Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1877
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1915
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1877

General Invasion History:

The precise origin of Styela plicata is unknown. The type specimen was described from a ship in the Delaware River, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1823 (Van Name 1912). It was apparently well established south of Cape Hatteras by the late 19th and early 20th centuries before regular collecting began. It is believed to have been introduced to the Mediterranean, probably centuries ago (Monniot, in Food and Agricultural Organization 2000). James T. Carlton considers the species introduced to the Northwest Atlantic, based on the general diversity of this genus in the Pacific (Carlton and Rucklelshaus 1997; Carlton, pers. comm.).  Genetic analysis by de Barros et al. (2009) suggested the Northwest Pacific as the probable native region. However, another study (Pineda et al. 2011) found the highest genetic diversity in the Western Atlantic, although the authors could not definitely identify a native region. The cladistic history of the genus Styela does support a Northwest Pacific ancestry of S. plicata, since it is distinct both from an Eastern Atlantic clade of warm-shallow water Styela, and cold deep-water forms (e.g. S. rustica (Carlton et al., in prep.)). Pineda et al's (2011) genetic analysis is consistent with historical data that suggests that transport of S. plicata began very early, and was very frequent, blurring genetic distinctions among native and introduced populations.

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

In the Northeast Pacific, Styela plicata was first collected in San Diego Bay in 1915 and ranges north to Santa Barbara, California (Lambert and Lambert 1998). To the south, it has been reported from Baja California, Mexico, being collected in Ensenada in 2000 (Lambert and Lambert 2003) and Bahia San Quintin in 2005 (Rodriguez and Ibarra-Obando 2008). 

Invasion History on the East Coast:

The type specimen for Styela plicata was described from a ship in the Delaware River, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1823 (Van Name 1912; 1945). However, because this specimen was reported from a vessel hull and not as present in the surrounding environment, we do not consider this record to be its date of introduction.  It was also collected in 1880 on Blackfish Bank, off Charleston, South Carolina (USNM 6960, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). The long-established range of S. plicata along the Western Atlantic is from Cape Lookout, North Carolina (USNM 14790, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007) to Padre Island, Texas (USNM 14424, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007), and south through the Caribbean to Venezuela (Van Name 1945; USNM 14481, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). Recently, however, S. plicata has been collected north of Cape Hatteras, in Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia Beach, at the mouth of Chesapeake Bay (Ruiz et al., unpublished data), in Chincoteague Bay, Virginia (in 1999, O'Beirn et al. 2004, on oyster-culture floats), and in the Mystic River, Long Island Sound (one specimen in 2001, but not yet established in Long Island Sound as of 2011; J.T. Carlton personal communication).

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

A specimen of Styela plicata was collected from Padre Island, Texas (USNM 14424, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007) and Cedar Key, Florida in 1877 (USNM 940, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). This tunicate is established and abundant on the Gulf Coast from Florida through Texas (Van Name 1921; Van Name 1945; Ruiz et al., unpublished data).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

The long-established range of Styela plicata along the Western Atlantic is from Cape Lookout, North Carolina (USNM 14790, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007) to Padre Island, Texas (USNM 14424, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007), and south through the Caribbean to Venezuela (Van Name 1945; USNM 14481, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007). In 1884, S. plicata was reported from St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands/Caribbean Sea (USNM 6916, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007), and from Bermuda in 1882 (USNM 2769, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007) suggesting that it was established and widespread in warm waters of the Western Atlantic by the late 19th century.

Styela plicata was collected from Panama in 1973 (USNM 19744, US National Museum of Natural History 2007). Nearly a century before, in 1883, it was collected from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (Trautstedt 1883, cited by da Rocha and Kremer 2005), It ranges south to Uruguay (Orensanz et al. 2002), but in Bahia, northern Brazil, it was known only from 'one individual' (da Rocha and Kremer 2005).

Styela plicata is considered introduced to the Mediterranean: ['This species is not native to the Mediterranean, but was introduced centuries ago. It is present in all warm-temperate and tropical regions, especially in zones of human activity.'] (C. F. Monniot, in Food and Agricultural Organization 2000). It was collected from Naples (Traustedt 1877, cited by Kott 1985) and Trieste, Italy (Heller 1877, cited by Kott 1998). Outside the Mediterranean, it has been collected from Dakar, Senegal (Monniot 1969).

In the Northwest Pacific, S. plicata ranges from Hong Kong (Huang 2001) to Mutsu Bay, at the north end of Honshu, Japan (Oka 1935, cited by Nishikawa 1991). Within the Indian Ocean, it has been collected from Vizhinjam, India, on the Arabian Sea (Abdul and Sivakumar 2007), Somalia (in 1964, USNM 18297, U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007), and the Gulf of Suez (in 1927, Monniot 2002). These scattered records could represent introductions.

In the Southwest Pacific, S. plicata was first collected at Port Jackson, near Sydney, Australia (Heller 1878, cited by Kott 1985). Its range runs from the mouth of the Calliope River, Queensland to Port Phillip Bay (in 1963, Millar 1966, cited by Keough and Ross 1999), and west to Cockburn Sound and the Perth area (Hartmeyer and Michaelsen 1928, cited by Kott 1985). Within this range, it is strongly associated with harbors and artificial structures (Kott 1985; Keough and Ross 1999). A genetic survey indicates high diversity in Australian populations, with significant genetic structure in more southern latitudes, but no structure in tropical latitudes (David et al. 2010). In New Zealand, it has been reported at several locations on the North Island, including Auckland Harbour and Hauraki Gulf (in 1957, Cranfield et al. 1998), Gulf Harbour Marina (Inglis et al. 2005), and Taranaki (Inglis et al. 2006).


Description

Styela plicata is a solitary tunicate, variable in shape, but roughly oval. It is fixed to the substrate by the posterior end of its body, usually without roots or stalks. Its tunic is firm and thick, slightly translucent, with deep, irregular, longitudinal furrows, and horizontal creases that form large, irregularly rounded lumps.  Its total body length can reach 90 mm. The oral siphon is terminal, and the atrial siphon is a little behind it – both siphons are short, with square apertures with rounded humps on each side. The color of the tunic is whitish with brown or black stripes radiating from the siphons (Van Name 1945; Kott 1985; Nishikawa 1991; Gretchen Lambert, personal communication 2012).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Tunicata
Class:   Ascidiacea
Order:   Stolidobranchia
Family:   Styelidae
Genus:   Styela
Species:   plicata

Synonyms

Ascidia plicata (Lesueur, 1823)
Styela gyrosa (Heller, 1883)
Styela pinguis (Herdman, 1899)
Tethyum plicatum (Hartmeyer, 1909)
Ascidia cuvieri (Delle Chiaje, 1841)
Ascidia patata (Costa, 1844)
Ascidia phusca (Delle Chiaje, 1828)
Phallusia sulcata (Delle Chiaje, 1841)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Styela multicapa
New species intorduced to Caribbean Panama and Venezuela, of unkknown origin (de Barros and da Rocha 2021).

Styela panamensis
New species, native to Caribbean Panama. Records of S. plicata from Bocas del Toro, Panama, may refer to S. panamensis.

Ecology

General:

Life History- A solitary tunicate is ovoid, elongate or vase-like in shape, with two openings or siphons. Most solitary tunicates attach to substrates by their side or base, but some attach with a conspicuous stalk. They are sessile filter feeders with two siphons, an oral and an atrial siphon. Water is pumped in through the oral siphon, where phytoplankton and detritus is filtered by the gills, and passed on mucus strings to the stomach and intestines. Waste is then expelled in the outgoing atrial water.

Solitary ascidians are hermaphroditic, meaning that both eggs and sperm are released to the atrial chamber. Eggs may be self-fertilized or fertilized by sperm from nearby animals, but many species have a partial block to self-fertilization. Depending on the species, eggs may be externally or internally fertilized. In external fertilizers, eggs and sperm are released through the atrial siphon into the surrounding water column were fertilization takes place. In internal fertilizers, eggs are brooded and fertilized within the atrial chamber and then released into the water column upon hatching. Fertilized eggs hatch into a tadpole larva with a muscular tail, notochord, eyespots, and a set of adhesive papillae. The lecithotrophic (non-feeding, yolk-dependent) larva swims briefly before settlement. Swimming periods are usually less than a day and some larvae settle immediately after release, but the larval period can be longer at lower temperatures. Once settled, the tail is absorbed, the gill basket expands, and the tunicate begins to feed by filtering (Barnes 1983).

Food:

Phytoplankton

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Temperature (ºC)30.2Field, US East & West Coast marinas (Lord et al. 2015)
Minimum Salinity (‰)17.5Experimental- This was tested experimentally with animals at Santa Barbara CA. Only '75% seawater' (26 ppt), '50% seawater' (18ppt), and '110% seawater' (38.5 ppt) were used (Sims 1984).
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Field salinity (Shark Bay, Western Australia) (Wyatt et al. 2005)
Minimum Reproductive Temperature18Experimental- Lowest temperature tested for embryonic development and metamorphosis (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Maximum Reproductive Temperature30Experimental- Highest temperature tested for embryonic development and metamorphosis. Only 30% of larvae successfully completed development (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Minimum Reproductive Salinity30Experimental- Development was observed at 22, 26, 30, and 34 ppt. Embryonic development was unsuccessful at 22 and 26 ppt (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Maximum Reproductive Salinity34Experimental- Highest salinity tested (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Minimum Duration0Larvae can attach immediately after hatching (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Maximum Duration2Larvae prevented from settling (Thiyagarajan and Qian 2003).
Maximum Length (mm)90Van Name 1945
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts

Fisheries: Styela plicata is known to foul cultured bivalves, interfering with their growth in Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, and Spain (da Rocha et al. 2009).

Ecological Impacts

Competition: Styela plicata has been a dominant fouling organism in southern California harbors since 1960 (Lambert and Lambert 1998). It dominates fouling communities from Ensenada, Mexico to Santa Barbara (Lambert and Lambert 2003). It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes from southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998). Styela plicata was one of the dominant fouling organisms on fouling plates at Beaufort, North Carolina. It invaded plates initially dominated by other species and created 'monopolies,' for up to four months (Sutherland and Karlson 1977). Settled juveniles of Styela plicata inhibited settlement of the native Microcosmus squamiger (from Brisbane, Australia), in a laboratory experiment (Ruis et al. 2009). The mechanism was not clear, but could involve competition for food or allelopathy (inhibitory chemicals).

Fisheries: Styela plicata is known to foul cultured bivalves, interfering with their growth in Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, and Spain (da Rocha et al. 2009). On the positive side, S. plicata is extensively cultured on long lines in Korea and Japan (Lambert et al. 2016).

Regional Impacts

NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata has been the dominant marina fouling organism in southern California harbors since 1960 (Lambert and Lambert 1998). It dominates fouling communities from Ensenada, Mexico to Santa Barbara (Lambert and Lambert 2003). It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P020San Diego BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata has been the dominant marina fouling organism in southern California harbors since 1960 (Lambert and Lambert 1998). It produced large monospecific patches in several locations during serveral years in San Diego Bay (Lambert and Lambert 2003). It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P030Mission BayEcological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata has been the dominant marina fouling organism in southern California harbors since 1960 (Lambert and Lambert 1998). It produced large monospecific patches in several locations during serval years in San Diego Bay (Lambert and Lambert 2003). It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P023_CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata has been the dominant marina fouling organism in southern California harbors since 1960 (Lambert and Lambert 1998). It produced large monospecific patches in Oceanside Harbor (Lambert and Lambert 2003). It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P027_CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre)Ecological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P040Newport BayEcological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P050San Pedro BayEcological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P060Santa Monica BayEcological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P062_CDA_P062 (Calleguas)Ecological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P064_CDA_P064 (Ventura)Ecological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
P065_CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel)Ecological ImpactCompetition
It and other introduced ascidians have replaced the native species Pyura haustor and Ascidia ceratodes in southern California harbors (Lambert and Lambert 1998).
CAR-VIICape Hatteras to Mid-East FloridaEcological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata was one of the dominant fouling organisms on fouling plates at Beaufort, North Carolina. It invaded plates initially dominated by other species and created 'monopolies'; for up to four months (Sutherland and Karlson 1977).
S030Bogue SoundEcological ImpactCompetition
Styela plicata was one of the dominant fouling organisms on fouling plates at Beaufort, North Carolina. It invaded plates intially dominated by other species and created 'monopolies; which lasted for up to four months (Sutherland and Karlson 1977).
MED-IINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Fouling cultured bivalves in the Ebro Delta, Spain (Perera et al. 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). 
MED-IINoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fouling cultured bivalves in the Ebro Delta, Spain (Perera et al. 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). 
NWP-2NoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Fouls cultured bivalves in Hong Kong (Huang 2003, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). 
NWP-2NoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fouls cultured bivalves in Hong Kong (Huang 2003, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009).
SA-IINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Fouls cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Perna perna) in farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil (da Rocha et al. 2009).
SA-IINoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fouls cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Perna perna) in farms in Santa Catarina, Brazil (da Rocha et al. 2009).
NWP-3bNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Fouls cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Hiroshima Bay (Arakawa 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). 
NWP-3bNoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Fouls cultured oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in Hiroshima Bay (Arakawa 1990, cited by da Rocha et al. 2009). 
AUS-XIINoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Settled juveniles of Styela plicata inhibited settlement of the native Microcosmus squamiger (from Brisbane, Australia), in a laboratory experiment. The mechanism was not clear, but could involve competition for food or allelopathy (inhibitory chemicals; Rius et al. 2009).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NWP-3a None 1965 Crypto Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-III None 2002 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 1928 Def Estab
AUS-VI None 1972 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 1952 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 1963 Def Estab
AUS-X None 1878 Def Estab
AUS-XII None 1972 Def Estab
NA-ET4 Bermuda 1882 Def Estab
NWP-3b None 1894 Crypto Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1880 Def Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1877 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1915 Def Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 2003 Def Unk
CAR-V None 1955 Def Estab
CAR-II None 1981 Def Estab
CAR-IV None 1884 Def Estab
SA-II None 1883 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1948 Def Estab
WA-I None 1969 Def Estab
MED-I None 0 Def Estab
MED-II None 0 Def Estab
MED-III None 1877 Def Estab
MED-IV None 0 Def Estab
MED-VI None 0 Def Estab
MED-V None 0 Def Estab
MED-VII None 1877 Def Estab
SEP-H None 1973 Def Unk
CAR-III None 1971 Def Unk
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 2002 Def Estab
AUS-V None 0 Def Estab
RS-3 None 0 Crypto Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1915 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1960 Def Estab
S180 St. Johns River 1940 Def Estab
G130 Pensacola Bay 1957 Def Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 1947 Def Estab
S190 Indian River 1977 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 2002 Def Estab
G310 Corpus Christi Bay 1938 Def Estab
SA-III None 2002 Def Estab
CIO-I None 0 Crypto Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1966 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 1995 Def Estab
P027 _CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre) 1994 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1966 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1970 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 1994 Def Estab
P064 _CDA_P064 (Ventura) 1994 Def Estab
P065 _CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel) 1970 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 2003 Def Unk
M090 Delaware Bay 1823 Def Failed
M040 Long Island Sound 2001 Def Unk
S050 Cape Fear River 1885 Def Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 1895 Def Estab
S020 Pamlico Sound 1961 Def Estab
M120 Chincoteague Bay 1999 Def Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 1880 Def Estab
S056 _CDA_S056 (Northeast Cape Fear) 1919 Def Estab
S100 St. Helena Sound 1960 Def Estab
S140 St. Catherines/Sapelo Sounds 1971 Def Estab
G030 North Ten Thousand Islands 1884 Def Estab
G080 Suwannee River 1877 Def Estab
G086 _CDA_G086 (Econfina-Steinhatchee) 1901 Def Estab
G050 Charlotte Harbor 1901 Def Estab
G074 _CDA_G074 (Crystal-Pithlachascotee) 1887 Def Estab
G060 Sarasota Bay 1910 Def Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 1946 Def Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 1947 Def Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 1929 Def Estab
G078 _CDA_G078 (Waccasassa) 1983 Def Estab
G020 South Ten Thousand Islands 1982 Def Estab
G110 St. Andrew Bay 1993 Def Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 1938 Def Estab
G240 Calcasieu Lake 1993 Def Estab
G220 Atchafalaya/Vermilion Bays 1978 Def Estab
G330 Lower Laguna Madre 1962 Def Estab
G270 Brazos River 1956 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 1935 Crypto Estab
EA-II None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-II None 1985 Def Estab
EA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 1951 Def Estab
S045 _CDA_S045 (New) 2009 Def Estab
NEA-V None 1989 Def Estab
WA-IV None 2009 Def Estab
NEA-VI None 2010 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 1973 Def Unk
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 1971 Def Estab
S040 New River 2014 Def Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 2022 Def Unk
N100 Casco Bay 2021 Def Unk

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
4604 USNM 19744 1973 1973-04-15 Whorehouse Reef Def 8.8333 -79.2500
4605 Lambert and Lambert 2003 2000 2000-08-01 Ensenada Def 31.8667 -116.6167
4607 Abbott and Johnson 1972 1960 1960-01-01 Long Beach Def 33.7497 -118.1172
4608 Carlton 1979 1970 1970-01-01 Santa Barbara Def 34.4072 -119.6887
4611 Ruiz et al. unpublished data 2003 2002-08-01 Lynnhaven, Virginia Beach Def 36.8888 -76.0760
4612 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1885 1885-10-20 Cape Fear, SE Of Def 33.6333 -77.6000
4613 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1895 1895-07-01 Beaufort Def 34.7182 -76.6638
4614 O'Beirn et al. 2004 1999 1999-06-15 Chincoteague Island Def 37.9132 -75.3888
4615 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1880 1880-03-01 Blackfish Bank, off Charleston Def 32.7766 -79.9309
4616 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1980 1980-01-29 off Georgia Def 31.3983 -80.8850
4617 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1884 1884-05-01 Marco Island Def 25.9412 -81.7184
4618 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1877 1877-02-01 Cedar Key Def 29.1580 -83.0465
4619 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 200 1902 1902-02-13 Key West Def 24.5546 -81.7915
4620 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1940 1940-04-17 Jacksonville, East Of Def 30.4500 -81.3000
4621 Weiss 1948 1946 1946-05-01 Tahiti Beach, Coral Gables Def 25.6982 -80.2467
4622 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1910 1910-01-01 Sarasota Bay Def 27.3506 -82.5720
4623 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1901 1901-01-01 Charlotte Harbor Def 26.7756 -82.1422
4624 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1947 1947-06-03 Fort Walton Beach Def 30.4058 -86.6188
4625 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1929 2029-10-11 Port St. Joe Def 29.8119 -85.3030
4626 Rosana da Rocha, personal communication, 2005 2005 2005-08-25 Cape Canaveral Coast Guard Station Def 28.4058 -80.6048
4627 Mook 1983 1977 1977-01-01 St. Lucie Inlet Def 27.1662 -80.1567
4628 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1880 1880-01-01 Hamilton Def 32.2881 -64.7911
4629 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1938 1938-03-18 Racoon Point, South Of Def 28.6083 -90.9167
4630 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1993 1993-10-30 Near Cameron Def 29.1894 -93.7000
4631 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1978 1978-09-05 Eugene Island Lease Area, Def 28.1672 -91.4942
4632 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1993 1993-01-01 South Of Caillou Bay Def 28.2403 -91.7000
4633 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1938 1938-04-20 Corpus Christi Def 27.7667 -96.8583
4634 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1962 1962-09-26 Padre Island, East Of Def 26.4000 -96.6417
4635 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1956 1956-05-06 Freeport, South Of Def 27.7000 -95.1000
4636 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1993 1993-10-26 Texas, Gulf of Mexico Def 28.0000 -94.0919
4637 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1884 1884-01-01 St. Thomas Def 18.3533 -64.9365
4638 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1925 1925-10-29 Sao Francisco Island Def -26.5000 -48.5000
4639 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1935 1935-05-01 Port Inhauma Def -22.7431 -43.1328
4640 da Rocha and Kremer 2005 2004 2004-03-11 Ilha do Mel Def -25.5500 -48.3000
4642 da Rocha and Kremer 2005 1883 1883-01-01 Rio de Janeiro Def -22.9000 -43.2333
4643 Orensanz et al. 2002 2002 2002-01-01 La Paloma Def -34.6500 -54.1500
4644 Oka 1935, cited by Nishikawa 1991 1935 1935-01-01 Mutsu Bay, Sea of Japan Crypto 41.0800 140.8378
4645 Nishikawa 1991 1991 1991-01-01 Tsukumo Bay Crypto 37.3333 137.0000
4646 Nishikawa 1991 1991 1991-01-01 Wakasa Bay Crypto 35.7500 135.6667
4647 Nishikawa 1991 1894 1894-01-01 Tokyo Bay Crypto 35.4169 139.7836
4648 Nishikawa 1991 1991 1991-01-01 Ise Bay Crypto 34.7167 136.7167
4649 Nishikawa 1991 1973 1973-01-01 Usa, Shikoku Crypto 33.4500 133.4500
4650 Nishikawa 1991 1960 1960-01-01 Ariake Sea Crypto 33.1333 130.1333
4651 Nishikawa 1991 1991 1991-01-01 Kagoshima Bay Crypto 31.4167 130.6333
4652 Rho and Lee 1991 1991 1981-05-26 Pusan Crypto 35.1183 129.0383
4653 Rho and Lee 1991 1986 1986-12-27 Samchonpo Crypto 34.9330 128.0670
4654 Rho 1995 1994 1994-01-01 Chopto, Chindo Islands Crypto 34.3844 126.2986
4655 Huang 2001 None 9999-01-01 Xiamen Crypto 24.4600 118.0789
4656 Huang 2001 None 9999-01-01 Hong Kong Crypto 22.2833 114.1500
4657 Chengxing 1995 None 9999-01-01 Luouyang Bay Crypto 26.4856 119.5492
4658 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1971 1971-04-20 None Def 9.3736 -79.9533
4659 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1978 1978-01-16 Turpialito, Def 10.4667 -64.1667
4660 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1956 1956-03-26 Woodbridge Bay Def 15.3167 -61.4000
4661 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1937 1937-03-29 San Juan Harbor' Def 18.5000 -66.0000
4662 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1956 1956-03-16 Carriacou Island Def 12.5000 -61.4500
4663 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1975 1975-01-01 3 Mile Off Brighton Def -37.9167 145.0000
4664 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1983 1983-06-01 Isla Margarita Def 11.0000 -64.0000
4665 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1955 1955-05-25 Andros Island, 19 Mile SW Of Hawk Creek Def 24.7375 -78.8111
4666 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1973 1973-05-23 Sidi Bou Said Def 36.8711 10.3503
4667 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1964 1964-12-16 South Hafun Bay, Indian Ocean Crypto 9.7000 51.0000
4668 U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2007 1981 1981-03-01 Twin Cays Def 16.8167 -88.1000
4669 Heller 1877 (cited by Kott 1998) 1877 1877-01-01 Trieste Def 45.6486 13.7800
4670 Goodbody 2003 None 9999-01-01 Kingston Def 17.9333 -76.8500
4671 da Rocha et al. 2005 2003 2003-08-12 Isla Colon Def 9.4000 -82.2833
4672 Heller 1878, cited by Kott 1985 1878 1878-01-01 Port Jackson Def -33.8500 151.2500
4673 Herdmann 1899, cited by Kott 1985 1899 1899-01-01 Port Stephen Def -32.7000 152.0833
4674 Kott 1975, cited by Kott 1985 1975 1975-01-01 None Def -35.2167 138.2500
4675 Kott 1972, cited by Kott 1985 1972 1972-01-01 Great Australian Bight Def -35.0000 130.0000
4676 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Monte Bello Islands Def -20.4667 115.5167
4677 Hartmeyer and Michaelsen 1928, cited by Kott 1985 1928 1928-01-01 Cockburn Sound Def -32.1667 115.7333
4678 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Perth Area Def -32.0500 115.7500
4679 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Indian Ocean Def -33.3333 115.6333
4680 Wyatt et al. 2005 2001 2001-01-01 Carnavon Def -25.5000 113.5000
4681 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Spencer Gulf Def -34.5000 136.9167
4682 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Moreton Bay Def -27.2500 153.2500
4684 Kott 1985 1985 1985-01-01 Mouth of Calliope River Def -23.8333 151.2167
4685 Cranfield et al. 1998 1948 1948-01-01 Auckland (North Island) Def -36.8333 174.8333
4686 Brewin 1957, cited by Cranfield et al. 1998 1957 1957-01-01 North Island Def -36.3333 175.0833
4688 Naranjo et al. 1996 1998 1998-01-01 Algeciras Def 36.1275 -5.4539
4689 Fiala-Médioni 1978 1978 1978-01-01 Banyuls-sur-Mer Def 42.4833 3.1333
4690 Clausade 1969 1969 1969-01-01 Marseile Def 43.3000 5.4000
4691 Peres 1957 1957 1957-01-01 Majorca, Balearic Islands Def 39.5000 3.0000
4692 Relini 1964 1964 1964-01-01 Genoa/ Def 44.4167 8.9500
4693 Chimenez et al. 1985 1976 1985-01-01 Ischia Def 40.7167 13.9000
4694 Tursi and Matarrese 1981 1976 1976-01-01 Taranto Def 40.4761 17.2297
4695 Traustedt 1877 1877 1877-01-01 Naples Def 40.7167 14.1667
4696 Tursi et al. 1979 1979 1979-01-01 Bari Def 41.1333 16.8500
4697 Antoniadou and Chintiroglou 2007 1997 1997-01-01 Chalkidiki Peninsula Def 40.4167 23.4500
4698 Sedra and Khalil 1971 1971 1971-01-01 Alexandria Def 31.1981 29.9192
4699 Agius et al. 1977 1976 1976-01-01 Marsaxlokk Bay Def 35.8200 14.5456
4700 Dinclasna and Ober 2004 2004 2004-01-01 Izmir Def 38.4333 27.1167
4701 Monniot 2002 1927 1927-01-01 Gulf of Suez Crypto 28.0000 34.0000
4702 Monniot 1969 1969 1969-01-01 Dakar Def 14.6661 -17.4367
5923 Rodriguez et al. 2008 2005 2005-12-01 Bahia San Quintin Def 30.4500 -116.0000
6820 Millar 1951, cited by de Barros et al. 2009 1951 1951-01-01 Durban Def -29.8500 31.0333
6821 Rius et al. 2010 2009 2009-01-01 Knysna Marina Def -34.0547 23.0628
6934 Pineda et al. 2012 2009 2009-07-01 UNC Wilmington docks, Wilmington Def 34.1400 -77.8622
767446 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767515 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-01 Hyatt Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7634 -117.2397
767531 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-03 Mission Bay Sport Center, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7857 -117.2495
767543 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-30 Hilton Resort Docks, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7791 -117.2128
767672 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-16 Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6886 -117.2343
767722 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-21 Cabrillo Isle Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7272 -117.1995
767793 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-28 Marriott Marquis and Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7059 -117.1655

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