Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1873
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1893
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1873

General Invasion History:

Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) is native on the Atlantic Slope from Virginia or North Carolina south to Florida, and on the Gulf slope west to Texas, and in the interior Great Lakes-St. Lawrence and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Manitoba south (Page and Burr 1991). The original range on the Atlantic Coastal Plain is uncertain because of extensive introductions and uncertain early records. The Black Crappie was widely introduced by the United States Fish Commission (USFC) starting in 1894 and by state fish commissions. In early stockings, it was usually mixed with White Crappie, and usually recorded as 'crappie' or 'Calico Bass' (Smith and Bean 1898). Shipments and stocking by the USFC continued to 1930s, and has been continued by many state agencies to the present. Black Crappies have been introduced to river systems in 37 states (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2022), and to France and Germany, where they failed to become established (Lever 1996). They are established on the Atlantic Coast from Chesapeake Bay to Maine and on the West Coast jn the San Francisco Bay, Columbia, and Fraser River estuaries (Carl and Giguet 1972; Cohen and Carlton 1995; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2022).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

The history of the Black and White Crappies is confused, since the two species were often transported in mixed shipments and/or just treated as 'crappies' (Lampman 1946; Dill and Cordone 1997). The earliest stockings of 'crappies' on the West Coast were a stocking of 285 fish in Lake Washington, Seattle, and a planting of 235 fish, in Lake Cuyamaca, San Diego County in 1891. The Lake Cuyamaca introduction was unsuccessful (Smith 1895; Dill and Cordone 1997). The first successful establishment appears to have been on the Columbia River, probably resulting from a release of Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), mixed with sunfishes and 'crappies', made on the Willamette River, in Salem, Oregon, made by the USFC in 1893. A Black Crappie caught in Columbia Slough, Portland, in 1905, was believed to come from that stocking. In Portland in 1905, a collection of spiny-rayed fishes from the Illinois River was displayed during the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, and later released (Lampman 1946). The Black Crappie is well established in the Portland area (Farr and Ward 1992; Van Dyke et al. 2009), and in sloughs of the lower Columbia, near Clatskanie (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2022).

A large USFC shipment of 'crappies' from Illinois was stocked in many lakes and rivers, including many sites in Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed. Although Black and White Crappies were frequently confused, the consensus is that all of 'Crappies' stocked in central California in 1908 were Black Crappie, and the first White Crappie were probably first introduced in central California in 1951 (Herbold and Moyle (1989, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995; Dill and Cordone 1997; Moyle 2002). In 1963–1964, Black Crappies were 71% of centrarchids in the tidal freshwater Delta (Turner 1966, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995). In 1980s–2003, they were less abundant (>1 to 2% of the total catch, Feyrer and Healy 2003; Brown and Michniuk 2007; Grimaldo et al. 2012).

The Black Crappie was first found in Hatzic Lake, near Mission, British Columbia, adjacent to the Fraser River, in 1933, probably transplanted from lakes in the state of Washington (Carl and Giguet 1972). It was rare in the Fraser estuary in surveys in 1972–1973 and 1993–1994 (Richardson et al. 2000).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The Black Crappie is native to the Atlantic Coastal Plain, but its northern boundary is somewhat uncertain. Jenkins and Burkhead consider P. nigromaculatus to be probably native to the James River, based on Cope's (1869) record, but it also could have been introduced much earlier (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). It was probably introduced elsewhere in the Chesapeake drainage, based on lack of early records and spotty present distribution. Uhler and Lugger (1876) reported it from Maryland, 'Its precise location in the state is unknown, but, probably in some of the streams emptying into the lower Potomac. It was said to occur near the mouth of the Chester River and sold in the Baltimore markets as "Strawberry Perch".' Jenkins and Burkhead (1993) suggest that these market fish could have come from the Ohio drainage. However P. nigromaculatus had colonized the Delaware by 1873 (Abbott 1877), and perhaps could have reached the upper Bay via the Chesapeake & Delaware canal. First records in major northeastern rivers are: James (1867); York (1949); Rappahannock (1959); Potomac (1894); Susquehanna (1877); Delaware (1873); Hudson (1935); Connecticut (1943); Kennebec (1985), indicating a mix of very early introductions and 20th century state and private releases.

As noted above, the Black Crappie is considered probably native to the James River (Cope 1869; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). The Black Crappie was abundant in the tidal Pamunkey by 1949, which was the first verified record (Raney and Massmann 1953; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). The first record in the Rappahannock was in 1959, and it was later abundant in the tidal fresh river (Maurakis et al. 1987). The Black Crappie was stocked in the Potomac by the USFC in 1889–1919 (Worth 1895; Leach 1921), and 'have become very common in places; notably Little River, Four-mile Run and in the river near Seven Locks' (Smith and Bean 1898). It is rare in mainstem of the river; but is found in tributaries (primarily nontidal) to the Wicomico River and St. Clements Bay (Lippson et al. 1979; Ernst et al. 1995). The Black Crappie was stocked in the Susquehanna by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission in 1877. Two fish were caught at Port Deposit, in the tidal river (Bean 1893). This fish was 'said to occur' at the mouth of the Chester River, according to fish merchants (Uhler and Lugger 1876). However, it was not found in early upper Bay surveys (Fowler 1917; Fowler 1933; Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928; Radcliffe and Welsh 1917). The first published catch records for the Upper Bay are for a creel survey in the Northeast River (Elser 1960). This species was caught in the Chesapeake and Delaware canal (Wang 1971) and at the mouth of the Sassafras River (Kauffman et al. 1980). It has also been caught in the Rhode River, but is very rare (Aguilar, personal communication).

In the Delaware River estuary, near Trenton, Abbott reported them as apparently newly arrived in the Delaware Estuary in 1873; 'so it is quite certain that a supply of them has been received from some locality; but how or when I have no knowledge. It may be possible that they could reach the Delaware River through the Delaware and Chesapeake Canal...' (Abbott 1877). Abbott noted the occurrence of other introduced fishes, the Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) and the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), so the Black Crappie could easily have been included in those introductions. The Black Crappie is established in the Delaware River estuary, but appears to be rare (Horwitz 1986; Weisberg et al. 1996). However, Smith (1971) collected 449 fish, mostly in tidal freshwater tributaries, but a few in brackish water up to 6 PSU in Delaware and New Jersey.

The first record of the Black Crappie in the Hudson River system was by Greeley (1935, cited by Mills et al. 1997), who reported it as stocked in the Mohawk drainage by the US Bureau of Fisheries in the early 1900s. The Erie Canal is also a possible vector (Mills et al. 1997). It is considered common in the lower and upper Hudson estuary, as well as the Mohawk River (Daniels et al. 2005). The Black Crappie was introduced to Connecticut in 1942 and was present in the tidal Connecticut River in 1965–1972 (Marcy 1976) and 1988–2002 (Jacobson et al. 2004). This was a popular fish, and widely stocked in ponds and rivers in New England (Hartel 2002; Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2022). It was discovered in Sebago Lake, Maine, in 1952 (Everhart 1966), and found below the dam in Augusta in 1983. It is established in tidal fresh water in Merrymeeting Bay (Kennebec River Council 1999). The Black Crappie was introduced to the Penobscot River basin in 1957 has been found in 7 lakes and ponds, but has not yet been reported from the river (Gallagher and Dill 2010).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Pomoxis nigromaculatus  (Black Crappie) has been introduced to 37 US states (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database 2022).  It was introduced to France in 1887, where it reportedly became a pest, and was exported to Germany, but did not persist in Europe (Lever 1996). It was unsuccessfully introduced to Gatun Lake, on the Panama Canal in 1925, but was introduced in several mountain lakes, including Laguna de San Carlos and Mata Ahogad in Panama, and Lake Atitlan, Guatemala (Lever 1996).


Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) is a medium-sized freshwater fish. Fishes of the genus Centrarchidae (Sunfishes and Black Basses) have a laterally compressed body. They have a spiny and a soft dorsal fin, which are fused. They have 3–8 anal spines, thoracic pelvic fins, and ctenoid scales. Crappies (Pomoxis spp.) have a long predorsal region, with a concave dip over the eye. The mouth is large, with upper jaw extending beneath the eye, and the body is strongly compressed laterally. In the Black Crappie, the length of the dorsal fin base is about equal to the distance from the eye to the dorsal fin origin. There are 7–8 dorsal spines, increasing in length rearward, and 15–16 dorsal rays. The anal fin has 6–7 spines and 17–19 rays. The lateral line is strongly arched and has 34–45 scales. The Black Crappie reaches a length of 490 mm, but more usually 100–300 mm. The color is gray-green above, with silvery-blue sides, marked with wavy black lines, blotches, and iridescent green flecks 6–9 chain-like dusky bars on the side. There are several bands of black blotches on the dorsal, anal, and tail fins (Hardy 1978; Page and Burr 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Vertebrata
Superclass:   Osteichthyes
Class:   Actinopterygii
Subclass:   Neopterygii
Infraclass:   Teleostei
Superorder:   Acanthopterygii
Order:   Perciformes
Suborder:   Percoidei
Family:   Centrarchidae
Genus:   Pomoxis
Species:   nigromaculatus


Cantharus nigro-mactulatus (LeSueur in: Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829)
Pomoxys nigromaculatus (Hay, 1881)
Pomoxis nigromaculatus (Cook, 1959)
Pomoxys sparoides (Hay, 1883)
Pomoxis barberi (Hildebrand and Towers 1928, 1928)
Pomoxis sparoides (Hildebrand and Towers, 1928)
Centrarchus hexacanthus (Valenciennes, 1831)
Pomoxys hexacanthus (None, None)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Pomoxis annularis

The White Crappie (Pomoxis annularis has a longer predorsal area, and a shorter dorsal fin with six spines. It is native to the Great Lakes and Mississippi Basin, and is introduced to the Columbia River, the San Francisco estuary Delta, and Coastal Plain rivers from the Potomac to the Connecticut (Page and Burr 1991; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2022).



Black Crappies tolerate a temperature range from 4 to 32.5 °C, and survive under ice-cover in much of their range (Hardy 1978). Most estuarine records are from tidal fresh water, but specimens have been collected at a salinity of 5.9 PSU (Smith 1971). This fish is tolerant of somewhat acidic water, and is common in the Dismal Swamp of Virginia (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). Black Crappies inhabit lakes, reservoirs, sloughs, ponds, swamps, and backwaters and pools of streams. They are often associated with vegetation and coarse woody debris (Hardy 1978; Wang 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). Young Black Crappie feed on zooplankton, and in the Delta, mysids and amphipods, while adult fish feed smaller fishes, including juveniles of Threadfin Shad (Dorosoma petenense) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis). Predators include other fishes, birds, and humans.


Fishes, invertebrates, terrestrial insects


Fishes, Birds, Humans


White Crappie, Sunfishes

Trophic Status:




General HabitatFresh (nontidal) MarshNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatSwampNone
General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatNektonicNone

Life History

Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) is a medium-sized predatory freshwater fish. In wamer climates, they can mature at one year of age, but more usually, in their second or third year, at 100 to 200 mm length. Spawning takes place early in the season (March to July) at 16–21 °C, in freshwater, on bottoms on gravel, sand, clay, or mud, or under undercut banks. Adult male fish move into shallow water, ~0.3–6 m deep, near shore, and nest in loose colonies. Males excavate shallow nests, often near vegetation, and guard the nesting site against other males, and court females. Females can carry 2700–158,000 eggs. Females may spawn with more than one male, and males may spawn with more than female. Males vigorously guard the eggs through hatching to the postlarval stage. Eggs take 2–3 days to develop at 18.3 °C. The postlarvae swim in schools in shallow, weedy waters (Hardy 1978; Wang 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002). Adults in Virginia typically live up to 7 years, but one specimen lived for 13 years (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993).

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)4Field, Hardy 1978
Maximum Temperature (ºC)32.5Field, Hardy 1978
Minimum Salinity (‰)0This is a freshwater fish.
Maximum Salinity (‰)5.9Field record, Delaware estuary, tidal creek (Smith 1971).
Minimum pH5.1This species tolerates acidic water (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993).The given pH was the lower limit for reproduction in an acidified portion of an MI Lake (Eaton et al. 1992).
Minimum Reproductive Salinity0This is a freshwater fish.
Minimum Length (mm)150Minimum adult length
Maximum Length (mm)488None
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Subtropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneLimnetic-Mesohaline

General Impacts

Black Crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) is a capable mid-sized predatory fish, and is also a popular game and food fish (Lampman 1946; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002). 

Regional Impacts

P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactPredation
Black Crappies in the Delta feed on mysids as juveniles, and as adults, on juveniles of Threadfin Shad (Dorosoma petenense) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) (Turner 1966, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995; Moyle 2002).
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Websites indicate that the Black Crappie is a popular sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.
P260Columbia RiverEconomic ImpactFisheries
Websites indicate that Black Crappies are an important sport fish in the tidal Columbia River.
CACaliforniaEcological ImpactPredation
Black Crappies in the Delta feed on mysids as juveniles, and as adults, on juveniles of Threadfin Shad (Dorosoma petenense) and Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) (Turner 1966, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995; Moyle 2002).
CACaliforniaEconomic ImpactFisheries
Websites indicate that the Black Crappie is a popular sport fish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1935 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1893 Def Estab
M010 Buzzards Bay 1967 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 1942 Def Estab
P260 Columbia River 1893 Def Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 1873 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 0 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1908 Def Estab
N090 Kennebec/Androscoggin River 1983 Def Estab
NA-S3 None 0 Native Unk
GL-I Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan 0 Native Estab
GL-II Lake Erie 0 Native Estab
GL-III Lake Ontario 0 Native Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 0 Native Estab
S020 Pamlico Sound 0 Native Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 0 Native Estab
S040 New River 0 Native Estab
S060 Winyah Bay 0 Native Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 0 Native Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 0 Native Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 0 Native Estab
S045 _CDA_S045 (New) 0 Native Estab
S050 Cape Fear River 0 Native Estab
S070 North/South Santee Rivers 0 Native Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Native Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Native Estab
S090 Stono/North Edisto Rivers 0 Native Estab
S100 St. Helena Sound 0 Native Estab
S110 Broad River 0 Native Estab
S120 Savannah River 0 Native Estab
S130 Ossabaw Sound 0 Native Estab
S140 St. Catherines/Sapelo Sounds 0 Native Estab
S150 Altamaha River 0 Native Estab
S160 St. Andrew/St. Simons Sounds 0 Native Estab
S170 St. Marys River/Cumberland Sound 0 Native Estab
S175 _CDA_S175 (Nassau) 0 Native Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Native Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 0 Native Estab
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 0 Native Estab
S190 Indian River 0 Native Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 0 Native Estab
G010 Florida Bay 0 Native Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G040 Rookery Bay 0 Native Estab
G045 _CDA_G045 (Big Cypress Swamp) 0 Native Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 0 Native Estab
G056 _CDA_G056 (Sarasota Bay) 0 Native Estab
G060 Sarasota Bay 0 Native Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 0 Native Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 0 Native Estab
G078 _CDA_G078 (Waccasassa) 0 Native Estab
G076 _CDA_G076 (Withlachoochee) 0 Native Estab
G078 _CDA_G078 (Waccasassa) 0 Native Estab
G080 Suwannee River 0 Native Estab
G086 _CDA_G086 (Econfina-Steinhatchee) 0 Native Estab
G090 Apalachee Bay 0 Native Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 0 Native Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 0 Native Estab
G140 Perdido Bay 0 Native Estab
G150 Mobile Bay 0 Native Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G180 Breton/Chandeleur Sound 0 Native Estab
G190 Mississippi River 0 Native Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 0 Native Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 0 Native Estab
G230 Mermentau River 0 Native Estab
G230 Mermentau River 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G270 Brazos River 0 Native Estab
G290 San Antonio Bay 0 Native Estab
G280 Matagorda Bay 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 0 Native Estab
G320 Upper Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
P160 Coquille River 2013 Def Estab
P298 _CDA_P298 (Fraser) 1933 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Abbott, C. C. (1877) IV. Notes on some fishes of the Delaware River. A. The larger acanthopterous fishes of the Dealware River, Report of the U. S. Fish Commission 1875-1876: 825-840

Bean, Tarleton H. (1883) Notes on fishes observed at the head of Chesapeake Bay in the spring of 1882 and upon other species of rhe same region., Proceedings of the United States National Museum 6: 365-367

Bean, Tarleton H. (1893) The fishes of Pennsylvania, In: (Eds.) . , Harrisburg PA. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel; Christmas, John; Randle, Douglas; Kazyak, Paul (1997) Elk River Basin: Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel; Dail, Helen M.; Kazyak, Paul F. (1997) <missing title>, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Brown, Larry R.; Michniuk, Dennis (2007) Littoral fish assemblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 1980-1983 and 2001-2003., Estuaries and Coasts 90: 186-200

Carl, G. Clifford, Clemens, W. A., Lindsey, C. C. (1967) Fresh-water fishes of British Columbia, British Columbia Provincial Museum: Department of Recreation and Conservation: Handbook 5: 1-192

Carl, G. Clifford; Guiguet, C. J. (1972) Alien animals in British Columbia., British Columbia Provincial Museum: Department of Recreation and Conservation: Handbook 14: 1-102

Cavallo, Bradley; Merz, Joseph; Setka, Jose (2013) Effects of predator and flow manipulation on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) survival in an imperiled estuary, Environmental Biology of Fishes 393: 393-403

Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Sea Grant College Program (Connecticut Sea Grant), Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp. <missing location>

Cope, Edward Drinker (1869) On the distribution of fishes in the Allegheny region of southwestern Virginia, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 6(2): 207-249

Cope, Edward Drinker (1879) The Fishes of Pennsylvania, In: (Eds.) Report of the State Commisioners of Fisheries. , Harrisburg. Pp. <missing location>

Daniels, Robert A.; Limburg, Karin E.; Schmidt, Robert E; Strayer, David L.; Chambers, R. Christopher (2005) Changes in fish assemblages in the tidal Hudson river, New York., American Fisheries Society Symposium 45: 471-503

Dill, William A.; Cordone, Almo J. (1997) History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996, California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin 178: 1-414

Eaton, John G.; Swenson, William A.; McCormick, J. Howard; Simonson, Timothy D.; Jensen, Kathleen M. (1992) A field and laboratory investigation of acid effects on largemouth bass, rock bass, black crappie, and yellow perch, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121: 644-658

Elser, Harold J. (1960) Creel results on the Northeast River, Maryland, 1958, Chesapeake Science 1: 41-47

Ernst, Carl H.; Wilgenbusch, James C.,; Morgan, Donald L.; Boucher, Timothy P.; Sommerfield, Mark (1995) Fishes of Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Maryland Naturalist 39(3-4): 1-60

Everhart, W. Harry (1966) Fishes of Maine, In: (Eds.) . , Augusta, Maine. Pp. <missing location>

Farr, Ruth A., Ward, David L. (1992) Fishes of the lower Willamette River, near Portland, Oregon, Northwest Science 67(1): 16-22

Feyrer, Frederick; Healey, Michael P. (2003) Fish community structure and environmental correlates in the highly altered southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta., Environmental Biology of Fishes 66: 123-132

Fowler, Henry W. (1917) Notes on fishes from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 69: 108-126

Fowler, Henry W. (1933) Notes on Maryland fishes, The Fish Culturist 13(1): 8-9

Grimaldo, Lenny; Miller, Robert E.; Hymanson, ZacharyPeregrin, Chris M., (2012) Fish assemblages in reference and restored tidal freshwater marshes of the San Francisco estuary, San Francisco Estuary and Watershed Science 10(1):

Hardy, Jerry D., Jr. (1978) Development of fishes of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Vol. 3. Aphredoderidae through Rachycentridae., In: (Eds.) . , Washington DC. Pp. <missing location>

Hartel, Karsten E.; Halliwell, David B.; Launer, Alan E. (2002) Inland Fishes of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln MA. Pp. 328 pp.

Herbold, Bruce; Moyle, Peter B (1986) Introduces species and vacant niches, American Naturalist 128(5): 751-760

Hildebrand, Samuel F.; Schroeder, William C. (1928) Fishes of Chesapeake Bay, Unites States Bureau of Bisheries Bulletin 53(Pt. 1): 1-388

Hoff, James G., Ibara, Richard M. (1977) Factors affecting the seasonal abundance, composition and diversity of fishes in a southeastern New England estuary, Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 5: 665-678

Horwitz, Richard J. (1986) Fishes of the Delaware estuary in Pennsylvania., In: Majundar, S.K., Brenner, F. J., Rhoads, A. F.(Eds.) Endangered and Threatened Species Programs in Pennsylvania.. , Philadelphia. Pp. 177-201

Hughes, Robert M., Gammon, James R. (1987) Longitudinal changes in fish assemblages and water quality in the Willamette River, Oregon, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 116: 196-209

Jacobson, Paul M. (1980) Studies of the Ichthyofauna of Connecticut, Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station. Papers 82: 1-39

Jenkins, Robert E.; Burkhead, Noel M. (1993) Freshwater Fishes of Virginia, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. Pp. <missing location>

Jordan, David Starr (1890) Report of explorations made during the summer and autumn of 1888 in the Alleghany region of Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennesee, and in Western Indiana, with an account of the fishes found in each of the river basins of those regions, Bulletin of the U. S. Fish Commission 8: 97-173

Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary (1994) <missing title>, <missing publisher>, <missing place>. Pp. <missing location>

Kaufman, Leslie S., Otto, Robert G., Miller, Paul E., Jr. (1980) On distribution and abundance of juvenile fishes in the upper Chesapeake Bay, Special Report, Chesapeake Bay Institute, Johns Hopkins University 78: 1-47

Kazyak, Paul F.; Christmas, John F.; Naylor, Michael D.; Kelly, Suzanne M.; Stranko, Scott A. (1998) Pocomoke river Basin- Assessment of Stream Condtions, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Kennebec River Council 1999 The Fishery Resources of the Kennebec River. <missing URL>

Kraus, Richard T.; Jones, R. Christian (2012) Fish abundances in shoreline habitats and submerged aquatic vegetation in a tidal freshwater embayment of the Potomac River, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 3341-3357

Krauss, R.W.; Brown, R. G.; Rappleye, R. D.; Owens, A. B.; Shearer, C.; Hsiao, E.; Reveal, J. (1971) <missing title>, Botany Department, College Park, Maryland. Pp. <missing location>

Lampman, Ben Hur (1946) Coming of the Pond Fishes, Binfords & Mort, Portland, OR. Pp. <missing location>

Leach, Glenn H. (1921) Report on the propagation and distribution of food fishes., In: (Eds.) Report of the United States Bureau of Fisheries for 1919.. , Washington D.C.. Pp. <missing location>

Lee, David S.; Norden, Arnold; Gilbert, Carter, R.; Franz, Richard (1976) A list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware, Chesapeake Science 17(3): 205-211

Leidy, R. A. (2007) <missing title>, San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland. Pp. <missing location>

Lever, Christopher (1996) Naturalized fishes of the world, Academic Press, London, England. Pp. <missing location>

Lippson, Alice J.; Haire, Michael S.; Holland, A. Frederick; Jacobs, Fred; Jensen, Jorgen; Moran-Johnson, R. Lynn; Polgar, Tibor T.; Richkus, William (1979) Environmental atlas of the Potomac Estuary, Martin Marietta Corp., Baltimore, MD. Pp. <missing location>

Love, Joseph W.; Gill, John; Newhard, Joshua J. (2008) Saltwater intrusion impacts fish diversity and distribution in the Blackwater River drainage (Chesapeake bay Watershed), Wetlands 28(4): 967-974

Mansueti, Romeo J. (1950) Summary of fish collections made in the Chesapeake Bay area of Maryland and Virginia during October, 1953, M.S. Thesis, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Pp. <missing location>

Marcy, Barton C., Jr. (1976) Fishes of the lower Connecticut River and the effects of the Connecticut Yankee Plant, American Fisheries Society Monograph 1: 61-113

Marine Research Inc. (1992) Brayton Point Investigations, Quarterly Progress Report, November 1991-January 1992, Marine Research Inc., Falmouth, Massachusetts. Pp. <missing location>

Matern, Scott A.; Moyle, Peter; Pierce, Leslie C. (2002) Native and alien fishes in a California estuarine marsh: twenty-one years of changing assemblages, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131: 797-816

Matern, Scott; Meng, Lesa; Pierce, Leslie C. (2001) Native and introduced larval fishes of Suisun Marsh, California: the effects of freshwater flow., Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130: 750-765

Maurakis, Eugene; Woolcott, William S.; Jenkins, Robert E. (1987) Physiographic analyses of the longitudinal distribution of fishes in the Rappahannock River, Virginia, ASB Bulletin 34(1): 1-14

Mills, Edward L.; Scheuerell, Mark D.; Carlton, James T.; Strayer, David (1997) Biological invasions in the Hudson River: an inventory and historical analysis., New York State Museum Circular 57: 1-51

Page, Lawrence M.; Burr, Brooks M. (1991) Freshwater Fishes: North America North of Mexico, Houghton-Mifflin, Boston. Pp. <missing location>

Raasch, Maynard S. (1996) Delaware's Freshwater and Brackish-water Fishes: A Popular Account, T.F.H. Publications, Neptune, NJ. Pp. <missing location>

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