Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Bryozoa
Class:   Gymnolaemata
Order:   Ctenostomata
Suborder:   Carnosa
Superfamily:   Vesicularioidea
Family:   Vesiculariidae
Genus:   Amathia
Species:   distans


Amathia brasiliensis (Busk 1886, None)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Amathia pruvoti



Phytoplankton, detritus



Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1940 Crypto Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1958 Crypto Estab
NEP-VIII None 1977 Crypto Estab
CIO-I None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Crypto Estab
CIO-II None 0 Crypto Estab
SA-II None 1937 Crypto Estab
SA-III None 1886 Crypto Estab
CAR-IV None 1940 Crypto Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-VII None 1953 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-II None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-3 None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-1 None 0 Crypto Estab
EAS-II None 1915 Crypto Estab
AUS-VIII None 1915 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 1889 Def Estab
CAR-III None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-X None 1998 Def Estab
NEA-V None 1993 Crypto Estab
NWP-4a None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-I None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-II None 1946 Crypto Estab
SP-XXI None 1935 Def Estab
SP-XII None 2001 Def Estab
AUS-II None 1999 Def Estab
SP-XIII None 2007 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Alvarez-Leon, R. ; Banta, W. C. (1984) [Bryozoans of three estuaries adjacent to Mazatlan, northeast coast of Mexico], Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 19(4): 209-218

Baldwin, Andy; Leason, Diane (2016) Potential Ecological impacts of Emerald Ash Borer on Maryland's Eastern Shore, In: None(Eds.) None. , <missing place>. Pp. <missing location>

Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202

Chimonides, P. J. (1987) Notes on some species of the genus Amathia (Bryozoa: Ctenostomata), Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) 52: 307-358

Coles, S. L.; Reath, P. R.; Longenecker, K.; Bolick, Holly; Eldredge, L. G. (2004) <missing title>, Hawai‘i Community Foundation and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Pp. 1-187

Cook, Patricia L. (1968) Bryozoa (Polyzoa) from the coasts of tropical West Africa, Atlantide - Report 10: 115-262

Creary, Marcia M. (2003) A simplified field guide to the bryozoan species found on the roots of the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in and around Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, W.I., Bulletin of Marine Science 73(2): 521-526

Creary, Marcia; Webber, Mona (2009) <missing title>, Environmental Foundation of Jamaica, Kingston, Jamaica. Pp. 1-18

D'Hondt, Jean-Loup (1975) Sur quelques bryozoaires de la region de Dakar, Bulletin de l nstitut Fondamental dAfrique Noire 37(1): 619-628

Delgadillo-G., Oscar; Flórez, Paola (2015) [First records of the phylum Bryozoa associated with artificial habitats in the Colombian Caribbean], Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 43(1): 33-45

Floerl, Oliver; Inglis, Graeme J.; Gordon, Dennis P. (2009) Patterns of taxonomic diversity and relatedness among native and non-indigenous bryozoans., Diversity and Distributions 15: 438-449

Gordon, Dennis P.; Mawatari, S.F. (1992) Atlas of marine-fouling bryozoa of New Zealand ports and harbors., Miscellaneous Publications of the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute 107: 1-52

Gordon, Dennis P.; Spencer-Jones, Mary (2013) The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand- including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin, Zootaxa 3647(1): 75-95

Hirata, Tetsu (1987) Succession of sessile organisms on experimental plates immersed in Nabeta Bay, Izu Peninsula, Japan. II. Succession of invertebrates, Marine Ecology Progress Series 38: 25-35

Huisman, John M.; Jones, Diana S.; Wells, Fred E.; Burton, Timothy S. (2008) Introduced marine biota in Western Australian waters., Records of the Western Australian Museum 25: 1-44

Keough, M. J. ; Ross, J. (1999) Introduced fouling species in Port Phillip Bay., In: Hewitt, C. L.; Campbell; M.;Thresher, R.; Martin,(Eds.) Marine Biological Invasions of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. , Hobart, Tasmania. Pp. 193-225

Marcus, Ernst (1937) Bryozoarios Marinhos Brasileiros, Boletim de faculdade de filosofia, Ciencias e Letras, Universidade de sao Paulo, Zoologia 1: 1-224

Maturo, Frank J. S., Jr. (1957) A study of the Bryozoa of Beaufort, North Carolina and vicinity, Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 72(1): 11-68

Menon, N. Ravidranatha (1972) Species of the suborder Ctenostomata Busk (Bryozoa) from Indian waters., Internationale Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 57(4): 529-569

Montoya-Cadavid, Erika; Flórez-Romero, Paola; Winston, Judith E. (2007) Checklist of the marine Bryozoa of the Colombian Caribbean, Biota Colombiana 8(2): 159 -184

Osburn, Raymond C. (1940) Bryozoa of Porto Rico, N. Y. Academy of Sciences - Scientific Survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 16(3): 321-486

Osburn, Raymond, C (1953) Bryozoa of the Pacific Coast of America: Part 3, Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Entoprocta, and Addenda., Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 14(3): 615-684

Paulay, Gustav; Kirkendale, Lisa; Lambert, Gretchen; Meyer, Chris (2002) Anthropogenic biotic interchange in a coral reef ecosystem: a case study from Guam, Pacific Science 56(2): 403-422

Piola, Richard F.; Johnston, Emma L. (2008) Pollution reduces native diversity and increases invader dominance in marine hard-substrate communities., Diversity and Distributions 14: 329-342

Pollard, D.A.; Pethebridge, R.L. (2002) Report on Port of Botany Bay: Introduced marine pest species survey, NSW Fisheries Final Report Series 40: 1-69

Prenant, Marcel; Bobin, Geneviève (1956) <missing title>, 60 Paul LeChevalier, Paris. Pp. 1-308

Pulpeiro, E. Fernandez; Gil, O. Reverter (1995) Les Bryozoaires ctenostomes de la ria de Ferrol (Espagne nord-occidentale), Cahiers de Biologie Marine 36: 47-55

Rao, S. K.; Ganapati, P. N. (1975) Littoral Bryozoa in the Godavary Estuary, Bulletin of the Department of Marine Science of the University of Cochin 7(3): 591-600

Seo, Ji Eun (1998) Taxonomy of the marine bryozoans from Namheado Island and its adjacent waters, Korea., Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 14(4): 415-424

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002-2021 Invertebrate Zoology Collections Database.

Vieira, Leandro M.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Winston, Judith E. (2008) Synopsis and annotated checklist of Recent marine Bryozoa from Brazil, Zootaxa 1810: 1-39

Winston, Judith E. (1982) Marine bryozoans (Ectoprocta) of the Indian River area (Florida)., Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 173: 99-176