Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1879
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1879
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1965

General Invasion History:

Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are large anadromous fish native to the Northwest Atlantic and coastal rivers of eastern North America from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the St. Johns River (now extirpated) and from the Gulf Coast of Florida to Texas. They typically spawn a few kilometers above the head of tide in coastal rivers, but sometimes migrate more than 100 km inland (Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928, Bigelow and Schroeder 1928). Juveniles are abundant in estuaries and coastal waters. Second-year and older fish may engage in long-distance migrations to northern waters in summer for feeding, e.g. Chesapeake Bay to the Gulf of St. Lawrence (Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928, Bigelow and Schroeder 1953).

Striped Bass have been extirpated from the Florida Peninsula, and the original native population of Gulf of Mexico estuaries, from Florida to Texas, are genetically distinct, with a distinct life history and differences in meristics (countable traits, such as scale counts). They are more riverine than the Atlantic populations, spending the summer near cool springs in rivers. Many of these populations were extirpated and replaced with stocked Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks. There are surviving native Gulf of Mexico populations in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint and Suwanee River systems in Florida, although, there has been introgression from Atlantic stocks. (Wirgin et al. 1997: Wirgin et al. 2005).

Striped Bass were introduced to San Francisco Bay in 1879 and 1883, and soon developed spawning populations in the estuary. Adults have been caught along the Pacific Coast from San Diego to Vancouver Island (Smith 1895; Lampman 1946; Dill and Cordone 1997; Moyle 2002). Unsuccessful introductions have occurred in Hawaii, Japan, and the Black and Caspian Seas (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001; Aladin 2002; Froese and Pauly 2018). Striped Bass have also been widely introduced to inland reservoirs in the United States, and have established many successful populations (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) were first introduced to the West Coast with a planting in Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay of 135 juvenile fish from the Navesink River, New Jersey, in 1879, followed by a shipment of 300 fish from the Shrewsbury River NJ in 1883. These are the only documented plantings of this fish. There are some disagreements about the size and sources of the Striped Bass plantings, but the remarkable feature is the establishment of a vigorous population of wide-ranging migratory fish from a relatively small initial planting. It has been suggested that the successful establishment of Striped Bass and American Shad from small stockings was favored by their planktonic eggs, which may have enabled them to survive the heavy siltation caused by hydraulic mining in the watershed (Herbold and Moyle 1992, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995). By the late 1880s, the bass were well-established in the Sacramento-San Joaquin-San Francisco Bay system, with adult fish ranging in the Pacific Ocean south to San Diego and north to the Oregon border (Smith 1895; Cohen and Carlton 1995; Dill and Cordone 1997; Moyle 2002). By 1914, small spawning populations were established in Coos Bay, Oregon, and later in the Umpqua River (Lampman 1946; Parks 1979). Feeding juveniles occur in numbers as far north as Grays Harbor, Washington, and adults have occasionally been caught in the Columbia River, Puget Sound, and around Vancouver Island (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Dill and Cordone 1997; Pietsch and Orr 2015).

Striped Bass populations have remained centered in the San Francisco estuary, with small spawning populations in Coos Bay and the Umpqua Rivers. While adults range widely along the coast, they are rare north of Siuslaw Bay, Oregon and Monterey Bay, California (Parks 1979; Dill and Cordone 1997). About 90% of the catch takes place in the San Francisco estuary (Dill and Cordone 1997). Populations within the estuary have fluctuated with drastic changes in the estuary's environment, wetlands, water flow, and food-web (Dill and Cordone 1997; Sommer et al. 2007; Nobriga and Feyrer 2008). Young striped bass in brackish waters of the estuary fed primarily on Eurytemora carolleeae, introduced from the East Coast (previously known as E. affinis), and the native mysid Neomysis mercedis. Replacement of Eurytemora by the introduced Pseudodiaptomus forbesi and N. mercedis by smaller introduced Asian mysids decreased food quality for juveniles (Meng and Orsi 1991; Feyrer et al. 2003). Numerous introductions and population fluctuations of prey fishes have changed the feeding environment for larger fishes (Nobriga and Feyrer 2008). A major change in the estuary's food-web was marked by the invasion of the Asian Brackish-Water Clam (Corbula amurensis) beginning in 1986, which shifted much of the system's primary productivity from the planktonic/pelagic grazers and predators to benthic suspension-feeders (Sommer et al. 2007). This shift was marked by a decline in chlorophyll concentrations, planktonic copepods, mysids, and smaller planktivorous fishes. From 1970 to 2006, Striped Bass abundance dropped by nearly two orders of magnitude, though with fluctuations associated with drastic changes in river flow. The overall change in the estuary has been termed 'Pelagic Organism Decline' (POD) (Sommer et al. 2007).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

The Gulf Coast, from northwest Florida to the Pearl River, Louisiana (and possibly as far west as Corpus Christi, Texas) had distinct, native populations of Striped Bass differing from native populations in merisitic counts and life history. These fish were largely confined to estuaries and rivers and were dependent on cool freshwater springs for survival during hot summers. These native bass declined, and were largely extirpated in the 1950s-60s due to dams, stream channelization, and agricultural runoff. The one persisting remnant was in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river system in Florida. In the 1960s-1970s, Atlantic Striped Bass from South Carolina reservoirs were stocked in Gulf of Mexico estuaries from Florida to Texas, including the ACF basin. Although introgression (~52%) has been substantial, Wirgin et al. (2005) advocate managing the Apalachicola stock to preserve the native genotypes, which still are maintained by successful reproduction.

Invasion History in Hawaii:

In 1920, Striped Bass from California were released on the island of Kauai, but did not survive (Randall 1987).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

The earliest documented attempt at an introduction of Striped Bass to interior waters of North America was a release of 140 fish into the Genesee River, New York, a tributary of Lake Ontario in 1878. One large fish ('a six-pounder') was caught following the release but there were no further catches or known releases (Emery 1985). In the 1940s a spawning population was discovered in the Santee-Cooper Reservoir (South Carolina), in which dams had cut off seaward migration (Rohde et al 1994). Freshwater-spawned fish from this stock and hatcheries have been introduced to interior reservoirs in 24 states (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018). In 1965, fisheries biologists bred hybrids of Striped X White Bass ( M. saxatilis X M. chrysops (Palmetto Bass, Sunshine Bass) which proved more adaptable to fresh water than purebred Striped Bass, these hybrids were widely introduced (Gleason 1982). In spite of their popularity, these hybrids were fertile and posed the problem of possible introgression of White Bass genes into Striped Bass populations in Chesapeake Bay. Thus, introductions of these hybrids were curtailed in the Chesapeake Bay watershed (Harrell et al. 1993).

Many attempts have been made to introduce Striped Bass to other parts of the world, including releases in the Don estuary, Sea of Azov, Russia in the 1960s (Zaitsev and Ozturk 2001), the Caspian Sea (Aladin 2002), and to Ecuador, Iran, South Africa, Israel, China, and Latvia (FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department 2018; Froese and Pauly 2018). One specimen of Striped Bass was collected in Tokyo Harbor (Musikasinthorn 2003). For most of these introductions, there is no information on the date of introduction, the habitat in which it was released, or whether successful reproduction occurred. Some of these importations were for aquaculture rearing, and some may have been releases into landlocked reservoirs. We are not aware of successful establishment of anadromous or estuarine populations of Striped Bass outside North America.


Description

Striped Bass (Rockfish; Morone saxatilis) are anadromous fish with some introduced, landlocked populations. They are in the family Moronidae, which includes marine, freshwater, and diadromous species. Moronidae fishes are medium to large perchlike fish with stout, but streamlined bodies, with separated spiny and soft equal size dorsal fins, jugular pelvic fins, and a prominent lateral line. Striped Bass is large with record sizes for males at 1156 mm and females up to 1829 mm (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953; Hardy 1978; Moyle 2002). Adults in the northeast Pacific get as large as 1220 mm, but are usually ~600 mm. The two dorsal fins have 9-11 spines and 10-13 soft ray. The anal fin has 3 spines and 7-13 soft rays. The tail is moderately forked. The male is greenish above, silvery on the sides, and whitish below. There are 6-9 horizontal black stripes on sides, each covering a scale row (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953; Eschmeyer and Herald 1983; Moyle 2002).

Developmental stages are illustrated in Hardy (1978) and Wang (1986).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Vertebrata
Superclass:   Osteichthyes
Class:   Actinopterygii
Subclass:   Neopterygii
Infraclass:   Teleostei
Superorder:   Acanthopterygii
Order:   Perciformes
Suborder:   Percoidei
Family:   Moronidae
Genus:   Morone
Species:   saxatilis

Synonyms

Perca mitchilli alternata (Mitchill, 1815)
Perca saxatilis (Walbaum, 1792)
Roccus lineatus ((Bloch), 1792)
Roccus saxatilis ((Walbaum), 1792)
Sciaena lineata (Bloch, 1792)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Morone americana
Morone americana (White Perch) is native to Atlantic Coast estuaries and coastal freshwaters (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). It has a deeper body, and lacks the prominent lateral stripes of the Striped Bass. It has been introduced to the Great Lakes and interior reservoirs, but has not yet been found on the West Coast (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

Morone chrysops
Morone chrysops (White Bass) are native to freshwaters of the Great Lakes, Mississippi, and Gulf Basins (Page and Burr 1991). Compared to Striped Bass, White Bass are smaller (to 450 mm), with a deeper body and less-defined stripes. They have been sporadically introduced to Atlantic basins, and were stocked, but later eradicated, in the Sacramento-San Joaquin watershed (Dill and Cordone 1997; Fuller et al. 1999; Fr0ese and Pauly 2018).

Morone saxatilis X americana
Morone saxatilis X americana (Virginia Bass) is a Striped Bass-White Perch hybrid, produced in hatcheries, but not noted in nature. Compared to purebred Striped Bass, the hybrids have a deeper body, and less regular stripes. This hybrid has occasionally been stocked in Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, the Cape Fear River, North Carolina, and reservoirs in Missouri and Oregon (Kerby 1979; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

Morone saxatilis X chrysops
Morone saxatilis X chrysops (Palmetto Bass, Wiper) is a Striped Bass-White Bass hybrid, produced in hatcheries, but not noted in nature. Compared to purebred Striped Bass, the hybrids have a deeper body, and less regular stripes. This hybrid has been widely stocked in the US, especially in interior drainages. Stocking of these hybrids has been curtailed in Atlantic drainages, owing to possible introgression with Striped Bass populations. Hybrid Bass were stocked in Kaweah Lake, in the upper San Joaquin watershed, but were believed to have limited fertility (Kerby 1979; Dill and Cordone 1997; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018).

Ecology

General:

Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) are sexually dimorphic. Females tend to grow larger than males, specimens above 13.6 kg (1100 mm) are usually females. Record size for males are 1156 mm, females can reach up to 1829 mm for females (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953; Hardy 1978). Adults in the northeast Pacific can reach 1220 mm, but are usually ~600 mm. Males mature more rapidly than females. In one study males reached maturity at ~174 mm in 2-3years, compared to ~432 mm for females, which matured in 4 to 5 years. Rates of growth and maturity vary among estuaries, varying with temperature and food supply. In one study, fecundity of females increased from 614,000 eggs in the 7th year and peaking at 3,408,000 eggs per female at 11 years. Some females in Chesapeake Bay spawned in their 14th year, though spawning was reduced after the 10th year

Striped Bass are usually anadromous, usually spawning a few kilometers above the head of tide in coastal rivers, but sometimes migrating more than 100 km inland (Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928, Bigelow and Schroeder 1928). Established, landlocked freshwater populations have not been reported from natural lakes, but have become established in many freshwater reservoirs in the United States (Fuller et al. 1999; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018). Spawning takes place in fresh or nearly fresh water (0-2 PSU, Hardy 1978). Spawning seasons range from March through mid-July, both on the East Coast, and in San Francisco Bay, and may vary with temperature, river flow, and salinity (Setzler et al. 1980; Wang 1986). Spawning occurs at the surface, with eggs broadcast by females, and being fertilized by one or many males. Eggs are about 1.1-1.4 mm in diameter, and are semi-buoyant, sinking in quiet water, but easily suspended in turbulence. Hatching time varies from 74 to 30 hours at 14 C to 22 C. Larvae are 2.0-3.7 mm at hatching and have a large yolk-sac. Metamorphosis and fin development and the onset as feeding takes place at 23-68 days (Setzler et al. 1980).

Striped Bass range widely across cold-temperate and warm-temperate regions in estuaries and coastal waters, from freshwater to marine waters, and can maintain spawning populations in landlocked reservoirs. However, low-salinity or fresh water is required for reproduction. Juveniles remain in shallow nursery areas, downstream of the spawning area, and move downstream as they grow. Two-year old juvenile bass in the San Francisco estuary move from the Delta into San Pablo Bay in the fall and returned to the Delta in summer (Setzler et al. 1980). Striped Bass with acoustic tags had variable patterns of movement between the Bay, Delta, and rivers, but generally showed a spring upriver migration, summer movement into the Bay and Delta for feeding, and winter residence in the Delta (Sabal et al. 2019). On the Atlantic coast, bass older than 2 years may undertake extensive migrations along the coast. Most of the adult fish caught in New England were spawned in Chesapeake Bay. These fish move southward in the fall. (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953). In Chesapeake Bay, the resident adult bass move to deep channels in summer and winter (Murdy et al. 1997). Most adult fish in the San Francisco estuary remain with the estuary, possibly because the cold California Current off the Golden Gate discourages migration, as well as the scarcity of other estuaries suitable for spawning (Wang 1986; Setzler et al. 1980). In San Frnaciso Bay, migration out of the estuary is affected by year-to-year changes in river outflow ans ocean temperature, with later migration with low temperature and high river flow (Goertler et al. 2021). Young fish are usually found in shallow waters on sandy or muddy shores, while adult fish often occur along surf-swept beaches or rock shorelines (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953).

Young Striped Bass feed on zooplankton, including copepods and cladocerans, before switching over to mysids and amphipods in the early juvenile stage at about 32 days after hatching at about 22-30 mm in length (Setzler et al. 1980; Meng and Orsi 1991). Later their diet switches to small fishes (at 65-100 days and 50-100 mm length), and then to larger fishes as they grow (Bigelow and Schroeder 1953; Setzler et al. 1980). Striped Bass have been able to survive in the San Francisco estuary despite drastic changes in the species composition of zooplankton, mysid and fish prey due to biological invasions, but have declined in abundance (Feyrer et al. 2003; Nobriga and Feyrer 2008). Larval Striped Bass preferred native cyclopoid copepods and the introduced East Coast copepod Eurytemora carolleeae to the now more abundant Asian copepods Pseudodiaptomus forbesi and Sinocalanus doerri (Meng and Orsi 1991). The native mysid Neomysis mercedes was an important prey for early-juvenile Striped Bass, but has been largely replaced by the smaller Asian mysids (mostly Hyperacanthomysis longirostris = Acanthomysis bowmani) (Feyrer et al. 2003). In addition to the change in species composition of the mysid, copepod , and fish communities, their overall abundance has greatly decreased due to the removal of phytoplankton by the introduced Asian Brackishwater Clam (Corbula amurensis), which was introduced in the late 1980s (Sommer et al. 2017). Juvenile Striped Bass, in the 'post-clam' period switch to fish prey at a smaller size than in the 'pre-clam' period when larger mysids were more abundant (Feyrer et al. 2003). Among non-native prey, the Siberian Shrimp (Palaemon modestus), the Threadfin Shad (Dorosoma petense), and the Mississippi Siverside (Menidia audens) have been prominent (Feyrer et al. 2008).

Food:

Fishes, crabs, shrimps, clams, mussels, squid

Consumers:

Humans, fishes, birds, sea lions

Trophic Status:

Carnivore

Carn

Habitats

General HabitatNontidal FreshwaterNone
General HabitatTidal Fresh MarshNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangeLimnetic0-0.5 PSU
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatNektonicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Field data (Hardy 1978)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)27Field data (Hardy 1978)
Minimum Salinity (‰)0Field data (Hardy 1978)
Maximum Salinity (‰)35Field data (Hardy 1978)
Minimum Reproductive Temperature14Field data (Hardy 1978)
Maximum Reproductive Temperature24Field data (Hardy 1978; Setzler et al. 1980)
Minimum Reproductive Salinity0Field data (Hardy 1978)
Maximum Reproductive Salinity2Field data, based on occurrence of recently spawned eggs, could have drifted from freshwater (Hardy 1978)
Minimum Length (mm)174Size at maturity Males, 174, Females 432 mm (Hardy 1978)
Maximum Length (mm)1,829Maximum length- Males, 1156; Females 1829 mm
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold Temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneNontidal Limnetic-Euhaline

General Impacts

Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) is a top-level predatory fish, and is also a highly regarded game and food fish. It was successfully introduced to San Francisco Bay in 1979, and is now the most important sportfish in the estuary. Although the Striped Bass is non-native, the abundance of its population is considered an indicator of the health of its estuary, and the management of the fishery has been a major impetus to understanding the estuary's ecology (Sommer et al. 2007).

Economic Impacts

Fisheries- Both in its native Atlantic Coast range, and its introduced West Coast range, Striped Bass is a major sport-fish due to its size, feistiness, and quality as a food fish. Commercial fisheries in San Francisco Bay started in 1889, only ten years after the first stocking, and continued to 1935, after which it was managed as a sport fishery. Striped Bass continues to be the most important sport fishery in the San Francisco estuary, generating more than $100 million in economic activity (Program for Applied Research and Evaluation, California State University 2013).

Ecological Impacts Predation- Striped Bass are the largest introduced predatory fish in the San Francisco estuary and adjacent Pacific waters. Young bass are predators on copepods and mysids, and may influence these zooplankton through selective predation. Older juveniles and adults are piscivorous and major predators on smaller native and introduced fishes. They may have contributed to the extinction of at least two species of freshwater fishes in the estuary, and are predators on a dwindling population of Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshwaytscha) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system (Lindley and Mohr 2003; Sabal et al. 2016), and the endangered Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus. (Lindley and Mohr 2003; Nobriga and Feyrer 2007; Sabal et al. 2016). However, declines of these native species also involve the massive human modifications of the watershed, the rivers, and the Delta (Nobriga and Feyrer 2007).

Hybridization- Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks were used to replace native populations of Striped Bass, which had been largely extirpated from Gulf of Mexico estuaries by the 1950s The native bass in the Gulf had a distinct riverine life history, depending on cooler springs and streams to survive high summer temperatures. A remnant population of the native Gulf Striped Bass population survives in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint river system in Florida, but has had extensive introgression with Atlantic fish. Nonetheless, there is interest in hatchery-rearing and stocking Gulf-strain Striped Bass in Gulf tributaries (Wirgin et al. 1997; Wirgin et al. 2005).


Regional Impacts

NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEcological ImpactPredation
Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) is a major predator in the San Francisco estuary system. As a larva and juvenile, it can influence zooplankton communities by selective predation on copepods, favoring some species (Eurytemora carolleeae- introduced, Cyclops sp.-native), over others (Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, Sinocalanus doerri, both introduced) (Meng and Orsi 1991; Bryant and Arnold 2007). Predation by adult Striped Bass poses a threat, including an increased risk of extinction of winter-run Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshwaytscha)nd Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) (Lindley and Mohr 2003; Sabal et al. 2016; Brandl et al. 2021).. Striped Bass may have also played a role in the global extinction of the Thicktail Chub (Gila crassicauda) and the local extinction of the Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) from the freshwaters of the Delta (Cohen and Carlton 1995).
P090San Francisco BayEcological ImpactPredation
Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)) is a major predator in the San Francisco estuary system. As a larva and juvenile, it can influence zooplankton communities by selective predation on copepods, favoring some species (Eurytemora affinis- introduced, Cyclops sp.-native), over others (Pseudodiaptomus forbesi, Sinocalanus doerri, both introduced) (Meng and Orsi 1991; Bryant and Arnold 2007). Predation by adult Striped Bass poses a threat, including an increased risk of extinction ot winter-run Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshwaytscha) and Delta Smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) (Lindley and Mohr 2003; Sabal et al. 2016; Brandl et al. 202). Striped Bass may have also played a role in the global extinction of the Thicktail Chub (Gila crassicauda) and the local extinction of the Sacramento Perch (Archoplites interruptus) from the freshwaters of the Delta (Cohen and Carlton 1995).
NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEconomic ImpactFisheries
Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis)is the now the principal sport fish in the San Francisco estuary. A commercial fishery was started for the bass in 1889, just 10 years after their introduction (Smith 1895), and continued to 1935, when it was prohibited, and instead regulated as a sport fishery. By 1968, Striped Bass constituted ~60% of angling in the San Francisco estuary. Herbold et al. (1992, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995) estimated that Striped Bass fishing brought $45 million into the San Francisco Bay Delta economy. A more recent estimate, for the combined Striped Bass, Sturgeon, Chinook Salmon, and Halibut fisheries concluded that “Bay Delta Complex anglers create about 6,600 jobs, almost $270 million labor income, and almost $500 million output income in the 31 counties in the three regions of this study.” (Program for Applied Research and Evaluation, California State University 2013). It is likely that the majority of this income comes from the Striped Bass fishery.
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) is the now the principal sport fish in the San Francisco estuary. A commercial fishery was started for the bass in 1889, just 10 years after their introduction (Smith 1895), and continued to 1935, when it was prohibited, and instead regulated as a sport fishery. By 1968, Striped Bass constituted ~60% of angling in the San Francisco estuary. Herbold et al. (1992, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995) estimated that Striped Bass fishing brought $45 million into the San Francisco Bay Delta economy. A more recent estimate, for the combined Striped Bass, Sturgeon, Chinook Salmon, and Halibut fisheries concluded that “Bay Delta Complex anglers create about 6,600 jobs, almost $270 million labor income, and almost $500 million output income in the 31 counties in the three regions of this study.” (Program for Applied Research and Evaluation, California State University 2013). The majority of anglers in the Delta region fish for Striped Bass.
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEcological ImpactHybridization
Hybridization- Estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, from the Florida Panhandle to Louisiana (and possibly Texas) supported a genetically distinct native stock of Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), with a distinct riverine-estuarine life history, in which the fish depended on cool springs and streams to survive high summer temperatures. Almost all this stock was extirpated in the 1950s, and replaced with Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks. One remnant population occurs in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river system in Florida. Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks, from the Santee-Cooper river system, South Carolina, were stocked in the ACF rivers from 1965 to 1976. The native stock continues to reproduce in the river system, but in spite extensive introgression with Atlantic fish. Hatchery rearing of ACF fish is recommended for restocking of Gulf estuaries (Wirgin et al. 2005).
G100Apalachicola BayEcological ImpactHybridization
Hybridization- Estuaries of the Gulf of Mexico, from the Florida Panhandle to Louisiana (and possibly Texas) supported a genetically distinct native stock of Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), with a distinct riverine-estuarine life history, in which the fish depended on cool springs and streams to survive high summer temperatures. Almost all this stock was extirpated in the 1950s, and replaced with Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks. One remnant population occurs in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) river system in Florida. Striped Bass from Atlantic stocks, from the Santee-Cooper river system, South Carolina, were stocked in the ACF rivers from 1965 to 1976. The native stock continues to reproduce in the river system, but in spite extensive introgression with Atlantic fish. Hatchery rearing of ACF fish is recommended for restocking of Gulf estuaries (Wirgin et al. 2005).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NA-S3 None 0 Native Estab
NA-ET1 Gulf of St. Lawrence to Bay of Fundy 0 Native Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 0 Native Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Native Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1879 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1883 Def Unk
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1887 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1968 Def Unk
CASP Caspian Sea 1970 Def Failed
SP-XXI None 1920 Def Failed
P090 San Francisco Bay 1879 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1914 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1887 Def Unk
P260 Columbia River 1936 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1968 Def Unk
P280 Grays Harbor 1979 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1880 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 1890 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 1890 Def Estab
P113 _CDA_P113 (Russian) 1890 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 0 Def Unk
P160 Coquille River 1945 Def Estab
P180 Umpqua River 1945 Def Estab
P210 Yaquina Bay 1945 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1894 Def Unk
N050 Penobscot Bay 0 Native Estab
N040 Blue Hill Bay 0 Native Estab
N036 _CDA_N036 (Maine Coastal) 0 Native Estab
N090 Kennebec/Androscoggin River 0 Native Estab
N130 Great Bay 0 Native Estab
N150 Merrimack River 0 Native Estab
N160 Plum Island Sound 0 Native Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 0 Native Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 0 Native Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 0 Native Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 0 Native Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 0 Native Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Native Estab
S120 Savannah River 0 Native Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Native Unk
G080 Suwannee River 0 Native Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 1965 Def Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 1989 Def Estab
G190 Mississippi River 0 Def Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 1977 Def Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 1975 Def Estab
G290 San Antonio Bay 0 Def Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 1977 Def Estab
G280 Matagorda Bay 1989 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1974 Def Unk
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 0 Def Unk
P045 _CDA_P045 (Santa Ana) 1903 Def Failed
P070 Morro Bay 0 Def Failed
P040 Newport Bay 1974 Def Failed
P100 Drakes Estero 1890 Def Estab
P143 _CDA_P143 (Smith) 1887 Def Estab
NWP-3b None 2003 Def Unk
MED-X None 1965 Def Failed
GL-III Lake Ontario 1878 Def Failed

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

References

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