Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Cnidaria
Class:   Hydrozoa
Subclass:   Hydroidolina
Order:   Anthoathecatae
Suborder:   Filifera
Family:   Eudendriidae
Genus:   Eudendrium
Species:   carneum


Eudendrium cunninghami (Kirkpatrick 1910, None)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Eudendrium ramosum



Eudendrium carneumhas a hydroid stage which frequently grows on rocks, concrete walls, artificial substrrates, vessel hulls, wrecks, and also has a planktonic medusa (Calder 1988; Kirkendale and Calder 2003; Linder and Migoot 2006; Oliveira and Marques 2006;)


Zooplaknton, epibenthos

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatCoral reefNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone
Vertical HabitatPlanktonicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Salinity (‰)20Field, South Carolina (Calder 1976)
Maximum Salinity (‰)34Field, South Carolina (Calder 1976)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Regional Impacts

SP-XIIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
SP-XIIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
'It lives on rocky bottoms, where it forms a tangle of branches that tend to accumulate sediment, making it a fairly unattractive "weed" species' (Shine et al. 2003)
SP-XIIINoneEconomic ImpactAesthetic
'These masses of hydroid tend to make the rocky surfaces of the reef less visible, and tend to make the reef look 'dirty'. (Shine et al. 2003)

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
SP-XIII None 1997 Def Estab
CAR-III None 0 Native Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Native Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1882 Native Estab
NA-ET1 Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bay of Fundy 0 Native Unk
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 1985 Def Estab
MED-III None 2000 Def Estab
MED-VII None 2000 Def Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 0 Native Unk
MED-V None 1999 Def Estab
SA-III None 0 Native Estab
SA-IV None 0 Native Estab
AUS-X None 2001 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1957 Def Estab
NA-ET4 Bermuda 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 0 Native Estab
NEP-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 1950 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 1975 Def Estab
EA-IV None 1954 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1950 Def Unk
MED-I None 2007 Def Estab
NEA-V None 2007 Def Estab
WA-IV None 2013 Def Estab
SP-XIII None 2007 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Aieta, Amy E.; Oliveira, Kenneth (2009) Distribution, prevalence, and intensity of the swim bladder parasite Anguillicola crassus in New England and eastern Canada, Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 84: 229-235

Australian Museum Business Services (2002) <missing title>, Australian Museum Business Services, for Sydney Ports Corporation, Sydney. Pp. <missing location>

Bouillon, Jean; Medel, Maria Dolores; Pagès, Francesc; Gili, Josep-Maria; Boero, Ferdinando ; Gravili, Cinzia (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa., Scientia Marina 68(suppl. 2): 5-438

Calder, Dale R. (1976) The zonation of hydroids along salinity gradients in South Carolina estuaries, In: (Eds.) Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior. , New York. Pp. 165-174

Calder, Dale R. (1988) Shallow water hydroids of Bermuda. The Athecatae.”, Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 148: 1-107

Calder, Dale R. (1993) Local distribution and biogeography of the hydroids (Cnidaria) of Bermuda, Caribbean Journal of Science 29(1-2): 61-74

Calder, Dale R. (2010) Some anthoathecate hydroids and limnopolyps (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Hawaiian archipelago, Zootaxa 2590: 1-91

Calder, Dale R.; Hester, Betty S. (1978) Phylum Cnidaria., In: Zingmark, Richard G.(Eds.) An Annotated Checklist of the Biota of the Coastal Zone of South Carolina. , Columbia. Pp. 87-93

Calder, Dale R.; Kirkendale, Lisa (2005) Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from shallow-water environments along the Caribbean coast of Panama., Caribbean Journal of Science 41(3): 476-491

Clarke, Samuel F. (1882) New and interesting hydroids from Chesapeake Bay, Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 3(4): 135-141

Farrapeira, Cristiane Maria Rocha; Tenório, Deusinete de Oliveira ; do Amaral, Fernanda Duar (2011) Vessel biofouling as an inadvertent vector of benthic invertebrates occurring in Brazil, Marine Pollution Bulletin 62: 832-839

Fraser, C. McLean (1912) Some hydroids of Beaufort, North Carolina, Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 30: 337-387

Fraser, C. McLean (1944) Hydroids of the Atlantic Coast of North America, In: (Eds.) . , Toronto. Pp. 1-441

Fraser, C. McLean (1948) Hydroids of the Alan Hancock Pacific expeditions since 1938, Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 4-5: 179-343

Galea, Horia R. (2015) Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Tristan da Cunha and St. Helena, Marine Biodiversity Records 8: e154

Marques, A. C.; Penna Cantero, A. L.; Vervoort, W. (2000) Mediterranean species of Eudendrium Ehrenberg, 1834 (Hydrozoa, Anthomedusae, Eudendriidae) with the description of a new species, Journal of Zoology (London) 252: 197-213

Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L. Rius, M. (2011b) Introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine species of South Africa, Journal of Natural History 39-40: 2463-2524

Megina, Cesar; Gonzalez-Duarte, Manuel M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Pablo J. Piraino, Stefano (2013) Harbours as marine habitats: hydroid assemblages on sea-walls compared with natural habitats, Marine Biology 160(2): 371-381

Millard, N. A. H. (1959) Hydrozoa from the coasts of Natal and Portuguese East Africa Part II., Annals of the South African Museum 44: 297-313

Morri, Carla; Puce, Stefania; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Bitar, Ghazi; Zibrowius, Helmut; Bavestrello, Giorgio (2009) Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Levant Sea (mainly Lebanon), with emphasis on alien species, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 49-62

Oliveira, Otto M.P.; Marques, Antonio C.; Migotto, Alvaro E. (2000) Morphometric patterns of two fouling Eudendrium spp. (Hydrozoa, Anthomedusae, Eudendriidae) from São Sebastião (SP, SE Brazil), Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 43(5): 519-526

Park, Jung Hee (1991) Systematic study on the marine hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in Korea: The families Spaherocorynidae, Eudendriidae, Haleciidae, and Laefoeiidae, Korean Journal of Zoology 34: 541-547

Shimabukuro, V.; Marques, A.C.; Migotto, A.E. (2006) The anthoathecate hydroid fauna (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) of the coast of Ceará State, Brazil, Biota Neotropica 6(3): published online

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002-2021 Invertebrate Zoology Collections Database.

Vervoort, W. (1968) Report on a collection of hydroida from the Caribbean region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean hydroids, Zoologische Verhandelingen 92: 1-124

Watson, Jeanette E. (1985) The genus Eudendrium (Hydrozoa: Hydroida) from Australia, Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 97: 179-221