Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1889
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1943
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1889

General Invasion History:

Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are native to the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence, and Mississippi-Gulf drainages, from south Quebec and Manitoba and Montana, south to Florida-Texas. Their range includes a small part of the Arctic drainage (Red River, Minnesota) (Page and Burr 1991). The northern boundary of their native range on the Atlantic Coastal Plain is uncertain. They are considered possibly native north to the Susquehanna by some authors (Page and Burr 1991), but their introduction to Chesapeake drainages is clearly documented. There are no clear early records, their bones were not found in remains at a 250-800-year-old Indian settlement on the James River (Whyte 1989, cited by Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). They are native to the Florida peninsula, and probably introduced in Georgia, where they are often called 'Government Catfish’ (Dahlberg and Scott 1979). Channel Catfish were widely stocked by United States Fish Commission (USFC) and state agencies as a food and gamefish and have now been introduced throughout most of the United States (Page and Burr 1991). In 1892 and 1893, USFC shipped batches of 10-40,000 fish to 20+ states, including Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, and New Jersey but also interior western states; e.g. Washington, Colorado, and Idaho (Bean 1893; Worth 1895). Introductions to the San Francisco Bay and Columbia estuaries happened later (1940s) (Lampman 1946; Dill and Cordone 1997), and from the 1960s to 1980s introductions were made in New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts (USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program). They are introduced in at least 28 states and established in most (Fuller et al. 1999). Channel Catfish have been introduced into 38 countries worldwide, including nine European countries (Lever 1996; Food and Agricultural Organization 2018).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Initial plantings of 'catfishes' were made in the San Francisco Bay watershed in 1874, and in the Columbia River, Oregon, starting in 1888, but identifications of the species were vague. Some 'Mississippi catfish' from the Elkhorn River, Nebraska, were stocked in the Sacramento River, but these may have been Black Bullheads (Ameirus melas) (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Dill and Cordone 1997). Stockings of Channel Catfish were reported in Lake Cuyamaca, in San Diego County, and another planting in Sweetwater Lake, San Diego County in 1922. Channel Catfish were caught in the Colorado River in the 1920s. In 1942, the first specimen was captured in the Central Valley, and in 1943 one was caught in the Sacramento River north of Sacramento. These introductions resulted from a planting by local businessmen along the American River in 1925-1930 (Dill and Cordone 1997). By 1963-1966, Channel Catfish were established in the Delta but were only ~2% of the catfish caught, with the White Catfish (Ameiurus catus) predominating. Channel Catfish have been increasing in abundance but still were greatly outnumbered by White Catfish in the 1980s through the early 2000s (Brown and Michniuk 2007; Grimaldo et al. 2012; Sommer et al. 2014). They have been caught in small numbers in the fresh-brackish Suisun Marsh (Matern et al. 2002).

As in San Francisco Bay, there was considerable confusion on the identity of the catfish introduced to the Columbia River. Some early plantings were made in a pond near Vancouver, Washington, and in the Boise River, Idaho in 1892 (Smith 1895). However, the first accurately identified specimens in the lower river were caught at Bonneville Dam in 1945, and near Portland, Oregon in 1946 (Lampman 1946). One specimen was caught in a fish survey in the lower Willamette River (Farr and Ward 1992). Today websites indicate that Channel Catfish are well-established and regularly fished in the lower Columbia River

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Channel Catfish are native to the Gulf Coast and the Florida Peninsula, but their northern range limit is uncertain. Dahlberg and Scott (1971) considered the Channel Catfish introduced in the Altamaha and Savannah Rivers, Georgia, but the date of introduction is unknown. Channel Catfish were introduced to the Savannah River watershed before 1911 (Bowers 1911) and a specimen was caught in the Savannah estuary, in South Carolina in 1941 (ANSP 90558, Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia 2018). A Channel Catfish was caught in Davis Bay, Albemarle Sound in 1891 (USNM 76096, U. S. National Museum of Natural History Ichthyological Collections 2014; Menhinick 1991). This fish was probably a stray from Virginia stockings in the Roanoke River, since Smith (1907) reported this species only from the western slope of the Appalachians. Channel Catfish have been widely stocked and are now abundant along the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina (Dahlberg and Scott 1971; Menhinick and Burton 1974; Menhinick 1991; Rohde et al. 1994).

In the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Channel Catfish were stocked in the Potomac from 1889 to 1909 by Virginia Fish Commission and the USFC; at locations between Quantico, Virginia, and Hagerstown, Maryland (Smith and Bean 1898; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993) and were abundant by 1915 around Washington DC (McAtee and Weed 1915), in the Potomac. They are now found from West Virginia downriver to Maryland Point; and in tributaries to Wicomico River further downstream (Lippson et al. 1979). By the 1930s, fisheries for Channel Catfish were established in the James and Potomac Rivers (Menzel 1943).

Channel Catfish took longer to become established in the upper Chesapeake. They were stocked from 1910 to1919 in the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania by the USFC (Bowers 1914; Leach 1921) but were not listed by Fowler (1919; 1948) for the Susquehanna drainage. They were collected in 1949 at Conowingo Dam, and were reportedly common there in 1958, Howarth 1961). Channel Catfish were stocked in the Patapsco River, Maryland (Leach 1919), but were not found in early upper Bay surveys (Fowler 1917; Fowler 1933; Radcliffe and Welsh 191; Hildebrand and Schroeder 1928), The first published field records were from 1958, on the Susquehanna Flats, where they were common (Howarth 1961), and in the Northeast River, where they were the most abundant gamefish in a creel survey (Elser 1960). By 1970 they were common in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (Wang 1971) and down the Bay to Back River, north of Baltimore (Lippson et al. 1973). They have been caught occasionally in the Rhode River (Hines et al. unpublished data). They are now found in all the Bay's major tributaries, and in the fresh-brackish waters of the upper Bay.

Channel Catfish were stocked at many locations in the Delaware River drainage by the USFC (Bowers 1911), however, they were not listed by Fowler for Delaware (1911) or Pennsylvania (1919; 1948) but were well established by the 1960s (Wang 1971). From 1980 to 1993 they were found in surveys of the upper middle, and lower Delaware River, as far as the brackish Artificial Island area near the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (Weisberg et al. 1996).

Channel Catfish were first collected in the Hudson River estuary in 1976, at River Km 90, and in 1979, at River Km 124 (1976, Smith and Lake 1990). The Hudson River population probably resulted from an unofficial stocking. Since their first collection, their population has been steadily increasing. Jordan and Neumann (2004) collected them from RKm 85 to 246 in the Hudson, from the lower estuary to the near the head of tide. Channel Catfish were first reported from the Connecticut River in 1960, and occur in the estuary from Hartford to Lyme, near the river mouth (Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Marcy 1976; Whitworth 1968; Whitworth 1996).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Channel Catfish are now established in reservoirs in Hawaii, Oahu, Kaui, and Maui (Maciolek 1984; Lever 1996; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018). The first introduction was a large planting to a reservoir on Oahu in 1958.

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) have been introduced to 28 states, Puerto Rico, and at least 38 countries worldwide, including nine European countries (Lever 1996; Food and Agricultural Organization 2018). Established populations are known from England, Italy, Spain, and Portugal (Lever 1996; Banha et al. 2017). They were introduced to reservoirs on Puerto Rico in 1938 by the US Fisheries Bureau and are established in many reservoirs (Lever 1996; USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program 2018). They are also established in Cuba and the Dominican Republic (Lever 1996). They are introduced and established in Brazil (Lever 1996) and Japan (Nitta and Nagasawa 2015). Channel Catfish are one of the world's most widely cultured food fishes, with major production taking place in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Paraguay, Russia, and China (Food and Agriculture Organization 2018). In 1987, a proposed introduction of Channel Catfish for aquaculture to New Zealand prompted a risk assessment. The assessment concluded that the risk of escape was high, and this omnivorous fish posed a danger to endemic fishes and invertebrates (Townsend and Winterbourn 1991).


The Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is a large omnivorous freshwater fish in the family Ictaluridae (Bullhead Catfishes). Fish in this family have four pairs of barbels, no scales, an adipose fin, stout spines at the origins of the dorsal and pectoral fins, and abdominal pelvic fins. The tail fin of the Channel Catfish is deeply forked, with rounded lobes. The adipose fin has a short base, with its free end free at the back, and far from the caudal fin. The base of the anal fin is long and rounded, with a straight edge and 24-29 rays. The pectoral spines are stout and strongly serrated. The dorsal fin is relatively short, with one spine and 6 soft rays. The head is broad and depressed. Adults can reach 1270 mm, but more usually less than 600 mm. Channel Catfish are blue-black to gray or olive, above, and white below. Adults often have small black spots, but these are lacking in very young fish, and sometimes in large, adult fish. The chin barbels are pale, while the other barbels are dusky (Page and Burr 1991; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Murdy et al. 1997; Moyle 2002).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Vertebrata
Superclass:   Osteichthyes
Class:   Actinopterygii
Subclass:   Neopterygii
Infraclass:   Teleostei
Superorder:   Ostariophysi
Order:   Siluriformes
Family:   Ictaluridae
Genus:   Ictalurus
Species:   punctatus


Silurus punctatus (Rafinesque, 1818 2001-06-11, None)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Ameiurus catus
Ameiurus catus (White Catfish) is native to the Atlantic Slope, and has been introduced to the San Francisco estuary and the Columbia River. The tail is forked, the pectoral spine has saw-like teeth, and the chin barbels are white (Page and Burr 1991).

Ameiurus melas
Ameiurus melas (Black Bullhead) is native to the Mississippi-Great Lakes basin, and has been introduced to the San Francisco estuary and the Columbia River. The tail is squared-off, the pectoral spine lacks sawlike teeth, and the chin barbels are dark (Page and Burr 1991).

Ameiurus natalis
Ameiurus natalis (Yellow Bullhead) is native to the Atlantic Slope and Mississippi-Great Lakes basin, and has been introduced to the San Francisco estuary and the Columbia River. The tail is squared-off, the pectoral spine has sawlike teeth, and the chin barbels are white or yellow (Page and Burr 1991).

Ameiurus nebulosu
Ameiurus nebulosus (Brown Bullhead) is native to the Atlantic Slope and Mississippi-Great Lakes basin, and has been introduced to the San Francisco estuary and the Columbia River and Fraser Rivers. The tail is squared-off, the pectoral spine has saw-like teeth, and the chin barbels are dark. The body has dark brown mottling (Page and Burr 1991).

Ictalurus furcatus
Ictalurus furcatus (Blue Catfish) are native to the Mississippi-Gulf Basin, and has been introduced, but is rare, in the San Francisco estuary. Adults are very large, and bluish gray in color, without dark mottling. The caudal fin is deeply forked and the anal fin has a straight edge but is tapered posteriorly (Page and Burr 1991).



The Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are large predatory freshwater fish, which do enter brackish water. The two sexes are not morphologically distinguishable. Given this fish's wide geographical range, and range of habitats, its life history characteristics vary greatly. They mature at about 180 to 560 mm, at an age of about three to nine years (more usually 4-6) (Carlander 1969; Jones et al. 1978; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002). Spawning occurs at 21-29 C, and 0- 2 PSU. The male prepares a nest in weedy or dark places, under rock ledges, muskrat tunnels in submerged turf, log jams, or in man-made containers. During spawning, the male and female often embrace in a head-to-tail fashion, with the males' tail curled around the female's head. Fecundity ranges from 1052 to 70,000 eggs, but for average-size Virginia fishes, 42,000 to 10,6000 eggs). Eggs and young are guarded by the male (Jones et al. 1978; Wang et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Moyle 2002). A specimen in Quebec lived for over 40 years, but fish in California rarely exceed 10 years (Moyle 2002).

Channel Catfish range from cold-temperate to subtropical climates. They can tolerate temperatures from near-freezing to 37 C (Jones et al. 1978), and prefer salinities below 2-4 PSU but tolerate salinities up to 15 PSU (Norton and Davis 1977; Jones et al. 1978). Their habitats include 'deep pools and runs over sand and rocks in small to large rivers and lakes. Avoids upland streams' (Page and Burr 1991). They often spend the day under log jams and undercut banks, moving into open riffles by day (Moyle 2002). Channel Catfish are considered omnivorous, but plant material and detritus in the gut may be ingested during feeding on benthic prey (Moyle 2002). However, in aquaculture, they are fed largely a plant-based diet, including corn, cottonseed, and soybean meal (Food and Agricultural Organization 2018). Small Channel Catfish feed on insect larvae and small crustaceans, especially isopods. As they grow, they add crayfish and fishes to their diet (Moyle 2002). DNA studies of catfish gut contents indicates that they eat a smaller quantity and variety of fishes than Blue Catfish (I. furcatus) (Aguilar et al. 2017). Menzel (1943) examined only 12 fish but found that they ate Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus) and White Perch (Morone americana). Major predators include fishes, birds, and humans.


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Based on geographical range
Maximum Temperature (ºC)38Upper lethal temperature, Jones et al. 1978
Minimum Salinity (‰)0This is a freshwater fish.
Maximum Salinity (‰)15Schwartz 1964
Minimum Reproductive Temperature21Field, Jones et al. 1978
Maximum Reproductive Temperature29Field, Jones et al. 1978
Minimum Reproductive Salinity0This is a freshwater fish.
Maximum Reproductive Salinity2Field, Jones et al. 1978
Minimum Length (mm)230Mature females, 292, males (Jones et al. 1978)
Maximum Length (mm)1,270Page and Burr 1991, more typically 600 (Carlander 1969)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneSubtropical-Cold-temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneLimnetic-mesohaline

General Impacts

Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) are highly valued as food and sport fish in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, and China. They are the leading aquaculture species in the southeast United States, although most of the aquaculture effort takes place within its native range (Food and Agricultural Organization 2018). They are also a major sport fish in lakes, rivers, and estuaries in temperate North America. Ecological impacts in North American estuaries are difficult to determine, in part because of this fish's omnivorous diet, and because they are part of a suite of widely introduced freshwater predatory fish, together with the Black Basses (Micropterus spp., and Wallleye (Sander vitreus) (Harvey and Kareiva 2005; Sanderson et al. 2009; Schade et al. 2005).

Economic Impacts

Fisheries- Channel Catfish are popular sport fish throughout most of their introduced range, because of their size, flavor, and moderate fighting ability. In estuaries, rivers, and reservoirs, they make major contributions to the game fishing industry. In the Chesapeake Bay they support a substantial commercial fishery and are a dominant species in pound net catches in Upper Bay (Rock Hall, Still Pond Creek, Chester River; Rothschild et al. 1992). Menzel (1943) gives an historical account of the commercial catfish fishery on the James River estuary (1930-1944). In 1920-41, the catfish (White and Channel Catfish) fishery on the tidal James River amounted to ~250,000-800,000 lbs per year and was valued at about $30,000 to $40,000 (1940's currency, not adjusted) per year in average years (Menzel 1943). In 1996, Channel Catfish were the second most important finfish in Maryland commercial landings (both in weight and dollar value) and worth nearly $1 million (Maryland Department of Natural Resources 1998). In 2015, commercial catfish harvest for 2015, excluding Blue and Flathead Catfish, was over 2.2 million lbs (Maryland Department of Natural Resources 2018). In addition, 50,000 lbs. of this fish were reared in aquaculture operations in 1997 (Maryland State Archives 1998). Since then, aquaculture production in Maryland has sharply declined, due to competition from China and other countries.

Ecological Impacts

Ecological impacts of Channel Catfish in the middle Atlantic drainages have not been well studied, but appear to have been small, probably because of the relatively high diversity and the large number of shared species between the Mississippi and Atlantic drainages (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993; Lee et al. 1980). Two local extinctions of small non-commercial species are possibly attributable to introduction of large Mississippi Basin predatory fishes [Trout-perch (Percopsis oniscomaycus) and Log-perch (Percina caprodes)] (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). In the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, Hudson River, and the Connecticut River, the increase of the Channel Catfish has been associated with a decline in abundance of the White Catfish (Ameiurus catus), possibly due to competition and predation (Keller 2011; Jordan and Neumann 2004).

In the Columbia River watershed, Channel Catfish, Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and Walleye (Sander vitreus), are all major predators on native migratory Steelhead and Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) (Harvey and Karieva 2005; Sanderson et al. 2009). Introduction of Channel Catfish into fish communities with a high degree of endemism and isolation has been harmful in the Great Basin of the United States. This fish was undesirable for aquaculture in New Zealand. The chief concerns were risks to unfished indigenous species and those taken by Maori traditional fisheries, although risks to the mostly non-indigenous commercial and game species were also considered (Townsend and Winterbourn 1992). Channel Catfish were introduced to a Japanese lake before 2000 and has had a rapid increase of population. Modeling of the lake's foodweb suggests that continued increases of Channel Catfish populations will result in decline of nine of the lake's 18 fish species (Matzuzaki et al. 2011).

Regional Impacts

P260Columbia RiverEconomic ImpactFisheries
Channel Catfish is an important sport fish in the Columbia River (Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife 2014; Washington Department of Fisheries and Wildlife 2014),
P090San Francisco BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Channel Catfish are a popular sportfish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Dill and Cordone 1997).
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Competition - Competition with White Catfish (Ameiurus catus) and other native bottom-feeding fishes is likely but has not been documented for Chesapeake Bay or elsewhere. Diets do overlap, but I. punctatus is more piscivorous than A. catus (Menzel 1943; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). A. catus is slightly more tolerant of salinity than I. punctatus (Allen and Avault 1971); and extends further into brackish water in the York River (Markle 1976) and Upper Bay (Hines et al. unpublished; Horwitz 1987), so that some spatial segregation between the species is possible.
M130Chesapeake BayEcological ImpactPredation
Predation - Adult Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfish) are important fish and invertebrate predators and are larger than the native Amieurus catus (White Catfish) (VA record sizes I.p. 14.5 kg; A.c. 2.1 kg; Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). Jenkins and Burkhead (1993) and others have suggested the introduction of large predatory fishes [primarily I. punctatus, Micropterus salmoides (Largemouth Bass), and M. dolomieu (Smallmouth Bass)] may have contributed to the extinction of two small benthic fishes. Percina caprodes (Logperch), in the Potomac, and Percopsis oniscomaycus (Troutperch), in the Potomac and Susquehanna. Predation on juvenile Morone saxatilis (Striped Bass) and Morone americana (White Perch) and on other fishes may have conBass (Morone saxatilis) larvae were eaten by juvenile I. punctatus in experiments (McGovern and Olney 1988). Fish eggs, mostly Morone americana but some possibly of Morone saxatilis, were found in gut contents of juvenile I. punctatus from the Pamunkey River VA (McGovern and Olney 1988). Based on Russian observations of frequent predation on Acipenser spp. (Sturgeon) by Silurus glanis (Giant Catfish or Wels), David Secor (Secor 1998) suspects that Channel Catfish may be predators on Acipenser oxyrhynchus (Atlantic Sturgeon). Stomachs of I. punctatus and other predatory fishes will be examined as part of an A. oxyrhynchus restoration program in the Nanticoke River MD.
M130Chesapeake BayEconomic ImpactFisheries
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfish) is a major sport and commercial species in the upper Bay and tidal fresh-low mesohaline tributaries and the principal aquaculture species in the southeast. (Jenkins and Burkhead 1993). I. punctatus is a dominant species in pound net catches in Upper Bay (Rock Hall, Still Pond Creek, Chester River; Rothschild et al. 1992). Menzel (1943) gives an historical account of the commercial catfish fishery on the James River estuary (1930-1944). In 1920-41, the catfish (Amieurus catus; I. punctatus) fishery on the tidal James River amounted to ~250,000-800,000 lbs per year and was valued at about $30,000 to $40,000 (1940's currency, not adjusted) per year in average years (Menzel 1943). More recently, I. punctatus was the second most important finfish in Maryland commercial landings (both in weight and dollar value) in 1996, worth nearly $1 million (Maryland Department of Natural Resources 1998). In addition, 50,000 lbs. of this fish was reared in aquaculture operations in 1997 (Maryland State Archives 1998).
M090Delaware BayEcological ImpactCompetition
White catfish (Ameiurus catus) populations have declined, while Channel Catfish abundance has increased in the Delaware River estuary, since the 1970s. Channel Catfish had faster growth and greater longevity than White Catfish. However, ongoing stocking of Channel catfish and fluctuation in recruitment of both species make assessment of competition uncertain (Keller 2007).
M060Hudson River/Raritan BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Ictalurus punctatus (Channel Catfish) are increasing in abundance in the Hudson River estuary, while A. catus (White Catfish) are declining (Jordan et al. 2004). Sampling in the estuary indicates some differences in habitat use between the species, with I. punctatus being more flexible according to feeding opportunities. Growth rate was faster in I. punctatus. Jordan et al. (2004) suggest that these features are contributing to a shift in abundance in favor of I. punctatus in the Hudson River. Similar shifts in abundance are reported in the Connecticut and Delaware estuaries (Jordan et al. 2004).
M040Long Island SoundEcological ImpactCompetition
In the Connecticut River, Channel Catfish have rapidly increased in abundance, since the 1970s, while the White Catfish declined (Jacobs and O'Donnell 1996, cited by Jordan and Newman 2004).
P260Columbia RiverEcological ImpactPredation
'In Columbia River reservoirs, large channel catfish (> 67 centimeters) consume thousands of juvenile salmon, which comprise 50% to 100% of their diets (Vigg et al. 1991). A single catfish eats an average of one juvenile salmon every three' (Sanderson et al. 2009).
CACaliforniaEconomic ImpactFisheries
Channel Catfish are a popular sportfish in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Dill and Cordone 1997).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
M130 Chesapeake Bay 1889 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 1960 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 1976 Def Estab
M090 Delaware Bay 1909 Def Estab
P260 Columbia River 1945 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1943 Def Estab
GL-I Lakes Huron, Superior and Michigan 0 Native Estab
GL-II Lake Erie 0 Native Estab
GL-III Lake Ontario 0 Native Estab
S010 Albemarle Sound 1891 Def Estab
S020 Pamlico Sound 0 Def Estab
S050 Cape Fear River 0 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Def Estab
S150 Altamaha River 0 Def Estab
S160 St. Andrew/St. Simons Sounds 0 Native Estab
S170 St. Marys River/Cumberland Sound 0 Native Estab
S175 _CDA_S175 (Nassau) 0 Native Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Native Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 0 Native Estab
S190 Indian River 0 Native Estab
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 0 Native Estab
S120 Savannah River 1941 Def Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 0 Native Estab
G010 Florida Bay 0 Native Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 0 Native Estab
G040 Rookery Bay 0 Native Estab
G045 _CDA_G045 (Big Cypress Swamp) 0 Native Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 0 Native Estab
G056 _CDA_G056 (Sarasota Bay) 0 Native Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 0 Native Estab
G060 Sarasota Bay 0 Native Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 0 Native Estab
G078 _CDA_G078 (Waccasassa) 0 Native Estab
G080 Suwannee River 0 Native Estab
G090 Apalachee Bay 0 Native Estab
G086 _CDA_G086 (Econfina-Steinhatchee) 0 Native Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 0 Native Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 0 Native Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Native Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 0 Native Estab
G140 Perdido Bay 0 Native Estab
G150 Mobile Bay 0 Native Estab
G160 East Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 0 Native Estab
G180 Breton/Chandeleur Sound 0 Native Estab
G190 Mississippi River 0 Native Estab
G200 Barataria Bay 0 Native Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 0 Native Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 0 Native Estab
G230 Mermentau River 0 Native Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 0 Native Estab
G250 Sabine Lake 0 Native Estab
G260 Galveston Bay 0 Native Estab
G270 Brazos River 0 Native Estab
G280 Matagorda Bay 0 Native Estab
G290 San Antonio Bay 0 Native Estab
G300 Aransas Bay 0 Native Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 0 Native Estab
G320 Upper Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 0 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


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Carmichael, John, Richardson, Brian, Jordan, Steve (1992) <missing title>, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Tidewater Administration, Chesapeake Bay Research and Moni, Annapolis MD. Pp. <missing location>

Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Sea Grant College Program (Connecticut Sea Grant), Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp. <missing location>

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Dovel, W. L. (1971) Fish eggs and larvae of the Upper Chesapeake Bay, University of Maryland Natural Resources Institute Special Report 4: 1-71

Elser, Harold J. (1960) Creel results on the Northeast River, Maryland, 1958, Chesapeake Science 1: 41-47

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Encarnação, João; Krug, Lilian Anne; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Morais. Pedro (2022) Coastal countercurrents increase propagule pressure of an aquatic invasive species to an area where previous introductions failed, Estuaries and Coasts 45: 2504–2518

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DOI: 10.1111/ddi.13666