Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1865
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1920
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1865

General Invasion History:

Cordylophora caspia was first described from the Caspian Sea by Pallas in 1771 and is believed to be native to the Black Sea-Caspian Sea region (Briggs 1931; Naumov 1969; Hutchinson 1993). Shipping has spread C. caspia through much of the world and this hydroid is now known from temperate and tropical coastal regions of every continent (except Antarctica), and from many fresh waters as well (Arndt 1984; Hutchinson 1993; Naumov 1969; Slobodkin and Bossert 1991).

Genetic studies (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009) indicate that multiple (at least four) genetic lineages of Cordylophora spp., possibly representing cryptic species, have been introduced in Europe, North America and South America. Most of these lineages have been widely distributed, and multiple lineages can occur at the same site. One lineage (2B) was confined to the Pacific Coast of North America, although it co-occurred with a more-widely distributed lineage (1B). Lineages differed ecologically- 1A was found only in freshwater, 2A and 2B only in brackish waters, while 1B was found at both fresh and brackish sites. This study was wide-ranging, but did not include the Ponto-Caspian basin, the presumed region of origin of the Cordylophora species complex (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009). Until the genetic diversity of the complex is further clarified we will continue to treat it as a single species of Ponto-Caspian origin.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Sometime between the 1920s and the 1950s, Cordylophora caspia was discovered in Pacific coast estuaries including San Francisco Bay, the Columbia River, and Puget Sound (Hand and Gwillam 1951; Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton 1995). The earliest record appears to be from freshwater – Lake Union, Seattle, Washington (Hand and Gwilliam 1951; Carlton 1979). In 1930, it was found at Antioch on the San Joaquin River (Hand and Gwilliam 1951), and has subsequently been found at many locations in the Delta and in other fresh and brackish tributaries of San Francisco Bay (Hand and Gwillam 1951; Carlton 1979; Cohen and Carlton 1995; Cohen et al. 2005). This hydroid has been found in many fresh and brackish Pacific tributaries, including Elkhorn Slough, California (in 1998, Wasson et al. 2001); Humboldt Bay, California (in 1968, Mace and Mackie 1970; Carlton 1979); Coos Bay, Oregon (in 1959, Mace and Mackie 1970; Carlton 1979); Alsea Bay, Oregon (in 1975, Carlton 1979); the Columbia River estuary (in 1965, Haertel and Osterberg 1967; Carlton 1979); Willapa Bay, Washington (Cohen et al. 2001); brackish Puget Sound tributaries (Cohen et al. 1998; Cohen et al. 2001); and Albert Head Lagoon in Victoria, British Columbia (in 1967, Mace and Mackie 1970). Folino-Rorem et al. (2009) found two genetic lineages of C. caspia on the West Coast, one (1B) widespread in North America and Europe, the other (2B) confined to the Pacific Coast. Both lineages were found at Pittsburg, California, in the inner San Francisco estuary (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The first published record of Cordylophora caspia in North America was that of Leidy (1870), in which he described its occurrence in the Schuykill River, a Delaware River tributary in Philadelphia, but he remarked on finding it at Newport, Rhode Island 'some years earlier'. It apparently spread up and down the coast, reaching brackish ponds on Martha's Vineyard in 1872 (Verrill and Smith 1873), and Chesapeake Bay by 1877 (Clarke 1878; Bibbins 1892). The spread of this hydroid on the East coast seems to have been quite spotty. The first record for the Miramichi estuary, New Brunswick, was 1912 (Fraser 1944); it was found in 1926 in Back Bay, Virginia (an arm of Currituck Sound) (USNM 42191, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007); in 1928 in Pamlico Sound, North Carolina (Pearse 1936); and in 1932 in Charles River, Massachusetts (Blake 1932). However, first records for some well-travelled and populated estuaries were much later: 1972 for the Hudson River, New York (Mills et al. 1997); 1974 for the Cooper and Ashepoo Rivers, South Carolina (Calder and Hester 1978); and 1995 for the Connecticut River (Smith et al. 2002). It is possible that this hydroid was overlooked in some estuaries for decades before its published discovery.

In the Great Lakes, C. caspia was first collected in Lake Erie in 1956, and was abundant by the 1960s (Davis 1957; Hubschman 1971; Hubschman and Kishler 1972). It has been collected from Lake Ontario (Rochester, New York) (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009) to Duluth, Michigan at the western end of Lake Superior (Grigorevich et al. 2003), and in the Finger Lakes, in the Great Lakes Basin. Genetic analysis indicates that C. caspia has been spread largely through sexually produced larvae which have settled on boats, ships, and barges (Darling and Folino-Rorem 2009).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Cordylophora caspia was collected in Shreveport, Louisiana, in the Red River in 1918, about 600 km from the Gulf; and by 1944, was collected in Lake Pontchartrain (Fraser 1944). It has subsequently been found in tributaries along the northern shore of the Gulf from the Suwanee River, Florida (Mason et al. 1994) to the Sabine River, Texas (McClung et al. 1978). In the Escambia River, Florida (in 1952-53), C. caspia was 'an abundant population occurring on saw grass stalks and roots' (Wurtz and Roback 1955). It was found at 23 locations in the New Orleans area and Vermillion Parish, Louisiana, including tidal fresh and brackish waters (Poirrier and Denoux 1973).

This hydroid has spread widely through the fresh waters of the Mississippi Basin. In 1909, it was collected in the Illinois River (Havana, Illinois) (Smith 1910), and spread in a scattered fashion to Kentucky (in 1922, Garman, cited by Hubschman and Kishler 1972), Louisiana (in 1918, Poirrier and Denoux 1973), Oklahoma (in~1968, Ransom 1981), and Kansas (in 1980, Ransom 1981).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Cordylophora caspia was collected in 1967, in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (Powers 1971, cited by Coles et al. 2002), and in 1974-1975 in an anchialine pond (connected to the sea through porous rock) on Maui (Cooke 1977, cited by Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In Europe, Cordylophora caspia was probably first introduced in the late 17th century through canals linking the waterways of the Baltic and Black Seas (Olenin 2002). It spread rapidly, and was widespread in inland waters and estuaries in northern Europe, from Finland to the British Isles by the late 19th century (Allman 1872; Arndt 1984; Jensen and Knudsen 2005; Wolff 2005). More recently, C. caspia spread north to Bergen and Stavanger, Norway (by 1985, Hopkins 2002) and south to the Guadalquivir River, Spain (by 2001, Escot et al. 2003, cited by Garcia-Berthou et al. 2007), the Po River delta, Italy (Morri and Bianchi 1983), and other Mediterranean lagoons. It is widespread in the major freshwater rivers of Europe, including the Rhine (Vervoort 1964; Roos 1979), the Elbe (Nehring 2006), Weser, Oder, and Danube basins (Bij de Vaate et al. 2002).

In Central America, C. caspia was first collected on the Caribbean side of the Panama Canal in the Gatun Locks in 1925 (Hildebrand 1939; Fraser 1944; USNM 43378, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). Subsequently, it was collected on the Pacific side in the Pedro Miguel Locks in 1975 (Arndt 1984, Cohen 2006; USNHM 89237, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). Specimens have also been collected from Gamboa, Panama, on Gatun Lake, and they belonged to the widespread freshwater genotype 1A (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009). In South America, it is known from the coast and freshwaters of Brazil (Arndt 1984; Grohmann 2008; Farrapeira et al. 2011), Uruguay, Argentina (Grohmann 2008), and from Chilean fjords (in 2006, Galea 2007, Folino-Rorem et al. 2009).

Cordylophora caspia has been introduced to freshwater lakes and brackish estuaries in New Zealand (1st record 1885, Cranfield et al. 1998), Australia (1st Record 1922, Briggs 1931, Hewitt, personal communication), Iraq (Shatt-al-Arab estuary) and Shanghai, China (Arndt 1984).


Description

Cordylophora caspia grows in erect, branching colonies, growing from a single stem, arising from stolons attached to the substrate. Sometimes one colony will grow on top of another. The shoots branch regularly or irregularly. Frequently, there is one main stem and shorter side branches. Annulations (rings) are present near the base of the stems and branches. A colony may have 40 or more hydranths. The hydranths are spindle-shaped when relaxed, ovoid when contracted, about 1-2 mm high, with a conical or bullet-shaped hypostome. There are scattered (usually 14-16, sometimes up to 27) tentacles. The gonophores are oval, arising from the stem or branches, and contain 7-16 eggs. Hydranths are white or pale pink and the stems are yellowish-brown. Stems are typically 30-45 mm in size, but may reach 150 mm or more (Calder 1971; Schuchert 2004; Calder 2010).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Cnidaria
Class:   Hydrozoa
Subclass:   Hydroidolina
Order:   Anthoathecatae
Suborder:   Filifera
Family:   Cordylophoridae
Genus:   Cordylophora
Species:   caspia

Synonyms

Bimeria baltica (Stechow, 1923)
Cordylophora americana (Leidy, 1870)
Cordylophora lacustris (Stechow, 1927)
Cordylophora whiteleggei (von Lendenfeld, 1886)
Tubularia caspia (Pallas, 1771)
Tubularia cornea (Agardh, 1816)
Cordylophora albicola (Kirchenpauer, in Busk, 1861)
Cordylophora lacustris var. otagoensis (Fyfe, 1929)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Garveia franciscana
Vervoort (1964) lists several cases in which these species have been confused. However, he notes morphological differences and attributes the confusion to the fact that these are the only two large hydroids species that occur abundantly in temperate brackish waters.

Ecology

General:

Cordylophora caspia is a sessile hydrozoan which lacks a planktonic medusa stage. Colonies grow on a solid substrates, with polyps arising from a creeping stolon. The polyps form bushy structures, with many hydranths, whose tentacles capture zooplankton. The polyps produce gonophores, which produce either eggs or sperm. Colonies are diecious (single-sexed). Female gonophores produce multiple eggs, typically 7-16, which are brooded and fertilized by sperm from the water column. The eggs develop into ciliated non-feeding planula larvae (Schuchert 2004). These larvae probably spend less than a day in the water before settlement (Sommer 1992).

Planulae of C. caspia settle and grow on a wide range of substrates, including shells, rock, wood, and vegetation. This hydroid has been found on a number of plants, including submerged plants (Ceratophyllum demersum- Coontail; Nitella sp.; Potamogeton sp.- Pondweeds; Elodea sp.- Waterweed; Vallisneria americana- Wild Celery), stalks of floating plants (Nymphaea odorata- White Water Lily), and roots and stems of emergents (Alternanthera philoxeroides- Alligatorweed; Phragmites australis - Common Reed) (Clarke 1878; Poirrier and Denoux 1973; Calder 1978; Roos 1979). It has also been reported from shells of living freshwater (native Unionidae, introduced Dreissena spp.- Zebra and Quagga Mussels) and brackish-water mussels (Mytilopsis leucophaeta- Dark False Mussel) (Calder 1978; Curry et al. 1981; Walton 1996). It has also been found on man-made substrates including old automobiles and nylon ropes (Roos 1979), buoys and ships (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952), and doubtless many others.

Cordylophora caspia grows in a vast range of aquatic environments, varying in salinity, temperature, currents, oxygen, etc. Survival tolerances vary greatly among populations as a result of both genetics and acclimation (Arndt 1984; Kinne 1956). Experimental limits were 24⁰C for C. caspia from Germany (Kinne 1956) and 30+⁰C for animals collected near Woods Hole, Massachusetts (Fulton 1962). Optimal temperatures for asexual growth appeared to be 11-18⁰C for German populations (Kinne 1956), 18-26⁰C for MA populations (Fulton 1962), 16-25⁰C for San Francisco estuary populations (Meek et al. 2012), and 23-30⁰C for colonies from Iraq (Arndt 1984). At least one genetic lineage of C. caspia (1A) ranges from Europe (UK and Germany) to the tropics (Panama) (Folino-Rorem et al. 2009). This hydroid is known to grow abundantly in fresh and brackish waters, and can tolerate exposure to full seawater (Kinne 1958; Mace and Mackie 1970; Arndt 1984). Tolerance to seawater may vary genetically. One lineage in Folino-Rorem et al.'s (2009) study was restricted to fresh water (lineage 1A), one to brackish water (2), and one inhabited both (1B). Cordylophora caspia is also tolerant of hypoxia, and had optimal growth at 40% of saturation (Fulton 1962). In the San Francisco estuary, it was associated with middle levels of oxygen concentration, low salinity, and low transparency (Wintzer et al. 2011a). This hydroid can respond to unfavorable conditions by regressing into a dormant state, consisting of bodies of tissue (menonts) in the stolons and stems, which serve as a diapause stage (Kinne 1956; Roos 1979; Jormalainen et al. 1994). In regions with milder climates, such as San Francisco Bay (Wintzer et al. 2011a) and South Carolina (Calder 1992) the hydroid is active all year, with extended polyps. In more severe climates, such as the Netherlands and Finland, hydroids may be dormant in winter (Roos 1979; Jormalainen et al. 1994) and sometimes also during periods of high predation in mid-summer (Jormalainen et al. 1994).

Food:

Zooplankton; Small epibenthos

Consumers:

Tenellia adspersa; amphipods, fishes

Trophic Status:

Carnivore

Carn

Habitats

General HabitatFresh (nontidal) MarshNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatSwampNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatTidal Fresh MarshNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Based on geographic range
Maximum Temperature (ºC)30Experimental upper limits were 24 C for C. caspia from Germany (Kinne 1956) and 30+ C for animals collected near Woods Hole MA (Fulton 1962)
Minimum Salinity (‰)0This hydroid grows and reproduces in freshwater.
Maximum Salinity (‰)35Upper salinity ranges are based on experimental survival. The upper limit for sexual reproduction was 27 ppt ( Kinne 1958). Field salinity ranges are generally much lower (Arndt 1984; Lippson et al. 1979; Poirrier and Denoux 1973; Ruiz et al. unpublished data).
Minimum pH6.2Field data from TX (McClung and Davis 1983) and LA (Poirrier and Denoux 1973). Optimal growth in experiments occurred at 6.8-8.6, but no growth occurred at 5.1 (Fulton 1962).
Maximum pH8.6None
Minimum Duration0.5Sommer 1992
Maximum Duration1Sommer 1992
Maximum Height (mm)150Stems are typically 30 45 mm, but may reach 150 mm or more (Calder 1971; Schuchert 2004; Calder 2010)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold-temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneFresh-Polyhaline

General Impacts

Economic impacts 

Cordylophora caspia has been reported from the cooling water systems of power plants in Illinois (Folino 2000), Brazil (Grohmann 2009), Finland (Vuorinen et al. 1984), Luxembourg (Massard and Geimer 1990), and the Ukraine (Simkina 1963). Fouling by C. caspia has required the shutdown of generators for cleaning and the use of toxic chemicals such as chlorine to prevent fouling (Folino 2000; Grohmann 2008). Other impacts are possible. It occurs in fouling on boats, ships, and buoys (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952), but is not widely reported as a ship fouling problem.

Ecological impacts

Cordylophora caspia is now a significant biomass component of the fouling community in the fresh-mesohaline regions of many estuaries around the world. It is also the only erect compound hydroid occurring in inland freshwater lakes (Pennak 1978; Hutchinson 1993). However, information on the ecological impact of its invasion is scarce, and mostly anecdotal, although some experimental studies have been conducted in Chesapeake Bay (see Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data).

Competition - Cordylophora caspia is a potential competitor for space in fouling communities. In field experiments on fouling plates (Key Bridge, Patapsco River, Maryland), where laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia were added, abundances of the bryozoan Victorella pavida (cryptogenic), the entoproct Loxosomatoides laevis (introduced), and the protozoans Metafolliculina sp., and Stentor sp. were reduced (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data).

Food/Prey - Cordylophora caspia is an important food for nudibranchs, which include many specialized predators of hydroids. Cordylophora caspia is apparently eaten by the nudibranch Tenellia adspersa, cryptogenic on the East Coast of North America, but widely introduced elsewhere (Gaulin et al. 1986; Chester 1996). Despite its nematocysts, C. caspia is also eaten by some generalized predators, such as amphipods (Roos 1979). Extensive feeding by the introduced amphipod Gammarus tigrinus (native in Chesapeake Bay) on C.caspia was reported in Dutch freshwaters by Roos (1979). In the San Francisco Bay estuary, C.caspia comprised 18-23% of the diet of the introduced Shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) (Matern and Brown 2005).

Predation -Although colonies of Cordylophora caspia in many bodies of water represent a substantial biomass of predators on zooplankton and mobile epibenthos (Bibbins 1892; Arndt 1984; Roos 1979), their role as predators has rarely been studied quantitatively. However, C. caspia predates on settling Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers, selecting smaller veligers, even as their filaments increase overall rates of settlement (Folino-Rorem and Stoeckel 2006).

Habitat Change - Cordylophora caspia colonies are dense and bushy, and constitute a substantial structural alteration to surfaces of wood, plants, rocks, etc., which may provide some protection from predators and currents (Roos 1979). In field experiments, the addition of laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia resulted in increased abundances of Amphibalanus improvisus, Alitta succinea, and corophiid amphipods on fouling plates (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data). In the Great Lakes basin, colonies of C. caspia provide substrate for settlement of larval Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) (Folino-Rorem et al. 2006). This hydroid has been recorded as a fouling organism on living native freshwater bivalves (Amblema plicata, Potamilus purpuratus) in Louisiana (Curry et al. 1981), Zebra Mussels in the Great Lakes region (Folino-Rorem et al. 2006), and Zebra Mussels and Dark False Mussels (Mytilopsis leucophaeta) in the Hudson River (Walton 1996). However, impacts of C. caspia on these bivalves were not reported. 


Regional Impacts

GL-ILakes Huron, Superior and MichiganEconomic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of Collins Electrical Generating Plant, Morris, IL (Folino 2000).
NA-ET2Bay of Fundy to Cape CodEcological ImpactFood/Prey
The role of Cordylophora caspia as food for the cryptogenic nudibranch, Tenellia adspersa, has been studied in Great Bay, New Hampshire, in the Gulf of Maine (Gaulin et al. 1986; Chester 1986; Blezard 1998).
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEcological ImpactCompetition
Cordylophora caspia is a potential competitor for space in fouling communities. In field experiments on fouling plates (Key Bridge, Patapsco River, Maryland), where laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia were added, abundances of the bryozoan Victorella pavida (s.l., cryptogenic), and the protozoans Metafolliculina sp., and Stentor sp. were reduced (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Ruiz et al. unpublished data).
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Cordylophora caspia colonies are dense and bushy, and constitute a substantial structural alteration to the surfaces of wood, plants, rocks, etc. The hydroid can provide some protection from predators and currents for surrounding organisms. In field experiments, the addition of laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia resulted in increased abundances of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus, the polychaete Alitta succinea, corophiid amphipods, and the introduced entoproct Loxosomatoides laevis on fouling plates (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data).
NA-ET3Cape Cod to Cape HatterasEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Cordylophora caspia is eaten by the nudibranchs Tenellia spp. (native T. fuscata and cryptogenic T. aspersa). These nudibranchs can become very abundant on C. caspia, and are apparently limiting factors in C. caspia's abundance and distribution. The relative abundances and distributions of the two nudibranch species in Chesapeake Bay are poorly known (Ruiz et al. unpublished data; Vogel 1977).
B-XINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Power plant fouling (Vuorinen et al. 1986)
B-XIINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Power plant fouling (Vuorinen et al. 1986)
B-XNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Power plant fouling (Vuorinen et al. 1986)
B-IXNoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Power plant fouling (Vuorinen et al. 1986)
NEA-IINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Fouling by C. caspia was reported in power plants from the Moselle River, Luxembourg (Massard et al. 1990) and the Netherlands (Jenner and Jannsen-Mommen 1993).
NEA-IINoneEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Extensive feeding by the introduced amphipod Gammarus tigrinus on C.caspia was reported in Dutch freshwaters by Roos (1979).
NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEcological ImpactFood/Prey
In the San Francisco Bay estuary, C. caspia comprised 18-23% of the diet of the introduced Shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) (Matern and Brown 2005).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
In the San Francisco Bay estuary, C. caspia comprised 18-23% of the diet of the introduced Shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus) (Matern and Brown 2005)
N130Great BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Cordylophora caspia is apparently eaten by the nudibranch Tenellia adspersa, cryptogenic on the East Coast of North America, but widely introduced elsewhere (Gaulin et al. 1986; Chester 1997).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Cordylophora caspia is a potential competitor for space in fouling communities. In field experiments on fouling plates (Key Bridge, Patapsco River, Maryland), where laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia were added, abundances of the bryozoan Victorella pavida (s.l., cryptogenic), and the protozoans Metafolliculina sp., and Stentor sp. were reduced (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Cordylophora caspia colonies are dense and bushy, and constitute a substantial structural alteration to the surfaces of wood, plants, rocks, etc. The hydroid can provide some protection from predators and currents for surrounding organisms. In field experiments, the addition of laboratory-grown colonies of C. caspia resulted in increased abundances of the barnacle Amphibalanus improvisus, the polychaete Alitta succinea, corophiid amphipods, and the introduced entoproct Loxosomatoides laevis on fouling plates (Von Holle and Ruiz 1997; Von Holle unpublished data).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Cordylophora caspia is eaten by Tenellia spp. nudibranchs (native T. fuscata and cryptogenic T. aspersa). These nudibranchs can become very abundant on C. caspia, and are apparently limiting factors in C. caspia's abundance and distribution. The relative abundances and distributions of the two nudibranch species in Chesapeake Bay are poorly known (Ruiz et al. unpublished data; Vogel 1977).
B-XIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Bothnia, C. caspia was classified as having some habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).
B-IXNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Moderate community impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011)
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Moderate community impacts, Curonian Lagoon (Zaiko et al. 2011)
B-VIINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Some habitat impacts, Vistula Lagoon (Zaiko et al. 2011)
B-IVNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Low level of habitat impacts, Odra Lagoon (Zaiko et al. 2011)
SA-IINoneEconomic ImpactIndustry
Cordylophora caspia caused fouling which decreased the efficiency of the cooling system of the Funil Hydroelectric Plant, Paraiba River, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Grohmann 2008). After the infestation started, cleaning of the system was required every four months instead of every six years, and costs were substantially increased (Grohmann 2008).
L047_CDA_L047 (Little Calumet-Galien)Economic ImpactIndustry
Fouling of Collins Electrical Generating Plant, Morris, IL (Folino 2000).
B-XINoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
In the Gulf of Bothnia, C. caspia was classified as having some habitat impacts (Zaiko et al. 2011).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
GL-II Lake Erie 1956 Def Estab
B-VII None 1871 Def Estab
AG-2 None 1984 Def Estab
NEA-II None 1842 Def Estab
B-X None 1872 Def Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1865 Def Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 1912 Def Estab
NA-S3 None 1918 Def Estab
GL-I Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan 1998 Def Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1926 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1944 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1920 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1959 Def Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1930 Def Estab
B-II None 1895 Def Estab
B-IX None 1924 Def Estab
B-XII None 1986 Def Estab
B-VI None 1872 Def Estab
B-XI None 1986 Def Estab
B-III None 1872 Def Estab
AUS-XI None 1922 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1883 Def Estab
SA-II None 1924 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 1984 Def Estab
SEP-H None 1944 Def Estab
CASP Caspian Sea 0 Native Estab
MED-IX None 0 Native Estab
MED-X None 0 Native Estab
AUS-VIII None 1984 Def Estab
MED-VII None 1978 Def Estab
CAR-III None 1925 Def Estab
B-IV None 1871 Def Estab
B-V None 1895 Def Estab
B-VIII None 1924 Def Estab
AUS-IX None 2002 Def Estab
AR-V None 1985 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1971 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1877 Def Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 1870 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1972 Def Estab
P260 Columbia River 1965 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 1995 Def Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 1952 Def Estab
N130 Great Bay 1986 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1959 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 1968 Def Estab
P270 Willapa Bay 2000 Def Estab
M010 Buzzards Bay 1899 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 1870 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1930 Def Estab
P135 _CDA_P135 (Mad-Redwood) 1975 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1998 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1920 Def Estab
P200 Alsea River 1968 Def Estab
P226 _CDA_P226 (Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu) 1976 Def Estab
P240 Tillamook Bay 1976 Def Estab
P293 _CDA_P293 (Strait of Georgia) 1998 Def Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 1976 Def Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 1918 Def Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 1944 Def Estab
G230 Mermentau River 1970 Def Estab
G080 Suwannee River 1994 Def Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 1926 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 1974 Def Estab
M030 Gardiners Bay 2003 Def Estab
N195 _CDA_N195 (Cape Cod) 1872 Def Estab
N180 Cape Cod Bay 2000 Def Estab
N170 Massachusetts Bay 1932 Def Estab
P114 _CDA_P114 (Gualala-Salmon) 1975 Def Estab
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1951 Def Estab
NEA-V None 1973 Def Estab
NEA-IV None 1901 Def Estab
SEP-A' None 2006 Def Estab
GL-III Lake Ontario 2008 Def Estab
S090 Stono/North Edisto Rivers 1974 Def Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 1928 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 2006 Def Estab
SA-III None 2011 Def Estab
MED-V None 1906 Def Unk
MED-IV None 1988 Def Estab
MED-III None 0 Def Estab
L013 _CDA_L013 (St. Louis River) 2000 Def Estab
L056 _CDA_L056 (Manistee) 2009 Def Estab
L046 _CDA_L046 (Pike-Root) 2009 Def Estab
L047 _CDA_L047 (Little Calumet-Galien) 1998 Def Estab
L095 _CDA_L095 (Cedar-Portage) 1956 Def Estab
L112 _CDA_L112 (Genesee River) 2008 Def Estab
L111 _CDA_L111 (Oak Orchard-Twelvemile) 2009 Def Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Def Estab
B-I None 1985 Def Estab
MED-II None 2006 Def Estab
MED-VI None 2008 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 1944 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 1925 Def Estab
NEA-III None 1994 Def Estab
SA-IV None 0 Def Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 2017 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
2566 Folino 2000 1998 1998-01-01 Joliet Def 41.1592 -87.5933
2567 Folino 2000 1998 1998-01-01 Collins Electrical Generating Plant, Morris Def 41.3572 -88.4211
2568 Davis 1957 1956 1956-01-01 Chagrin Harbor Def 41.6786 -81.4306
2569 Grigorovich et al. 2003 2000 2000-01-01 Duluth Def 46.7833 -92.1064
2570 Fraser 1944 1912 1912-01-01 Miramichi Estuary Def 47.1167 -65.1667
2571 Fraser 1944 1944 1944-01-01 Gaspe Def 48.8833 -64.4833
2572 Fraser 1944 1912 1912-01-01 St. Andrews Def 45.0667 -67.0333
2573 Blezard 1998 1998 1998-01-01 Newmarket Def 43.0829 -70.9351
2574 Gaulin et al. 1986 1986 1986-01-01 Great Bay Def 43.0669 -70.8686
2575 Blake 1932 1932 1932-01-01 Cambridge Def 42.3750 -71.1061
2576 MIT Sea Grant 2003 2003 2000-01-01 Constitution Marina, Boston Def 42.3583 -71.0603
2577 MIT Sea Grant 2003 2000 2000-01-01 State Pier, Gloucester Def 42.6158 -70.6625
2578 MIT Sea Grant 2003 2000 2000-01-01 Barnstable Def 41.7167 -70.2667
2579 Hargitt 1908 1908 1908-01-01 Woods Hole Def 41.5181 -70.6597
2580 Sumner et al. 1913 1908 1908-01-01 West Falmouth Def 41.7272 -70.4328
2581 Verrill and Smith 1873 1873 1873-01-01 brackish ponds Def 41.4444 -70.5944
2582 Leidy 1870 1870 1865-01-01 Newport Def 41.4900 -71.3133
2583 Smith et al. 2002 1995 1995-01-01 Essex Def 41.3533 -72.3911
2584 Smith et al. 2002 2002 2002-01-01 Hadley Def 42.3417 -72.5889
2585 Smith et al. 2002 2002 2002-01-01 Hinsdale Def 42.7861 -72.4869
2586 Ristich et al. 1977; Walton 1996 1972 1972-01-01 River Mile 54 (RKm 86), near Beacon NY Def 41.5047 -73.9700
2587 Ristich et al. 1977; Walton 1996 1972 1972-01-01 River Mile 71 (RKm 113), near Poughkeepsie Def 41.7003 -73.9214
2588 Leidy 1870; Potts 1884 1870 1870-01-01 Philadelphia Def 39.8811 -75.1972
2589 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Middle River Def 39.3136 -76.4106
2590 Clarke 1878 1877 1877-01-01 Curtis Creek Def 39.2194 -76.5744
2591 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Curtis Creek Def 39.2194 -76.5744
2592 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Baltimore (Pier 1, Pilot House) Def 39.2443 -76.6318
2593 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Magothy River Def 39.0553 -76.4256
2594 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1995 1995-01-01 Key Bridge Def 39.2506 -76.5208
2595 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Love Point (Kent Island) Def 39.0356 -76.3074
2596 Bibbins 1893 1893 1893-01-01 Severn River Def 38.9583 -76.4456
2597 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Severn River Def 38.9583 -76.4456
2598 Ruiz et al., unpublished data 1997 1997-01-01 Edgewater (SERC) Def 38.8647 -76.5150
2599 Cory 1967 1964 1964-01-01 Upper Marlboro Def 38.8158 -76.7500
2601 Cory 1967 1964 1964-01-01 Lower Marlboro Def 38.6558 -76.6822
2602 Banta and Backus 1991 1988 1988-01-01 Georgetown Def 38.9047 -77.0628
2603 Bibbins 1892 1892 1892-01-01 Fort Washington Def 38.7072 -77.0233
2604 Bibbins 1892 1892 1892-01-01 Potomac River Def 38.4003 -77.0425
2605 Spoon 1976 1976 1976-01-01 Piscataway Creek Def 38.7056 -77.0403
2606 Calder 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Tappahannock Def 37.9254 -76.8591
2607 Calder 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Mattaponi Indian Reservation Def 37.5172 -76.7919
2608 Calder 1971 1971 1971-01-01 West Point Def 37.3420 -76.3247
2609 Calder 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Lawnes Point Def 37.0406 -76.5557
2610 Calder 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Hog Island Point Def 36.9414 -76.4439
2611 Pearse 1936 1928 1928-01-01 Beaufort Def 34.7181 -76.6642
2612 Dean and Bellis 1975 1976 1976-01-01 Pamlico River Def 35.3181 -76.4331
2613 Eaton 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Currituck Sound Def 36.2833 -75.8708
2614 Calder 1976 1974 1974-01-01 Ashepoo River Def 32.4900 -80.4239
2615 Calder 1976 1974 1974-01-01 Upper Cooper River Def 32.7783 -79.9042
2616 Wurtz and Roback 1955 1952 1952-01-01 Escambia River estuary Def 30.5419 -87.1686
2617 Mason et al. 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Suwannee River estuary Def 29.2881 -83.1661
2618 Fraser 1944 1918 1918-01-01 Shreveport Def 32.5250 -93.7500
2619 Fraser 1944 1944 1944-01-01 Frenier Beach Def 30.1092 -90.4239
2620 Poirrier and Denoux 1973 1971 1971-01-01 New Orleans area Def 29.9544 -90.0750
2621 Defenbaugh 1973 1973 1973-01-01 Mississippi Sound Def 30.3503 -89.1528
2623 McClung et al. 1978 1976 1976-01-01 Sabine River Def 30.1167 -93.8167
2624 McClung et al. 1978 1974 1974-01-01 Angelina River Def 31.4575 -94.7258
2625 McClung et al. 1978 1976 1976-01-01 Brady Creek Def 31.1381 -99.3347
2627 McClung et al. 1978 1976 1976-01-01 Pecos River Def 30.6625 -101.7667
2628 Kelly and Franks 1995 1995 1995-01-01 Livingstone Reservoir Def 30.7233 -95.5506
2629 Smith 1910 1909 1909-01-01 Havana Def 40.3000 -90.0608
2630 Lipsey and Chimney 1978 1976 1976-01-01 Baldwin Lake Def 37.9714 -89.9481
2631 Ransom 1981 1922 1922-01-01 Benson Creek Def 38.2031 -84.8819
2632 Ransom 1981 1968 1968-01-01 Keystone Reservoir Def 36.1539 -95.9925
2633 Ransom 1981 1957 1957-01-01 Little Rock Def 34.7464 -92.2894
2634 Ransom 1981 1980 1980-01-01 Melvern Lake Def 38.5125 -95.7111
2654 Hand and Gwilliam 1951 1951 1951-01-01 Lake Merced Def 37.7180 -122.4930
2655 Hand and Gwilliam 1951 1951 1951-01-01 San Pablo Reservoir Def 37.9433 -122.2606
2656 Cohen and Carlton 1995 1979 1979-01-01 Delta-Mendota Canal Def 37.4321 -120.3722
2657 Carlton 1979 1979 1979-01-01 Freshwater Lagoon Def 41.2692 -124.0914
2658 Carlton 1979 1968 1968-01-01 Humboldt Bay Def 40.7500 -124.2083
2659 Mace and Mackie 1970; Carlton 1979 1959 1959-01-01 Coos Bay Def 43.3988 -124.2222
2660 Carlton 1979 1979 1979-01-01 Waldport Def 44.4417 -124.0500
2661 Carlton 1979 1979 1979-01-01 Nestucca River Def 45.1844 -123.9561
2662 Carlton 1979 1979 1979-01-01 Tillamook Bay Def 45.5131 -123.9153
2663 Cohen et al. 2001 2001 2001-05-21 Upper Palix River, Willapa Bay Def 46.6017 -123.8830
2664 Cohen et al. 2001 2001 2001-05-21 Palix River pilings, Willapa Bay Def 46.6030 -123.9131
2665 Cohen et al. 2001 2000 2000-05-18 Seattle Def 47.5107 -122.3032
2666 Mace and Mackie 1970 1969 1969-01-01 Victoria Def 48.4333 -123.3500
2667 Environment Canada 1994 1994 1994-01-01 Vancouver area Def 49.1000 -123.1667
2668 Carlton 1979 1920 1920-01-01 Seattle Def 47.6064 -122.3308
2669 Hildebrand 1939 1935 1935-01-01 Gatun Locks Def 9.2706 -79.9233
2670 Haertel and Osterberg 1967 1967 1967-01-01 Astoria Def 46.1881 -123.8300
2671 Cohen et al. 1998 1998 1998-01-01 Edson Def 48.5553 -122.4544
2672 US National Museum of Natural History 2011 1975 1975-02-10 Pedro Miguel Locks Def 9.0178 -79.6156
2673 US National Museum of Natural History 2011 1974 1974-08-23 At Airstrip, Canal Zone Def 9.1178 -79.7092
2674 Guajardo et al. 1987 1987 1987-01-01 Nuevo Leon Def 26.8181 -99.1717
2795 McClung and Davis 1983 1979 1979-01-01 North Bosque River Def 31.8547 -97.6036
2796 McClung and Davis 1983 1979 1979-01-01 Paint Rock Def 32.5775 -96.7418
2797 McClung and Davis 1983 1979 1979-01-01 Orla Def 31.8250 -103.9083
2798 McClung and Davis 1983 1979 1979-01-01 San Angelo Def 31.4636 -100.4367
2922 MIT Sea Grant 2004 2000 2000-08-14 Narragansett Boat Club, Cranston Def 41.8139 -71.4008
2923 MIT Sea Grant 2004 2003 2003-08-07 Jamesport Def 40.9494 -72.5819
2979 Coles et al. 2002 1971 1971-01-01 Oahu Def 21.4628 -157.8103
5955 Folino-Rorem et al. 2009 2007 2007-01-01 None Def 42.4509 -76.5145
5956 Folino-Rorem et al. 2008 2007 2007-01-01 Seneca Lake Def 42.6285 -76.9185
5957 Folino-Rorem et al. 2009 2007 2007-01-01 Rochester Def 43.2531 -77.6077
5987 Symsa et al. 2004 2002 2002-01-01 Fort Canby Def 46.2845 -124.0525
5988 Sytsma et al. 2005 2002 2002-01-01 culvert, Clatsop County Def 46.1295 -123.8776
5989 Sytsma et al. 2006 2006 2006-08-01 Windust Def 46.5319 -118.5798
5990 USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2006 2006-08-01 Columbia River, Lake Wallula Def 46.0653 -118.9164
6038 Lu et al. 2007 2005 2005-09-20 Government Dock, Port Alberni Def 49.2369 -124.8156
6893 Darling and Folino-Rorem 2009 2009 2009-01-01 Muskegon Def 43.2142 -86.2664
6894 Darling and Folino-Rorem 2009 2009 2009-01-01 Braddock Bay Def 43.4749 -77.7081
6895 Darling and Folino-Rorem 2009 2009 2009-01-01 Cayuga Lake Def 42.4695 -76.5032
6896 Darling and Folino-Rorem 2009 2009 2009-01-01 Chicago Def 41.8534 -87.6104
6898 Wintzer et al. 2011 2007 2007-01-01 Suisun Slough Def 38.2408 -122.0391
6899 Folino-Rorem et al. 2006 2002 2002-08-01 just below the Lake Nagawicka Dam, Hartford Def 43.0500 -88.4000

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