 1972 Def Failed
CAR-III None 2002 Def Unk
WA-II None 1983 Def Estab
EAS-II None 0 Native Estab
EAS-VII None 0 Native Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Native Estab
EAS-VI None 0 Native Estab
EA-IV None 0 Native Estab
EAS-I None 0 Native Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Native Estab
CIO-III None 0 Native Estab
CIO-V None 0 Native Estab
CIO-II None 0 Native Estab
CIO-I None 0 Native Estab
EAS-III None 0 Native Estab
EAS-V None 0 Native Estab
WA-V None 0 Native Estab
IP-1 None 0 Native Estab
AUS-I None 0 Native Estab
SA-IV None 2001 Def Estab
SA-III None 1989 Def Estab
SA-II None 2000 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 1972 Def Failed

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Dawson, C. E. (1973) Occurrence of an exotic eleotrid fish in Panama with discussion of probable origin and mode of introduction, Copeia 1973(43): 141-144

Froese, R.; Pauly, D. (Editors). 2002-2024 FishBase.(World Wide Web electronic publication).. <missing URL>

Lasso-Alcalá, Oscar M.; Lasso A.,Carlos; Pezold, Frank; Smith, Michael L. (2005) The mud sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Pisces: Eleotridae): first record from the Western Central Atlantic, Revista de Biologia Tropical 53(1-2): 211

Lasso, Carlos A. and 7 authors (2009) [List of the fish of the river Orinoco delta, Venezuela.], Biota Colombiana 10(1-2): 123-148

Lobo-Arteaga, Jorge; Tuaty-Guerra; Miriam Maria José (2021) Integrative taxonomy reveals that the marine brachyuran crab Pyromaia tuberculata (Lockington, 1877) reached rastern Atlantic, Diversity 13(225): Published online

Lopes, Rubens M. (Ed.) (2009) <missing title>, Ministry of the Environment, Brasilia, Brazil. Pp. 1-440

Macieira, R. M.; Giarrizzo, T.; Gasparini, J. L.; Sazima, I. (2012) Geographic expansion of the invasive mud sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Perciformes: Eleotridae) in the western Atlantic Ocean, Journal of Fish Biology 81: 308-313

Miller, P. J.; Wright, J.; Wongrat, P. (1989) An Indo-Pacific goby (Teleostei: Gobioidei) from West Africa, with systematic notes on Butis,/i> and related eleotridine genera, Journal of Natural History 23(2): 311-324

Soares, Bruno Eleres ; Ruffeil, Tiago Octavio Begot; Montag, Luciano Fogaça de Assis (2012) Occurrence of the non-native sleeper Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker, 1849) (Perciformes: Eleotridae) in the Amazon coastal zone, Brazil, Bioinvasion Records 1: in press

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 1996-2014 NMNH Fish Collection Database.. <missing URL>

Yokoo, Toshihiro and 5 authors (2006) Juvenile morphology and occurrence patterns of three Butis species (Gobioidei: Eleotridae) in a mangrove estuary, southern Thailand, Ichthyological Research 53: 330-336