Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1855
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1908
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1855

General Invasion History:

The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is native to the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence and Mississippi Basins, from Quebec and New York south to the Gulf; and south on the Coastal Plain and Gulf Slope from Pee Dee or Cape Fear River basins to Rio Grande (Lee et al. 1980; Page and Burr 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). The original range of the Bluegill on the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain is uncertain because of probable early introductions. Bluegills were widely introduced by the United States Fish Commission and state fish commissions, usually recorded as 'Sun-fish' or 'Bream', probably with a mixture of species. Many of these stockings were in small ponds, recorded by pond name only, so the full extent of the introductions is difficult to trace. Shipments and stocking by United States Fish Commission (USFC) continued into the 1930s to the present by many state agencies. Bluegills have been introduced into river systems in 36 states (Fuller et al. 1999), including Hawaii, and into southwestern Canada, Panama, Venezuela, South Africa, Japan, and the Philippines (Lever 1996). On the West Coast, they have been introduced to the San Francisco and Columbia River estuaries, and also into some smaller coastal estuaries (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Sytsma et al. 2004).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

The dates of introduction of Bluegills to West Coast watersheds is uncertain, because many shipments and stockings of 'sunfishes' or 'bream' were of mixtures of species, presumably Bluegills and Green Sunfish, but possibly others (Smith 1895; Lampman 1946; Dill and Cordone 1997). Bluegills may have been released into the Willamette River in Salem, Oregon, during a stocking in 1893, or during the disposal of a large exhibit of 'spiny-rayed' fishes from the Lewis and Clark exhibition in Portland in 1905 (Lampman 1946). Some of the early plantings of Green Sunfish in Lake Cuyamaca, the Feather River, and Lake Elsinore, California in 1891 may have also included Bluegill (Dill and Cordone 1997). The first definite release of Bluegills in the San Francisco Bay watershed was in 1908, including lakes in Lassen, Placer, Lake, Sacramento, and San Joaquin counties, including the San Joaquin River at Stockton (Shebley 1917; Dill and Cordone 1895). In the Columbia River estuary, the first definite capture was in Kalama, Washington, downstream of Portland in 1930 (Chapman 1943).

The Bluegill was collected in several San Francisco Bay watershed streams by the 1940s (Leidy 2007). By 1966, Bluegill were the second most abundant centrarchid fish collected in the Delta (Turner 1966, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995). From the 1980s to 2000, Bluegills comprised 10–30% of the total fish caught in freshwaters of the Delta (Feyrer and Healy 2003; Brown and Michniuk 2007; Grimaldo et al. 2012; Mahardja et al. 2017). However, they were rare (<1% of the total) in the fresh-brackish Suisun marsh (Matern et al. 2002). In the Columbia River basin, Bluegills seem to be rare in the mainstem of rivers (Hughes and Gammon 1987; Farr and Ward 1994), but common to abundant in lakes and sloughs (Lampman 1994; Van Dyke et al. 2009). Bluegills probably occur occasionally in smaller West Coast estuaries, but records are scarce, and may be dependent on stream flow, rainfall, dikes and barrier beaches that reduce seawater inflow, and a lower frequency of sampling. They were and probably are common in dune lakes on the Oregon Coast (Lampman 1946). Occasional specimens were captured in the Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge, on the Coquille River, Oregon (Silver et al. 2017), and the Snohomish River estuary (1995, Tanner et al. 2002, 1 specimen).

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Bluegills are considered native to the southern Atlantic Slope, but the northern boundary of the native range is uncertain. It is considered probably native to the Cape Fear Rivers, North Carolina (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). A specimen was collected in the Cape Fear River in 1877, at Wilmington, North Carolina (Smith 1907). They were apparently abundant in Albemarle Sound and Roanoke Rivers by 1907, but Hugh Smith makes no mention of introductions, although he was a leader of the US Fisheries Commission. The earliest record on the Northeast coast was a collection in the Hudson River in 1855 (Smith and Lake 1990; Daniels et al. 2005). Another early record was in the Delaware River, near Trenton, New Jersey, in 1871 (Abbott 1977). Bluegills may have been introduced with Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), already established in the river (Abbott 1877). As on the West Coast, there were many stockings of mixed sunfishes and 'bream', so precise records of stocking are absent.

In the Potomac River, Bluegill were first reported in 1900. By 1911, 'This species is taken in the Potomac River, in the Tidal Basin; and in the lower portion of the Eastern Branch (Anacostia River)' (Bean and Weed 1911). The first verified voucher specimen was collected in 1916 (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). Bluegill were present in the upper Susquehanna in New York State by 1936 (Greeley 1936), and abundant in lower Susquehanna (PA) by 1961 (Bielo 1963). In other Chesapeake tributaries, first records occurred later: James-1945; York-1938; Rappahannock-1938 (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993); Patuxent River- 1940s, 'mostly in impoundments where it has been stocked' (Mansueti 1950). 'Bream' were introduced to upper Bay tributaries by the USFC (e.g. ponds in Bel Air MD; 1909- Bowers 1911; Patapsco River 1919- Leach 1921) and probably also by the Maryland Department of Natural Resources. Bluegills were collected in upper Chesapeake Bay in 1933 ('near Rock Hall', Kent Co/MD/Swan Creek, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 2000), although missed in other surveys. The first published catch records for the Upper Bay (1958) are a creel survey in Northeast River (Elser 1960). Bluegills were rare to common in brackish tributaries (Curtis Creek to Rhode River), but less abundant than Pumpkinseeds (Carmichael et al. 1992; Hines et al. unpublished data). In Maryland Department of Natural Resources surveys, Bluegills are widespread in Eastern Shore drainages, including the Elk, Choptank, Nanticoke, and Pocomoke (Boward et al. 1998b; Boward et al. 1998d; Kazyak et al. 1998b; Kazyak et al. 1998c)

Bluegills were first reported from the state of Connecticut in 1942, and were well established in the tidal Connecticut River by 1965 (Whitworth 1968; Marcy 1976; Jacobs et al. 2004). Bluegills are established in many smaller New England estuaries, including the Thames River, Connecticut (Jacobson 1980), the Pettaquamscutt River estuary (Rhode Island, Narragansett Bay, Paul Fofonoff, personal observations), the Taunton River estuary (Narragansett Bay, Marine Research Inc. 1992); Slocum River (Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, Hoff and Ibarra 1977), and the Merrimack River (Massachusetts, Peterson 1975). The tidal freshwater and low-salinity space available for these populations fluctuates with rainfall and river flow.

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Fourteen Bluegills were brought from California and were planted in a pond near Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, and became established. They were later transferred to all the major islands (Brock 1960). There have been later imports to island reservoirs (Maciolek 1984; Lever 1996).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Bluegills have been introduced to at least 22 countries, and are established in at least 15 (Froese and Pauly 2018). They are introduced and established in Puerto Rico in 1915, where they colonized the Cartagena Lagoon (~1957), but were later replaced by Mozambique Tilapia (Lever 1996). Bluegills were stocked in Gatun Lake, of the Panama Canal, but did not become established. Bluegills were later introduced to inland lakes in Panama, where they did become established (Lever 1996). They are established in Venezuela, and outside their native range in Mexico (Lever 1996; Froese and Pauly 2018).

Bluegills were introduced to South Africa in 1938 for recreational fishing and as forage of previously stocked Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides). They are established in interior regions of South Africa, but are apparently rare or absent in coastal rivers. They have also been introduced to Swaziland and Zimbabwe (Lever 1996). In 1960, 15 Bluegill from Iowa were placed in a hatchery in Japan and their offspring were stocked in many lakes in Japan. By 2004 they were found throughout the country. All of the Bluegill in Japan are descended from the original stock. Although genetic diversity is low, populations have showed high phenotypic plasticity (Kawamura et al. 2010). In 1969, Bluegills from Japan were introduced to South Korea for aquaculture, but soon became established in the wild (Lever 1996).


The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a medium-sized freshwater fish. Fishes of the family Centrarchidae (Sunfishes and Black Basses) have a strongly laterally compressed body. They have a spiny and a soft dorsal fin, which are fused. They have 3–8 anal spines, thoracic pelvic fins, and ctenoid scales. The sunfishes of the genus Lepomis have a shallowly forked tail, a smooth edge to the gill cover, and a fleshy 'ear-flap' projecting from the gill-cover. The gill-cover has a thin, flexible rear edge. Bluegills have a deep, strongly compressed, oval body, a small terminal mouth (not extending to the pupil of the eye), and long, pointed pectoral fins, which extend far past the eye when bent forward. The dorsal fin has 9–12 spines and 10–13 rays, while the anal fin has 3 spines and 9–12 rays. There are 38–46 lateral line scales. The maximum length is 410 mm, but a more usual length is 100–180 mm. The back is olive, with yellow and green flecks on the upper side, and 5–6 vertical dark bars, which are broad in adults, but thin and chainlike in juveniles. The ear-flap is black to the edge. There is a large black spot on the rear edge of the dorsal fin, and often a dusky spot on the anal fins. The gill-cover has two blue streaks running from the chin to the edge. The belly is white-to-yellow, and the fins range from transparent to dusky. A breeding male has an orange breast, and a blue head and back. Young and female fish have chain-like dark bars on the side (Hardy 1978; Page and Burr 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Murdy et al. 1997; Moyle 2002).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Vertebrata
Superclass:   Osteichthyes
Class:   Actinopterygii
Subclass:   Neopterygii
Infraclass:   Teleostei
Superorder:   Acanthopterygii
Order:   Perciformes
Suborder:   Percoidei
Family:   Centrarchidae
Genus:   Lepomis
Species:   macrochirus


Eupomotis macrochirus (Rafinesque, 1819)
Lepomotis nephelus (Cope, 1868)
Icthelis incisor (Holbrook, 1860)
Lepomis incisor (Tanner, 1936)
Helioperca incisor (Neale, 1983)
Lepomis pallidus (Mitchill, 1931)
Pomotis incisor (Cuvier and Valleniciennes, 1831)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Lepomis cyanellus
Lepomis cyanellus (Green Sunfish) differs from the Bluegill in having a more rectangular 'bass-like' body, a large mouth, rounded pelvic fins, and dark spots on the posterior of the anal and dorsal fins. Like the Bluegill, it has dark vertical bars running down the body, but it lacks the orange or yellow breast color of the Bluegill and Pumpkinseed (Page and Burr 1991). The Green Sunfish is native to the Great Lakes-Mississippi-Gulf basins (Page and Burr 1991). It is introduced in the San Francisco estuary, and on the Atlantic Slope from South Carolina to Connecticut (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018). South of the Potomac River, it appears to be rare or absent in Coastal Plain drainages (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993).

Lepomis gibbosus
The Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) resemble the Bluegill in having a deeper oval 'typical-sunfish' body, with a small mouth, and long, pointed pectoral fins. The Pumpkinseed has thin, wavy lines on the posterior of the anal and dorsal fins. The body is covered with dusky speckles, and lacks the vertical bars of the Bluegill. The ear-flap is black, with a bright red spot on the ear-flap, (Page and Burr 1991). The Pumpkinseed is native to the Atlantic Slope from New Brunswick to South Carolina, the Great Lakes basin, and the Mississippi-Gulf basins from Manitoba to Missouri (Page and Burr 1991). It is introduced to the San Francisco and Columbia River estuaries (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

Lepomis gulosus
Lepomis gulosus (Warmouth) differs from the Bluegill in having a more rectangular 'bass-like' body, a large mouth, and short, rounded pelvic fins. It has dark lines radiating from the prominent red eyes. The color is brown, with dark-brown mottling (Page and Burr 1991). The Warmouth is native to Atlantic drainages from the James River to Florida, and the southern Great Lakes-Mississippi-Gulf (Page and Burr 1991). It is introduced in the San Francisco and the Columbia River estuaries, and from the Rappahannock River north to the Hudson River (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

Lepomis microlophus
Lepomis microlophus (Redear Sunfish) resembles the Warmouth in having a deeper oval 'typical-sunfish' body, a small mouth, long, pointed pectoral fins. It has a longer ear-flap with a bright red spot. It is white below and lakes the yellow or orange breast color of the Bluegill and Pumpkinseed (Page and Burr 1991). The Redear Sunfish is native to the Atlantic Slope from Georgia to Florida, and the Mississippi-Gulf basins from Indiana and Illinois and Minnesota to Florida and Texas (Page and Burr 1991). It is introduced to the San Francisco estuary, and on the Atlantic Slope form South Carolina to the Potomac River (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).



The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a freshwater fish that also enters brackish water (Murdy et al. 1997). Adults mature at 1–2 years, at 75–100 mm in a stunted population, but more typically at 100–150 mm (Hardy 1978). Spawning takes place at 17–27 °C in freshwater (Hardy 1978; Wang 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002). Males excavate and guard a nesting site, in shallow water, in sand or gravel, often nesting colonially, but guarding their nests individually. Males may spawn with several females, and guard the nests until they hatch. Females can carry 2540–64,000 eggs. Eggs hatch in 1.5–3.5 days at 18.5–28.0 °C. When the yolk-sac is absorbed, the larvae leave the nest and begin feeding on zooplankton (Hardy 1978; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Moyle 2002).

Bluegills inhabit a wide range of freshwater habitats, including ponds, pools, small rivers, and can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, 5–33.5 °C (Hardy 1978; Moyle 2002). It appears to be more tolerant of ice-cover and long winters than many other sunfishes, based on its native range (Page and Burr 1991; Lever 1996). In estuaries on the East Coast, it ranges into brackish water. It has been collected at 10–12 PSU in the Rhode River, a Chesapeake tributary (Hines et al., personal communication), and at 18.0 PSU in the lower Potomac (Hardy 1978; Murdy et al. 1997). Habitats include vegetated lakes and ponds, pools of creeks, small rivers and tidal creeks (Hardy 1978; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Moyle 2002; Murdy et al. 1997). Young Bluegills are planktivores, while adults shift to aquatic insects, terrestrial insects, small crustaceans, snails, and small fishes (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Moyle 2002). Common predators include larger fishes, such as bass and catfish, birds, and humans (Murdy et al. 1997).


Zooplankton, plants, insects, invertebrates


fished, humans


Other sunfishes

Trophic Status:




General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatSwampNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatTidal Fresh MarshNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatNektonicNone

Life History

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)5Field, Hardy 1978
Maximum Temperature (ºC)35Field, Hardy 1978
Minimum Salinity (‰)0

This is a freshwater species 

Maximum Salinity (‰)18

Field, Schwartz 1965. However, in experiments fish died ar 14–18 PSU (Smith 1971).

Minimum Dissolved Oxygen (mg/l)1Moyle 2002
Minimum pH4Field, Hardy 1978
Maximum pH10.4Field, Hardy 1978
Minimum Reproductive Temperature27Field, Hardy 1978
Maximum Reproductive Temperature35Field, Hardy 1978
Minimum Length (mm)48

Size at first reproduction, male, female- 48 mm (Hardy 1978)

Maximum Length (mm)410

Page and Burr 1991, but a more usual length is 100–180 mm (Hardy 1978; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993)

Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold Temperate-Subtropical
Broad Salinity RangeNoneLimnetic-mesohaline

General Impacts

The Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) is a tolerant, adaptable, fast-reproducing fish, which has been widely introduced as a gamefish and a forage fish (mostly for introduced Black Basses, Micropterus spp.) It is popular as a game fish for food and sport, but also has a tendency to overpopulate and become stunted, especially in small ponds (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Lever 1996; Moyle 2002). In California, it may have contributed to the decline of the native Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) through competition or predation on eggs and larvae (Marchetti 1999). Hybrids have been noted with Pumpkinseed, Green Sunfish, and Warmouth (Hubbs 1955; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002).

Economic Impacts

Fisheries- Bluegills are a popular sport fish, well regarded as a 'pan-fish' which can easily be caught by children with minimal equipment. However, especially in small bodies of water, it is prone to developing dense populations of stunted fish. It is also a potential predator on eggs and larvae of more desirable game-fishes (Lampman 1946; Murdy et al. 1997; Moyle 2002). A major reason for their introduction in Japan and South Africa has been as forage for introduced North American 'Black Basses' Micropterus spp. (Lever 1996).

Ecological Impacts

Bluegills are fast-reproducing fishes, which are strong competitors, and potential predators on eggs and larvae of other fishes. In South Africa and Japan, they were introduced as forage for introduced North American 'Black Basses' (Micropterus spp.). The impacts of basses and sunfishes are difficult to separate, but the two groups of fishes together have had negative effects on native fishes in South Africa and Japan (Lever 1996; Yonekura et al. 2005).

Regional Impacts

P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Introductions of Bluegill and other introduced centrarchids are blamed for the virtual elimination of the Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus), a native centrarchid, from its native habitats in California, through the Bluegill's aggressive behavior in feeding, nesting, and use of cover (Moyle 1976; Marchetti 1999; Moyle 2002).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactPredation
In the eastern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (North Fork Mokelumne River), experimental removal of predators (probably mostly Bluegill and Largemouth Bass), increased survival of tagged, migrating juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorynchus tshawytscha (Cavallo et al. 2013).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactPredation
Predation- Juvenile Bluegill fed heavily on Striped Bass larvae (Morone saxatilis) in experiments. This species was abundant in larval nursery areas in the tidal Pamunkey River VA (McGovern and Olney 1988). Bluegills also fed on newly stocked shad (Alosa sapidissima larvae in the nontidal Susquehanna River, Pennsylvania (Johnson and Dropkin 1992).
M130Chesapeake BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fisheries - Bluegill is a very popular sport fish, although small (a pan-fish) and a favorite catch of children (Elser 1960; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). They are larger and more desirable as a sports fish than the native Pumpkinseed and Redbreast Sunfish (L. auritus). However, Bluegill is apparently less abundant than Pumpkinseed in many Chesapeake tributaries (Carmichael et al. 1992; Hines et al. unpublished data; Killgore et al. 1989; Serafy et al. 1993). Negative effects on native centrarchids and other fish with similar food habits Notemigonus chrysoleucas (Golden Shiner); Perca flavescens (Yellow Perch); Morone americana (White Perch)] are not known, but fisheries benefits probably exceed negative impacts.
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Bluegills are a very popular gamefish in California, but are prone to stunting due to rapid reproduction and crowding (Moyle 2002).
P260Columbia RiverEconomic ImpactFisheries

Bluegills were (and still are) highly regarded pan-fish for fight and flavor, but are prone to stunting (Lampman 1946).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
M010 Buzzards Bay 0 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 0 Def Estab
M080 New Jersey Inland Bays 0 Def Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 1871 Def Estab
P260 Columbia River 1933 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 1942 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1900 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1855 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1908 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 0 Def Unk
S020 Pamlico Sound 1960 Crypto Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 1907 Crypto Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1971 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1973 Def Estab
S050 Cape Fear River 0 Native Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 0 Native Estab
S060 Winyah Bay 0 Native Estab
S070 North/South Santee Rivers 0 Native Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Native Estab
S090 Stono/North Edisto Rivers 0 Native Estab
S120 Savannah River 0 Native Estab
S100 St. Helena Sound 0 Native Estab
S130 Ossabaw Sound 0 Native Estab
S110 Broad River 0 Native Estab
S140 St. Catherines/Sapelo Sounds 0 Native Estab
S150 Altamaha River 0 Native Estab
S160 St. Andrew/St. Simons Sounds 0 Native Estab
S170 St. Marys River/Cumberland Sound 0 Native Estab
S175 _CDA_S175 (Nassau) 0 Native Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Native Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 0 Native Estab
S190 Indian River 0 Native Estab
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 0 Native Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 0 Native Estab
GL-I Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan 0 Native Estab
GL-II Lake Erie 0 Native Estab
GL-III Lake Ontario 0 Native Estab
GL-III Lake Ontario 0 Native Estab
G010 Florida Bay 0 Native Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G040 Rookery Bay 0 Native Estab
G045 _CDA_G045 (Big Cypress Swamp) 0 Native Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 0 Native Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 0 Native Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 0 Native Estab
G078 _CDA_G078 (Waccasassa) 0 Native Estab
G086 _CDA_G086 (Econfina-Steinhatchee) 0 Native Estab
G080 Suwannee River 0 Native Estab
G090 Apalachee Bay 0 Native Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 0 Native Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 0 Native Estab
G150 Mobile Bay 0 Native Estab
G140 Perdido Bay 0 Native Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G180 Breton/Chandeleur Sound 0 Native Estab
G190 Mississippi River 0 Native Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 0 Native Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 0 Native Estab
G230 Mermentau River 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G270 Brazos River 0 Native Estab
G280 Matagorda Bay 0 Native Estab
G290 San Antonio Bay 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 0 Native Estab
G320 Upper Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
N150 Merrimack River 0 Def Estab
P160 Coquille River 2013 Def Estab
P061 _CDA_P061 (Los Angeles) 1971 Def Unk
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2008 Def Unk

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Abbott, C. C. (1877) IV. Notes on some fishes of the Delaware River. A. The larger acanthopterous fishes of the Dealware River, Report of the U. S. Fish Commission 1875-1876: 825-840

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (1973) <missing title>, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia. Pp. <missing location>

1998 Ichthyological Collection Catalog. gopher://

Bean, Barton A.; Weed, Alfred C. (1911) Recent additions to the fish fauna of the District of Columbia, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 24: 171-174

Bean, Tarleton H. (1893) The fishes of Pennsylvania, In: (Eds.) . , Harrisburg PA. Pp. <missing location>

Bielo, Robert J. (1963) A fishery investigation of the Susquehanna River in Pennsylvania, In: (Eds.) . , Newark. Pp. <missing location>

Bogantes, Viktoria E.; Boyle, Michael J.; Halanych, Kenneth M. (2021) New reports on Pseudopolydora (Annelida: Spionidae) from the East Coast of Florida, including the non-native species P. paucibranchiata, BioInvasions Records 10: 577-588

Borawa, James C.; Kerby, J. Howard; Huish, Melvin T., Mullis, Anthony W. (1978) Currituck Sound fish populations before and after infestation with Eurasian water-milfoil, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 32: 520-528

Boward, Daniel M.; Dail, Helen M.; Kazyak, Paul F. (1997) Gunpowder River Basin: Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions, In: (Eds.) . , Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel, Randle, Douglas, Kazyak, Paul, Dail, Helen, Christmas, John (1998) Nanticoke/Wicomico River Basin: Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel; Christmas, John; Randle, Douglas; Kazyak, Paul (1997) Elk River Basin: Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel; Dail, Helen M.; Kazyak, Paul F. (1997) <missing title>, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Boward, Daniel; Randle, Douglas; Kazyak, Paul; Dail, Helen; Christmas, John (1998) Lower Potomac River Basin: Environmental Assessment of Stream Conditions, In: (Eds.) . , Annapolis. Pp. <missing location>

Bowers, George (1911) <missing title>, Government Printing Office, Washington DC. Pp. <missing location>

Brock, Vernon E. (1960) The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters, Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 45(4): 463-480

Brown, Larry R.; Michniuk, Dennis (2007) Littoral fish assemblages of the alien-dominated Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, 1980-1983 and 2001-2003., Estuaries and Coasts 90: 186-200

Carmichael, John; Richardson, Brian; Roberts, Margaret; Jordan, Stephen J. (1992) <missing title>, CRBM-HI-92-2 Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Tidewater Administration, Chesapeake Research and Monitori, Annapolis, MD. Pp. <missing location>

Cavallo, Bradley; Merz, Joseph; Setka, Jose (2013) Effects of predator and flow manipulation on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) survival in an imperiled estuary, Environmental Biology of Fishes 393: 393-403

Chapman, Wilbert M. (1942) Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific Northwest, California Fish and Game 28: 9-15

Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Sea Grant College Program (Connecticut Sea Grant), Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp. <missing location>

Creveling, John P. (1881) Report of the State Commisioners of Fisheries., In: (Eds.) . , Harrisburg, PA. Pp. <missing location>

Daniels, Robert A. (1995) Our Living Resources, U.S. Department of Interior, National Biological Service, <missing place>. Pp. 260-263

Daniels, Robert A.; Limburg, Karin E.; Schmidt, Robert E; Strayer, David L.; Chambers, R. Christopher (2005) Changes in fish assemblages in the tidal Hudson river, New York., American Fisheries Society Symposium 45: 471-503

Desselles, Wayne J.; Poirrier, Michael A.; Rogers, James S.; Cashner, Robert C. (1978) A discriminant functions analysis of sunfish (Lepomis) food habits and feeding niche segregation in the Lake Ponchartrain, Louisiana estuary, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(5): 713-719

Dill, William A.; Cordone, Almo J. (1997) History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996, California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin 178: 1-414

Elser, Harold J. (1960) Creel results on the Northeast River, Maryland, 1958, Chesapeake Science 1: 41-47

Ernst, Carl H.; Wilgenbusch, James C.,; Morgan, Donald L.; Boucher, Timothy P.; Sommerfield, Mark (1995) Fishes of Fort Belvoir, Virginia, Maryland Naturalist 39(3-4): 1-60

Farr, Ruth A., Ward, David L. (1992) Fishes of the lower Willamette River, near Portland, Oregon, Northwest Science 67(1): 16-22

Feyrer, Frederick; Healey, Michael P. (2003) Fish community structure and environmental correlates in the highly altered southern Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta., Environmental Biology of Fishes 66: 123-132

Fowler, Henry W. (1918) Fishes from the middle Atlantic states and Virginia, Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 56: 1-19

Fowler, Henry W. (1919) A list of the fishes of Pennsylvania, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 32: 49-74

Fowler, Henry W. (1948) A list of the fishes of Pennsylvania., Bulletin of the Board of Fish Commisioners, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 7: 1-26

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