Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

Bimeria vestita was first described from the Firth of Forth, Scotland (Calder 1988), but is known from both sides of the Atlantic (from South Carolina-Argentina and Scotland-South Africa), the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Indian Ocean, and the East Pacific from Mexico to Chile (Fraser 1938; Calder and Hester 1978; Calder 1988; Migotto 1996; Rajagopal et al. 1997; Calder and Kirkendale 2005; Vervoort 2006; Oliveira and Marques 2007; Morri et al. 2009). Most records are temperate, but it was collected from Heard Island (53⁰S) in the Southern Ocean by the HMS 'Challenger' in 1888 (Marques et al. 2000), and is also known from fjords of southern Chile. It has been found in buoy fouling (as Bimeria humilus, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution 1952), but the degree to which its range has been extended by shipping is unknown. We regard it as cryptogenic over almost all of its worldwide range. Given the range of climates and habitats from which it is known, it is possible that 'B. vestita' represents a widespread species complex. Introduced specimens of B. vestita were collected in 2004 from Oakland in San Francisco Bay, California (Cohen et al. 2005) and in 2009 from Oahu, Hawaii (Calder 2010).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Bimeria vestita was collected for the first time in US Pacific waters during a shore survey at Fruitvale Bridge, Oakland, California in 2004 (Cohen et al. 2005). We have no records of further collections, but presume that it is established. It was collected in Ecuador and subtropical Pacific Mexico (Navidad Head, Jalisco, Mexico, 19.2⁰N) in 1934 (Fraser 1938).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Calder (2010) collected one colony of B. vestita in shallow water at the mouth of Kuapa Pond, an inlet in Hawaii Kai, Oahu. The hydroid was growing on an oyster shell on pilings. This is the first record of this species from Hawaii.


Bimeria vestita is a hydroid which lacks a planktonic medusa stage, undergoing sexual reproduction by means of attached gonophores. It forms erect, branching colonies arising from creeping stolons. The shoots have a central stalk with alternating branches. The ends of all of the branches bear hydranths. The perisarc around the hydranth, which extends onto the bases of the tentacles, is encrusted with detritus and fine sand. The hydranth is vase-shaped, 0.25-0.5 mm in size and merges gradually into the long pedicel. The hydranth has a conical hypostome and 9-16 tentacles, forming one whorl, or two very close whorls. The gonophores are pear-shaped sacs on stems and branches, lacking radial canals, and covered in loose, filmy perisarc, covered with detritus. The female gonophores bear only one egg, in which the planula is brooded before release. Each colony probably has a single sex, either all male or female. The colonies are yellowish, and range from 4-25 mm tall (description from: Calder 1988; Bouillon et al. 2004; Schuchert 2007; Calder 2010).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Cnidaria
Class:   Hydrozoa
Subclass:   Hydroidolina
Order:   Anthoathecatae
Suborder:   Filifera
Family:   Bougainvilliidae
Genus:   Bimeria
Species:   vestita


Bimeria humilis (Allman, 1877)
Bimeria vestita f. nana (Vervoort, 1946)
Eudendrium vestitum (Allman, 1888)
Garveia humilis (Vervoort, 1968)
Leuckartiara vestita (Vervoort, 1946)
Manicella fusca (Allman, 1859)
Perigonimus vestita (Mammen, 1963)
Perigonimus vestitus (Motz-Kossowska, 1805)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Garveia franciscana



Bimeria vestita is a sessile hydrozoan which lacks a planktonic medusa stage. Colonies grow on a solid substrate and produce gonophores, which produce either eggs or sperm. Once fertilized the egg develops into a ciliated non-feeding planula larva which is released into the water column (Calder 1988; Schuchert 2007). Planula larvae settle on a suitable substrate and develop into hydroid colonies (Barnes 1983). They can settle on a variety of substrates, including seaweeds, other fouling organisms, rocks, shells, pilings, and buoys (Genzano and Zamponi 1999; Galea 2007; Genzano et al. 2009; Calder 2010). The colonies feed on zooplankton by extending their tentacles into the water column and trapping prey with their nematocysts (Barnes 1983). This hydroid is known mostly from high-salinity marine habitats, but it does occur in the Black Sea (Schuchert 2007). In South Carolina estuaries, it occurs at 20-34 PSU (Calder 1976).


Zooplankton, Epibenthos

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatCoral reefNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Tidal RangeLow IntertidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Salinity (‰)18Typical Black Sea Salinity. Found at 20-34 PSU in south Carolina (Calder 1976).
Maximum Salinity (‰)38Typical Mediterranean Salinity Found at 20-34 PSU in South Carolina (Calder 1976).
Minimum Height (mm)25Calder 1988; Bouillon et al. 2004; Schuchert 2007; Calder 2010
Maximum Height (mm)25Schuchert et al. 2007
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

There are no reported impacts of the hydrozoan Bimeria vestita.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1877 Crypto Estab
SA-II None 1970 Crypto Estab
NEA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-V None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-II None 1859 Crypto Estab
MED-IX None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-III None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-I None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-II None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-II None 0 Crypto Estab
SA-I None 0 Crypto Estab
SA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
SA-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
CIO-II None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 2004 Def Estab
NEP-VIII None 1934 Crypto Estab
SEP-I None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-A' None 1907 Crypto Estab
NA-ET4 Bermuda 1907 Crypto Estab
ANT-AU2 None 1888 Crypto Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 2004 Def Estab
WA-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-V None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1978 Crypto Estab
SP-XXI None 2009 Def Unk
S080 Charleston Harbor 1978 Crypto Estab
S110 Broad River 1978 Crypto Estab
S100 St. Helena Sound 1978 Crypto Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 1956 Crypto Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-Z None 2015 Crypto Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Altuna, Alvaro (2007) Bathymetric distribution patterns and biodiversity of benthic Medusozoa (Cnidaria) in the Bay of Biscay(north-eastern Atlantic)., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87: 681-694

Barnes, Robert D. (1983) Invertebrate Zoology, Saunders, Philadelphia. Pp. 883

Bouillon, Jean; Medel, Maria Dolores; Pagès, Francesc; Gili, Josep-Maria; Boero, Ferdinando ; Gravili, Cinzia (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa., Scientia Marina 68(suppl. 2): 5-438

Browne, Edward T. (1907) The hydroids collected by the 'Huxley' from the north side of the Bay of Biscay in August 1906., Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 8: 15-36

Calder, D. R.; Mallinson, J. J.; Collins, K.; Hickman, C. P. (2003) Additions to the hydroids (cnidaria) of the Galapagos, with a list of species reported from the islands, Journal of Natural History 37: 1173-1218

Calder, D.R. (1988) Shallow-water hydroids of Bermuda: the Athecatae, Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 148: 1-107

Calder, Dale R. (1976) The zonation of hydroids along salinity gradients in South Carolina estuaries, In: (Eds.) Coelenterate Ecology and Behavior. , New York. Pp. 165-174

Calder, Dale R. (1988) Shallow water hydroids of Bermuda. The Athecatae.”, Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 148: 1-107

Calder, Dale R. (2010) Some anthoathecate hydroids and limnopolyps (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Hawaiian archipelago, Zootaxa 2590: 1-91

Calder, Dale R.; Hester, Betty S. (1978) Phylum Cnidaria., In: Zingmark, Richard G.(Eds.) An Annotated Checklist of the Biota of the Coastal Zone of South Carolina. , Columbia. Pp. 87-93

Calder, Dale R.; Kirkendale, Lisa (2005) Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from shallow-water environments along the Caribbean coast of Panama., Caribbean Journal of Science 41(3): 476-491

Cohen, Andrew N. and 10 authors (2005) <missing title>, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland CA. Pp. <missing location>

Fauchauld, Kristian (1977) Polychaetes from Intertidal Areas in Panama, with a Review of Previous Shallow-Water Records, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 221: 1-81

Fraser, C. McLean (1937) <missing title>, The University of Toronto Press, Toronto,. Pp. <missing location>

Fraser, C. McLean (1938) Hydroids of the 1934 Allan Hancock Pacific expediton., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 4(1): 1-106

Fraser, C. McLean (1948) Hydroids of the Alan Hancock Pacific expeditions since 1938, Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 4-5: 179-343

Galea, Horia R. (2007) Hydroids and hydromedusae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the fjords region of southern Chile., Zootaxa 1597: 1-116

Galea, Horia R.; Häussermann, Verena; Försterra, Günter (2007) Cnidaria, Hydrozoa: latitudinal distribution of hydroids along the fjords region of southern Chile, with notes on the world distribution of some species., Check List 3(4): 308-320

Genzano, Gabriel N.; Giberto, Diego; Schejter, Laura; Bremec, Claudia; Meretta, Pablo (2009) Hydroid assemblages from the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (34-42 S), Marine Ecology 30: 33-46

Genzano, Gabriel N.; Zamponi, Mauricio O. (1999) Natural history of Bimeria vestitia Wright, 1859 (Hydrozoa, Bougainvillidae) in the rocky intertidal of Mar del Plata, Argentina., Ciencias Marinas 25(1): 63-74

Haydar, Deniz (2012) What is natural? The scale of cryptogenesis in the North Atlantic Ocean, Diversity and Distributions 18: 101-110

Kelmo, Francisco; Attrill, Martin J.; Jones, Malcolm B. (2002) Effects of the 1997-1998 El Nino on the cnidarian community of a high turbidity coral reef system (northern Bahia, Brazil), Coral Reefs 22: 541-550

Marques, A.C.; Mergner, H.; Höinghaus, R.; Vervoort, W. (2000) Bimeria vestita (Hydrozoa: Anthomedusae: Bougainvilliidae) senior synonym of Eudendrium vestitum (Hydrozoa: Anthomedusae: Eudendriidae)., Zoologische Mededelingen 73(2): 321-325

Mendoza-Becerril, María de los Angeles; Marques, Antonio C. (2013) Synopsis on the knowledge and distribution of the family Bougainvilliidae (Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina), Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 41(5): 908-924

Migotto, A.E. (1996) Benthic shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the coast of Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, including a checklist of Brazilian hydroids, Zoologische Verhandelingen 306: 3-125

Morri, Carla; Puce, Stefania; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Bitar, Ghazi; Zibrowius, Helmut; Bavestrello, Giorgio (2009) Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the Levant Sea (mainly Lebanon), with emphasis on alien species, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 81: 49-62

Oliveira, Otto M. P.; Marques, Antonio C. (2007) Epiphytic hydroids (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata and Leptothecata) of the World., Check List 3(1): 20-38

Quintanilla, Elena; Thomas Wilke; Ramırez-Portilla, Catalina; Sarmiento, Adriana; Sanchez, Juan A.2017 (2017) Taking a detour: invasion of an octocoral into the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Biological Invasions <missing volume>(17): 2583–2597
DOI 10.1007/s10530-017-1469-2

Rajagopal, S.;Nair, K.V.K.; Van Der Velde, G.; Jenner, H.A. (1997) Seasonal settlement and succession of fouling communities in Kalpakkam, east coast of India., Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Ecology 30(4): 309-325

Ruiz, Gregory M.; Geller, Jonathan (2018) Spatial and temporal analysis of marine invasions in California, Part II: Humboldt Bay, Marina del Re, Port Hueneme, and San Francisco Bay, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center & Moss Landing Laboratories, Edgewater MD, Moss Landing CA. Pp. <missing location>

Schuchert, Peter (2007) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Filifera Part 2, Revue Suisse de Zoolgie 114(2): 195-396

Shimabukuro, Vanessa; Marques, Antonio C.; Migotto, Alvaro E. (2006) Fauna de hidrozoários atecados (Hydrozoa, Anthoathecata) da costa do Estado do Ceará, Brasil., Biota Neotropica 6(3): published online

Vervoort, W. (2006) Leptolida (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) collected during the CANCAP and Mauritania-II expeditions of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands [Anthoathecata, various families of Leptothecata and addenda]., Zoologische Mededelingen 80-1(11): 181-318

Wedler, Eberhard; Larson, Ronald (1986) Athecate hydroids from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 21: 69-101

Wijsman, J.W.M.; Smaal, A.C. (2006) <missing title>, Wageningen IMARES (Institute for Marine Resources & Ecosystem Studies), Jmuiden, Yeserke, Texel. Pp. <missing location>

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, United States Navy Dept. Bureau of Ships (1952) Marine fouling and its prevention., United States Naval Institute., Washington, D.C.. Pp. 165-206

Young, Craig S; Gobler, Christopher J. (None) Coastal ocean acidification and nitrogen loading facilitate invasions of the non-indigenous red macroalga, Dasysiphonia japonica, Biological Invasions <missing volume>: 1367-1391(