Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Laomedea calceolifera was originally described from the British Isles, and is now known from locations around the globe (Fraser 1944; Vervoort 2006; Appeltans et al. 2011). In the Northeast Atlantic, its presumed native region, it ranges from the White and Barents Seas (Linko 1911, Kudelin 1914 and Antsulevich 1987, cited by Vervoort 2006), to Spain, the Azores, the Cape Verde Islands (Vervoort 2006), and throughout the Mediterranean into the Black Sea (Bouillon et al. 2004). It is considered cryptogenic in the Western Atlantic, where it occurs from Gaspe, in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Long Island Sound (Fraser 1944; MIT Sea Grant 2003), and on the coast of Brazil (Vannucci 1949, cited by Migotto et al. 2002). Introduced populations have been collected in the Northeast (California) and Northwest (China and Russia) Pacific.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

In the Northeast Pacific, Laomedea calceolifera was collected in San Francisco Bay, California in a 2004 rapid assessment survey, at Richmond and Coyote Point Marinas (Cohen and Carlton 2005; Mills et al., in Carlton 2007). This hydroid has also been reported off Orange County, in southern California, but no reproductive structures were seen and the identification is tentative. A specimen, was identified as L. calceolifera by Dr. Sofia Stepanjants of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Ljubenkov, in SCAMIT 2003), but until the identification is verified, we have not included it on our distribution map.

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Laomedea calceolifera has been introduced to the Northwest Pacific, where it was first collected in Shandong, China in the Yellow Sea (Chen-sheng Kao, cited by Chalypigna 1992); and later found in Peter the Great Bay, in the vicinity of Vladivostok, Russia on docks and the hull of a boat (Chalypigna 1992). It has been found on a ship's hull in South Africa, but it is not established there (Millard 1975).


Laomedea calceolifera has fixed gonophores rather than a free medusa stage in its life cycle. It forms colonies up to 30 mm high, with erect stems arising from smooth, but twisting stolons. Branches are alternating left and right, and above each branching point are several rings. The hydrothecae are born on pedicels with multiple rings. They are deep and bell-shaped, with a smooth, distally flared margin. The male and female gonothecae are dissimilar when mature. The female gonothecae are club-shaped, with a sub-terminal curving aperture on one side. The male gonothecae are cylindrical, narrower than the female, and are elongate with a terminal aperture (description from: Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Cnidaria
Class:   Hydrozoa
Subclass:   Hydroidolina
Order:   Leptothecata
Family:   Campanulariidae
Genus:   Laomedea
Species:   calceolifera


Campanularia calceolifera (Hincks, 1871)
Eulaomedea calceolifera (Rees & Thursfield, 1965)
(, )
Lomedea calceolifera (Boero & Bouillon, 1993)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Laomedea flexuosa
This hydroid is widely distributed in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean, and has been introduced into the Sea of Japan, in Russia (Chalypigna 1992; Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).



Laomedea calceolifera is a sessile hydrozoan which lacks a planktonic medusa stage. Colonies grow on a solid substrate, with polyps arising from a creeping stolon. The polyps form bushy structures, with many hydranths, whose tentacles capture zooplankton. The polyps produce gonophores, which produce either eggs or sperm. The egg develops into a ciliated non-feeding planula larva which is released into the water column (Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006).

Planulae of L. calceolifera settle and grow on stones, seagrasses, seaweeds, docks, buoys, and pilings (Fraser 1944). It is also known from ships’ hulls and fouling plates (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952; Chalypigna 1992). Laomedea calceolifera grows in cold-temperate to subtropical climates, and in the Black and Mediterranean Sea (Bouillon et al. 2004) where salinities range from 18 to 38 PSU.


zoooplankton, epibenthos



Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Height (mm)30Hydroid height (Bouillon et al. 2004; Vervoort 2006)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Subtropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

The hydroid Laomedea calceolifera is a common and widespread ship and dock fouling organism, but specific impacts have not been reported.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NEA-V None 0 Native Estab
NEA-II None 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 0 Native Estab
MED-III None 0 Native Estab
MED-VII None 0 Native Estab
MED-V None 0 Native Estab
MED-IV None 0 Native Estab
NEA-III None 0 Native Estab
NEA-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
NA-S3 None 0 Crypto Estab
B-III None 0 Native Estab
WA-I None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-IV None 1948 Def Estab
SA-II None 1949 Crypto Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 2004 Def Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 0 Crypto Estab
AR-III None 0 Native Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 2004 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 1956 Def Estab
MED-IX None 0 Native Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 0 Crypto Estab
NA-ET1 Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bay of Fundy 0 Crypto Estab
WA-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-H None 2008 Def Estab
MED-VI None 0 Native Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 2008 Def Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1977 Crypto Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Altuna, Alvaro (2007) Bathymetric distribution patterns and biodiversity of benthic Medusozoa (Cnidaria) in the Bay of Biscay(north-eastern Atlantic)., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87: 681-694

Appeltans, W. et al. 2011-2015 World Registry of Marine Species. <missing URL>

Bouillon, J. D.; Medel, M. D.; Pages, F.; Gili, J. M.; Boero, F/\.; Gravili, C. (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa, Scientia Marina 68(Suppl. 2.): 1-449

Bouillon, Jean; Medel, Maria Dolores; Pagès, Francesc; Gili, Josep-Maria; Boero, Ferdinando ; Gravili, Cinzia (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa., Scientia Marina 68(suppl. 2): 5-438

Carlton, James T. (Ed.) (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon Fourth Edition, Completely Revised and Expanded, University of California Press, Berkeley. Pp. <missing location>

Chalypigna, S. F. (1992) [On the introduction of two hydroid species, Laomdea flexuosa and L. calceolifera to the Sea of Japan.], Zoologicheskii Zhurrnal 71(9): 5-9

Çinar, Melih Ertan; Yoke, Mehmet Baki; Açik, Sermin; Bakir, Ahmet Kerem (2014) Check-list of Cnidaria and Ctenophora from the coasts of Turkey, Turkish Journal of Zoology 38: Published online

Cohen, Andrew N. and 10 authors (2005) <missing title>, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland CA. Pp. <missing location>

Farrapeira, Cristiane Maria Rocha; Tenório, Deusinete de Oliveira ; do Amaral, Fernanda Duar (2011) Vessel biofouling as an inadvertent vector of benthic invertebrates occurring in Brazil, Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 832-839

Fraser, C. McLean (1944) Hydroids of the Atlantic Coast of North America, In: (Eds.) . , Toronto. Pp. 1-441

Haydar, Deniz (2012) What is natural? The scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean, Diversity and Distributions 18: 101-110

Huang, Zongguo (Ed.), Junda Lin (Translator) (2001) Marine Species and Their Distributions in China's Seas, Krieger, Malabar, FL. Pp. <missing location>

Ljubenkov, John (2011) Laomedea calceolifera (Hincks, 1871), SCAMIT Newsletter 22(4): 7-8

Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L. Rius, M. (2011b) Introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine species of South Africa, Journal of Natural History 39-40: 2463-2524

Migotto, A.E. (1996) Benthic shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the coast of Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, including a checklist of Brazilian hydroids, Zoologische Verhandelingen 306: 3-125

Migotto, Alvaro E.; Marques, Antonio C.; Morandini, André C.; da Silveira, Fábio L. (2002) Checklist of the Cnidaria Medusozoa of Brazil, Biota Neotropica 2(1): 1-31

Millard, N. A. H. (1975) Monograph on the Hydroida of southern Africa, Annals of the South African Museum 68: 1-513

Mills, Claudia; Marques, Antonio; Migotto, Alvaro E; Calder, Dale R.; Hand, Cadet (2007) The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal invertebrates from Central California to Oregon (4th edition), University of California Press, Berkeley CA. Pp. 118-168

MIT Sea Grant 2003-2008 Introduced and cryptogenic species of the North Atlantic. <missing URL>

Ruiz, Gregory M.; Geller, Jonathan (2018) Spatial and temporal analysis of marine invasions in California, Part II: Humboldt Bay, Marina del Re, Port Hueneme, and San Francisco Bay, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center & Moss Landing Laboratories, Edgewater MD, Moss Landing CA. Pp. <missing location>

Southern California Association of Marine Inveretbrate Taxonomists (SCAMIT) (2003) Laomedea calceolifera (Hincks, 1871), SCAMIT Newsletter 22(4): 7-8

Vervoort, W. (2006) Leptolida (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) collected during the CANCAP and Mauritania-II expeditions of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands [Anthoathecata, various families of Leptothecata and addenda]., Zoologische Mededelingen 80-1(11): 181-318

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, United States Navy Dept. Bureau of Ships (1952) Marine fouling and its prevention., United States Naval Institute., Washington, D.C.. Pp. 165-206

Young, Craig S; Gobler, Christopher J. (None) Coastal ocean acidification and nitrogen loading facilitate invasions of the non-indigenous red macroalga, Dasysiphonia japonica, Biological Invasions <missing volume>: 1367-1391(

Zvyaginstev, A. Yu.; Radashevsky, V. I.; Ivin, V. V.; Kashin, I. A.; Gorodkov, A. N. (2011) Nonindigenous species in the far-eastern seas of Russia, Russian Journal of Biological Invasions 2(1): 164-182