Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 2004
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 2004

General Invasion History:

Ascidia sydneiensis was first described from Port Jackson, near Sydney, Australia, in 1855. It is widely distributed in tropical waters around the world including the Indo-Pacific, where it is believed to be native, and the Caribbean Sea where it was first reported in the late 19th century (Traustedt 1882, cited by Kott 1985; Van Name 1945; Kott 1985; Nishikawa 1991; Lambert 2002; da Rocha and Kremer 2005; Carlton and Eldredge 2009). In the Indo-Pacific it occurs from southern Africa to Japan, Australia, and New Caledonia. However, its range within the Indo-Pacific, may have been expanded by shipping. In the US it occurs in Hawaii, Guam, the Virgin Islands, Biscayne Bay, and the southeastern tip of Florida. It has probably been introduced by shipping because in its introduced range it is most abundant on man-made structures in ports and marinas, including ships' hulls (Lambert 2002; Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

Ascidia sydneiensis was first reported in 1882 in St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands (Traustedt 1882, cited by Kott 1985). Since then, it was been collected in several locations in the Caribbean including Santa Marta, Colombia (Sluiter 1898, cited by Van Name 1921), Cabanas, Cuba (1914 USNM 6338, US National Museum of Natural History 2009), San Juan, Puerto Rico (1937, USNM 14606, US National Museum of Natural History 2009), Guadeloupe (Monniot and Monniot 1983), Belize (1992, Goodbody 2000) and the Panama Canal (Carmen et al. 2010). It was not reported in Florida waters in the 20th century, to our knowledge, but was found in 2004 at Sunset Harbor Yacht Club, Miami, Florida, on Biscayne Bay (2004, Ruiz et al. unpublished data, Gretchen Lambert, personal communication). It has also been found on reefs and wrecks off Palm Beach County (Florida Oceanographic Society, 2008). 

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Ascidia sydeneinsis was photographed in Pearl Harbor, Oahu in the 1930s and found on a ship hull in 1940. It occurs in Honolulu Harbor, Kaneohe Bay (Oahu), Nawiliwili Harbor (Kauai), Kaunakakai Harbor (Molokai) and Johnson Atoll (Coles et al. 2001; Coles et al. 2002; Coles et al. 2004; Carlton and Eldredge 2009).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Ascidia sydneiensis has a broad distribution in the Indo-Pacific leading some to consider it native here, but we consider it cryptogenic because of its great potential to be transported by shipping. It was collected at Port Jackson, Australia in 1855, and Japan in 1885 (Traustedt 1885, cited by Nisihkawa 1991). It can now be found on both coasts of India (Swami and Chhapgar 2002; Gaonkar et al. 2010; Ali et al. 2009), the Philippines (USNM 11744, US National Museum of Natural History 2009), all coasts of Australia and New Guinea (Kott 1985; Monniot and Monniot 2001), Palau, Polynesia (Tokioka 1950, cited by Kott 1985), Tonga (Monniot and Monniot 2001), and the port of Papeete in Tahiti (Monniot et al. 1985). Ascidia sydneiensis was collected in Guam in Apra Harbor in 1998 on artificial substrates in the harbor and was classified as introduced (Lambert 2002; Lambert 2003). 
In the East Pacific it was collected from the Gulf of California in 1889 (USNM 10636, US National Museum of Natural History 2009), and from near the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal in 1972 (USNM 14614, US National Museum of Natural History 2009), where it was also collected more recently (2004, Ruiz et al. unpublished data; 2009, Carmen et al. 2010).  

In the Southwest Atlantic, Ascidia sydneiensis was first reported in 1956 from Sao Paulo/Brazil (Bjorberg 1956, cited by da Rocha and Kremer 2005). It occurs from the state of Santa Catarina north to Rio de Janeiro (da Rocha and Kremer 2005), with isolated occurrences near the equator in in Pecem and Mucuripe Harbors, Ceara State (Lotufo and Oliveira Filho 2010). 
This tunicate has been tentatively identified from the eastern Mediterranean Sea (Israel, as A. cf. sydneiensis, Izquierdo-Munoz et al. 2009; Shenkar and Loya 2009), but its establishment is uncertain. It has not been reported from the Red Sea. 


Ascidia sydneiensis is a large solitary tunicate which can vary in color and may be white, cream, yellow, orange, red, or wine-colored. The tunic itself is translucent and the color is caused by pigmentation on the body wall. It has an elongate body shape that tapers into a long oral siphon with 35-200+ oral tentacles. A shorter atrial siphon projects off the left side of the body. The oral siphon typically has seven or eight lobes, and the atrial siphon has six. On both siphons, the lobes are separated by indented margins or long projections, and there is a dark spot (often red) between lobes (Bonnet and Rocha, 2011). The tunic is finely wrinkled with minute translucent hairs and can be encrusted with detritus, algae, and other invertebrates. When the tunic is removed the muscles on the oral and atrial siphons are conspicuous. The siphons have prominent circular muscle bands and some longitudinal bands. On the right side, 'there is a wide border of short, stout muscle bands extending inward from the margin for a varying distance. They lie for the most part parallel to each other and at right angles to the margin, but curve and cross each other irregularly to a slight extent.' (Van Name 1945). Muscle bands are largely absent from the left side of the body. The large S-shaped digestive tract covers the left side of the body. The largest Caribbean specimen examined by Van Name (1945) was 53 mm long and 27 mm wide, like that described by Nishikawa (1991), but Van Name noted that larger specimens had been reported from the Eastern Hemisphere.


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Chordata
Subphylum:   Tunicata
Class:   Ascidiacea
Order:   Phlebobranchia
Family:   Ascidiidae
Genus:   Ascidia
Species:   sydneiensis


Ascidia canaliculata (Heller, 1878)
Ascidia diplozoon (Sluiter, 1887)
Ascidia incerta (Herdman, 1889)
Ascidia pyriformis (Herdman, 1880)
Phallusia longitubis (Traustedt, 1882)
Phallusia sydneiensis (Stimpson, 1855)
Ascidia rudis (Schmelz, 1879)
Phallusia pyriformis (Traustedt, 1885)
Ascidia limosa (Sluiter, 1887)
Ascidia divisa (Sluiter, 1898)
Ascidia bisulca (Sluiter, 1904)
Phallusia canaliculata (Hartmeyer, 1909)
Ascidia longitubis (Sluiter, 1898)
Ascidia donnani (Herdman, 1906)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Ascidia canaliculata
Cape of Good Hope, South Africa. This species had been listed as a synonym, (Van Name 1945; Kott 1985; Kott 2005). However, Rosana da Rocha (personal communication 2012) considers it a valid species, based on dissertation research by Nadia Bonnet.



Life History- A solitary tunicate is ovoid, elongate or vase-like in shape, with two openings or siphons. Most solitary tunicates attach to substrates by their side or base, but some attach with a conspicuous stalk. They are sessile filter feeders with two siphons, an oral and an atrial siphon. Water is pumped in through the oral siphon, where phytoplankton and detritus are filtered by the gills and passed on mucus strings to the stomach and intestines. Waste is then expelled in the outgoing atrial water.

Solitary ascidians are hermaphroditic, meaning that both eggs and sperm are released to the atrial chamber. Eggs may be self-fertilized or fertilized by sperm from nearby animals, but many species have a partial block to self-fertilization. Depending on species, eggs may be externally or internally fertilized. In external fertilizers, eggs and sperm are released through the atrial siphon into the surrounding water column were fertilization takes place. In internal fertilizers, eggs are brooded and fertilized within the atrial chamber and then released into the water column upon hatching. Fertilized eggs hatch into a tadpole larva with a muscular tail, notochord, eyespots, and a set of adhesive papillae. The lecithotrophic (non-feeding, yolk-dependent) larva swims briefly before settlement. Swimming periods are usually less than a day and some larvae settle immediately after release, but the larval period can be longer at lower temperatures. Once settled, the tail is absorbed, the gill basket expands, and the tunicate begins to feed by filtering (Barnes 1983).


Phytoplankton, detritus

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone

Life History

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Salinity (‰)24Field (Brazil, Marins et al. 2010)
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Approximate salinity for Mediterranean Sea, Israel (Shenkar and Loya 2009)
Maximum Length (mm)53Van Name 1945
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts- Ascidia sydneiensis is a common fouling organism on docks, ship hulls, and other man-made structures in tropical waters (Monniot and Monniot 1985; Carlton and Eldredge 2009).  Specific impacts are not known. In Brazil it was found on lantern nets used to culture oysters and scallops, especially in summer, but did not appear to cause serious problems (da Rocha et al. 2009).

Ecological Impacts- In Hawaii, Eldredge and Smith (2001) reported that Ascidia sydneiensis may compete with other shallow-water invertebrates for space, especially in the fouling community, but there are no studies confirming this.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NWP-4a None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-4b None 1885 Crypto Estab
SP-XII None 1998 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1935 Def Estab
CAR-IV None 1882 Def Estab
SP-XVI None 1985 Crypto Estab
AUS-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-V None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-III None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-II None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-I None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-XIV None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-XII None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-XIII None 1950 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 1914 Def Estab
CIO-I None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 2004 Def Estab
CAR-III None 1898 Def Estab
SA-II None 1956 Def Estab
S200 Biscayne Bay 2004 Def Estab
S196 _CDA_S196 (Cape Canaveral) 2006 Def Estab
NEP-VII None 1889 Def Estab
SEP-H None 1972 Def Estab
EAS-III None 1909 Crypto Estab
EAS-II None 1887 Crypto Estab
EA-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-V None 2007 Def Unk
CIO-II None 2004 Crypto Estab
SA-IV None 2009 Def Estab
SP-I None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-VIII None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-X None 1855 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 2007 Def Estab
WA-VI None 1906 Def Estab
WA-II None 1994 Def Estab
SA-III None 2011 Def Estab
NEP-VIII None 2012 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 1972 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 2003 Def Estab
WA-IV None 1926 Def Estab
SEP-Z None 2016 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Ali, H. Abdul Jaffar; Sivakumar, V.; Tamilselvi, M. (2009) Distribution of alien and cryptogenic ascidians along the southern coasts of Indian peninsula, World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences 1(4): 305-312

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Bonnet, Nadia Y. K.; Rocha, Rosana M. (2011) The family Ascidiidae (Herdman) (Tunicata:Ascidiacea) in Bocas del Toro, Panama. Description of six new species., Zootaxa 2864: 1-33

Bonnet, Nadia Y. K.; Rocha, Rosana M.; Carman, Mary R. (2013) Ascidiidae Herdman, 1882 (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) on the Pacific coast of Panama, Zootaxa 3691: 351-364

Bonnet, Nadia Yukiji Koto; da Rocha, Rosana Moreira (2011) The Ascidiidae (Ascidiacea: Tunicata) of Coastal Brazil, Zoological Studies 50(6): 809-825

Campbell, Marnie L] ; Hewitt, Chad L.[ Miles, Joel (2016) Marine pests in paradise: capacity building, awareness raising and preliminary introduced species port survey results in the Republic of Palau, Biological Invasions 7(4): 351-363

Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202

Carman, Mary, and 8 authors (2011) Ascidians at the Pacific and Atlantic entrances to the Panama Canal, Aquatic Invasions 6(4): 371-380

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C. : Eldredge, L. G. (2002a) Nonindigenous marine species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai`i, Bishop Museum Technical Report 24: 1-364

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Minton, D. (2001) Marine species survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000, Bishop Museum Technical Report 19: 1-59

Coles, S. L.; Reath, P. R.; Longenecker, K.; Bolick, Holly; Eldredge, L. G. (2004) <missing title>, Hawai‘i Community Foundation and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Pp. 1-187

da Rocha, Rosana M.; Costa, Luciana (2005) Ascidians (Urochordata: Ascidiacea) from Arriaal do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil., Iheringia Series Zoologie 95(1): 57-64

da Rocha, Rosana M.; Faria, Suzana B.; Moreno, Tatiane R. (2005) Ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama, Caribbean Journal of Science 41(3): 600-612

da Rocha, Rosana M.; Kremer, Laura P.; Baptista, Mariah S.; Metri, Rafael (2009) Bivalve cultures provide habitat for exotic tunicates in southern Brazil., Aquatic Invasions 4(1): 195-205

da Rocha, Rosana M.; Kremer, Laura P. (2005) Introduced ascidians in Paranagua Bay, Parana, southern Brazil., Revista Brasileira da Zoologia 22(4): 1170-1184

da Rocha, Rosana M.; Moreno, Tatiane M.; Metri, Rafael (2005) [Ascidians of the Marine Biological Reserve of Avoredro, Santa Catarina, Brazil)., Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 22(2): 461-476

DeFelice, Ralph C.; Coles, Steve L.; Muir, David, Eldredge, L. G. (1998) <missing title>, Hawaii Biological Survey, Bishop Museum, <missing place>. Pp. 1-30

Dias, G. M.; Rocha, R. M.; Lotufo, T. M. C.; Kremer, L. P. (2013) Fifty years of ascidian biodiversity research in Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93(1): 273-282

Eldredge, L. G.; Smith, C. M. (2001) Introduced marine species of Hawaii, Bishop Museum Technical Report 21: 1-60

Encarnação, João; Baptista, Vânia; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Morai, Pedro (2021) Low-cost citizen science effectively monitors the rapid expansion of a marine invasive species, Frontiers in Environmental Science 9(752705): Published online
doi: 10.3389/fenvs

Freestone, Amy L.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Torchin, Mark E. (2013) Stronger biotic resistance in tropics relative to temperate zone: Effects of predation on marine invasion dynamics, Ecology 94(6): 1370-1377

Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Sawant, Subhash S.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Krishnamurthy, Venkat; Harkantra, Sandanand (2010) Changes in the occurrence of hard substratum fauna: A case study from Mumbai Harbour, India, Indian Journal of Marine Science 39(1): 74-84

Glenner, Henrik; Lützen, Jørgen; , Pacheco-Riaño, Laura Camila; Noever, Christoph (2021) Expansion of the barnacle Austrominius modestus (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia, Thoracica, Balanidae) into Scandinavian waters based on collection data and niche distribution modeling, Aquatic Invasions 16: 675-689: <missing location>

González-Sánchez, K.; Flores-Alvarado, B.; Montiel-Barrantes,P., Gómez-Arce, G.; Alvarado, J. J. (2021) Ascidian diversity of Costa Rica, including new records for the North Pacific, Revista de Biologia Tropical 69(Suppl. 2): S234-S245

Goodbody, Ivan (2000) Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) in the Pelican Cays, Belize., Atoll Research Bulletin 480: 1-33

Goodbody, Ivan (2004) Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize, Atoll Research Bulletin 524: 1-22

Granthom-Costa, Luciana Vieira; Werner Ferreira, Carlos Gustavo; Dias, Gustavo Muniz (2016) Biodiversity of ascidians in a heterogeneous bay from southeastern Brazil, Management of Biological Invasions 7: 5-12

Izquierdo-Muñoz, Andrés; Díaz-Valdés, Marta; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A. (2009) Recent non-indigenous ascidians in the Mediterranean Sea., Memoirs of the Museum of Victoria 4(1): 59-64

Kott, P. (1998) Tunicata, Zoological Catalogue of Australia 34: 51-252

Kott, P. (2005) Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian waters, Queensland Museum, Brisbane. Pp. 1-301

Kott, Patricia (1985) The Australian Ascidiacea Part 1, Phlebobranchia and Stolidobranchia., Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 23: 1-440

Kott, Patricia (2006) Observations on non-didemnid ascidians from Australian waters (1)., Journal of Natural History 40(3-4): 169-234

Lambert, Gretchen (2002) Nonindigenous ascidians in tropical waters., Pacific Science 56(3): 191-298

Lambert, Gretchen (2003) Marine biodiversity of Guam: the Ascidiacea., Micronesica 35-36: 584-593

Lambert, Gretchen (2019) Fouling ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) of the Galápagos: Santa Cruz and Baltra Islands, Aquatic Invasions 14: 132-149

Locke, Andrea (2009) A screening procedure for potential tunicate invaders of Atlantic Canada., Aquatic Invasions 4(1): 71-79

Lomonaco, Cecilia; Santos, Andre S.; Christoffersen, Martin l. (2011) Effects of local hydrodynamic regime on the individual’s size in intertidal Sabellaria (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) and associated fauna at Cabo Branco beach, north-east Brazil, Marine Biodiversity Records 4(e76): Published online

Lopes, Rubens M. (Ed.) (2009) <missing title>, Ministry of the Environment, Brasilia, Brazil. Pp. 1-440

Marins, Flavia O.; Novaes, Roberto L. M.; Rocha, Rosana M.; Junquiera, Andrea O. R. (2010) Non indigenous ascidians in port and natural environments in a tropical Brazilian bay, Zoologia 27(2): 213-222

Marques, Antonio C. and 17 authors (2013) Rapid assessment survey for exotic benthic species in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil, Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 41(2): 265-285

Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L.; Rius, M. (2011a) Revealing the scale of marine bioinvasions in developing regions: a South African re-assessment, Biological Invasions 13(9): 1991-2008

Monniot, C. (1987) [Ascidians of New Caledonia], Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 4e Serie. Section A. Zoologie, Biologie et Ecologie Animales 9(1): 3-31

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Monniot, Claude; Monniot, Francoise (1994) Additions to the inventory of Eastern tropical Atlantic Ascidians: arrival of cosmopolitan species., Bulletin of Marine Science 54(1): 71-93

Monniot, Claude; Monniot, Francoise; Laboutte, Pierre (1985) [Ascidians of the port of Papeete (French Polynesia); Relation to the environment and to intercontinental transport by navigation] (French), Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 4e Serie. Section A. Zoologie, Biologie et Ecologie Animales 7(3): 481-495

Monniot, Francoise; Monniot, Claude (2001) Ascidians from the tropical western Pacific., Zoosystema 23(2): 201-383

Moreno-Davila, Betzabe Berenice (2010) <missing title>, Universidad del Mar, campus Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico. Pp. 116

Moura, Carlos J.; Collins, Allen G.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Lessios, Harilaos (2019) Predominant east to west colonizations across major oceanic barriers: Insights into the phylogeographic history of the hydroid superfamily Plumularioidea, suggested by a mitochondrial DNA barcoding marker, Ecology and Evolution 9: :13001–13016.
DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5608

Nishikawa, T. (1991) The ascidians of the Japan Sea. II., Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 35: 25-170

Nishikawa, Teruaki (1992) The Ascidians of the Japan Sea III., Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 35(6): 303-334

Nydam, Marie L.; Stefaniak, Lauren M.; Lambert, Gretchen; Counts, Bailey; · López?Legentil, Susanna (2022) Dynamics of ascidian?invaded communities over time, Biological Invasions 24: 3489–3507

Oliveira Filho, R. R.; Lotufo, T. M. C.; 2010 New records of introduced ascidians at Ceara State harbors, Northern Brazil. <missing URL>

Quintanilla, Elena; Thomas Wilke; Ramırez-Portilla, Catalina; Sarmiento, Adriana; Sanchez, Juan A. () , None <missing volume>: <missing location>

Quintanilla, Elena; Thomas Wilke; Ramırez-Portilla, Catalina; Sarmiento, Adriana; Sanchez, Juan A.2017 (2017) Taking a detour: invasion of an octocoral into the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Biological Invasions <missing volume>(17): 2583–2597
DOI 10.1007/s10530-017-1469-2

Rius, M.; Griffths, C. W. (2011) Alien & Invasive Animals: A South African Perspective, Random House Struik, Johannesburg, South Africa. Pp. 71-75

Ruiz, Gregory M.; Geller, Jonathan (2018) Spatial and temporal analysis of marine invasions in California, Part II: Humboldt Bay, Marina del Re, Port Hueneme, and San Francisco Bay, Smithsonian Environmental Research Center & Moss Landing Laboratories, Edgewater MD, Moss Landing CA. Pp. <missing location>

Sadchatheeswaran, Saachi; Branch, George M.; Shannon, Lynne; Coll, Marta; Steenbeek, Jeroen (2021) A novel approach to explicitly model the spatiotemporal impacts of structural complexity created by alien ecosystem engineers in a marine benthic environment, Ecological Modelling 146: 109731

Shenkar, Noa; Loya, Yossi (2009) Non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata: Tunicata) along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, Marine Biodiversity Records 2: 1-7

Simkanin, Christina; Fofonoff, Paul W.; Larson, Kriste; Lambert, Gretchen; Dijkstra, Jennifer A.; Ruiz, Gregory M. (2016) Spatial and temporal dynamics of ascidian invasions in the continental United States and Alaska, Marine Biology 163: Published online

Soors, Jan; Faasse, Marco; Stevens, Maarten; Verbessem, Ingrid; De Regge, Nico;Van den Bergh, Ericia (2010) New crustacean invaders in the Schelde estuary (Belgium), Belgian Journal of Zoology 140: 3-10

Streit, Olivia T; Lambert, Gretchen; Erwin, Patrick M.; Lopez-Legentil, Susanna (2021) Diversity and abundance of native and non-native ascidians in Puerto Rican harbors and marinas, Marine Pollution Bulletin 167(112262): Published online

Swami, B. S.; Chapgar, B. F. (2002) Settlement pattern of ascidians in harbor waters of Mumbai, West Coast of India., Indian Journal of Marine Science 31(3): 207-212

Tamilselvi, M. ; Sivakumar, V.; Ali, H. Abdul Jaffar; Thilaga, R. D. (2011) Distribution of alien tunicates (ascidians) in Tuticorin coast, India, World Journal of Zoology 6(2): 164-172

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Van Name, Willard G. (1945) The North and South American ascidians, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 84: 1-462