Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1876
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1905
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 1876

General Invasion History:

Bugula neritina was described by Linnaeus from Europe in 1758, from the Mediterranean Sea. The Bugula 'neritina', widely identified in fouling communities is a widespread species complex of unknown tropical-warm-temperate origin, now widespread and cryptogenic in equatorial regions. It has been introduced to higher-latitude and more isolated ocean regions including the coast of northern Europe (Ryland 1960), the southwest Atlantic (Marcus 1937; Orensanz et al. 2002), the northeast Pacific (Carlton 1979; Wonham and Carlton 2005), Hawai'i (Carlton and Eldredge 2009), and the southwest Pacific (Keough and Ross 1999; Cranfield et al. 1998). In the English Channel and Long Island Sound, it appeared first near thermal effluents and gradually spread to other habitats (Ryland 1960; Carlton, personal communication 2004; Ryland 2011). In both the northeast Pacific and northwest Atlantic, B. 'neritina' has been extending its range northward, reaching Coos Bay, Oregon by 1986 (Wonham and Carlton 2005, and the Gulf of Maine (Boston and Salem Harbors, Massachusetts), by 2000 (MIT Sea Grant 2004). 
 
Many shallow-water populations around the world (England, Hong Kong, Hawaii, Australia, California, North Carolina, Curacao) share a single cytochrome oxidase (COI) haplotype (S1, McGovern and Hellberg 2002; Mackie et al. 2006). In California, a presumably native form 'D' is primarily found in more open marine waters (3-12 m) than the S 'shallow' form (0-8 m). The two forms have differing bryostatins, COI haplotypes, and endosymbionts Mackie et al. 2006; Davidson and Haygood 1999). 

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Robertson (1905, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995) and Osburn (1940) reported that Bugula 'neritina' was widespread in southern California, ranging up to Monterey Bay. At least two cryptic species are present on the West Coast, the cosmopolitan Type S (shallow, 0-8 m) and the presumed native Type D form (Davidson and Haygood 1999). We assume that most or all West Coast harbor populations of B. 'neritina' are type S, based on molecular identifications from Scripps Pier, Newport Bay, Catalina Harbor, Santa Cruz Harbor, San Francisco Bay and Humboldt Bay (Davidson and Haygood 1999; Mackie 1999). In recent surveys, B. 'neritina', assumed to be the S form, has been reported from every California bay sampled, from San Diego Bay to Humboldt Bay (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Wasson et al. 2001; Cohen et al. 2002; Fairey et al. 2002; de Rivera et al. 2005; Needles 2007). Some overlap between the S and D forms may occur, since both types were found at similar depths on the open coast at Patrick Point (Humboldt County) and Humboldt Bay (Davidson and Haygood 1999).

There is evidence of a northward shift in the range of the harbor form of B. 'neritina'. It was first collected in San Francisco Bay probably in the early 1980s (Kozloff 1983, cited by Cohen and Carlton 1995), in Humboldt Bay in 1987 (Carlton and Hodder 1995), and Coos Bay, Oregon in 1986 (Cohen and Carlton 1995; Wonham and Carlton 2005). Cohen and Carlton (1995) note a record from about 1994 in Friday Harbor, Washington. 

Invasion History on the East Coast:

On the Atlantic Coast of North America, Bugula 'neritina' was identified by A. E. Verrill and reported by Coues and Yarrow (1878) from Fort Macon, near Beaufort, North Carolina. It was collected from the Dry Tortugas, Florida (Caribbean-Gulf of Mexico) by Osburn (1914) and appears to have been widespread in the Atlantic from south of Cape Hatteras, Florida through the Gulf of Mexico, and through the Caribbean Sea by the early-mid 20th century (Osburn 1914, Osburn 1940; Osburn 1947; Shier 1964; Maturo 1957; Winston 1977). We regard this bryozoan as cryptogenic within its distribution south of Cape Hatteras and in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.

Bugula 'neritina' was collected in the 19th century in Massachusetts waters (Nahant, 1854; Provincetown, 1876) (Winston and Hayward 2012), but apparently was not established north of Cape Hatteras, until the late 20th century. It was not found in early surveys at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay (1915-1922), or in adjacent Atlantic coastal bays by Osburn (1932, 1944), but was first collected in 1985 in fouling within thermal effluents at Millstone Nuclear Power Plant, in Waterford, Connecticut, Long Island Sound (Carlton, personal communication, 1999). Subsequently, this bryozoan became widespread at Avery Point, Groton, Connecticut, and other Long Island Sound locations away from thermal effluents (Osman, personal communication 2004). In 2000 and 2001, it was collected on settling plates at Kiptopeke, Virginia, at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay (Ruiz et al., unpublished data). By 2003, B. 'neritina' was found at various harbor locations from Chesapeake Bay to Casco Bay, Maine (McGovern and Hellberg 2003; MIT Sea Grant 2003; Ruiz et al., unpublished data).

Molecular studies of Bugula 'neritina', and studies of its bacterial endosymbionts indicate that at least two genotypes occur in the Northwest Atlantic. The cosmopolitan type 'S' is found from Cape Hatteras to the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean (McGovern and Hellberg 2003; Mackie et al. 2006), and a North Atlantic lineage identified by specimens from Delaware, Connecticut, and Massachusetts (McGovern and Hellberg 2003). While the North Atlantic lineage of Bugula 'neritina' appears to be genetically distinct from the widely introduced type S, the history of B. 'neritina', north of Cape Hatteras strongly suggests a recent introduction. However, the origin of this genotype is unknown. We predict that when more populations are studied, a source population of the North Atlantic lineage will be found in another part of the world. The Northwest Atlantic genotype 'N',  has been found in California and Queensland, Australia (Fehlman-Ale et al. 2014), but its origin is unclear.

Invasion History on the Gulf Coast:

Invasion History in Hawaii:

Bugula 'neritina' was first collected in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, in 1921. It is now found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands, including harbors in Maui and Kaua'i (Coles et al. 1999; Coles et al. 2004; Carlton and Eldredge 2009). Mackie et al. (2006) identified specimens from Pearl Harbor as belonging to haplotype S, the cosmopolitan form.

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

Bugula neritina was described from the Mediterranean, where we consider it cryptogenic. It was first reported in Atlantic Europe in 1959, in a heated dock in Swansea, Wales (Ryland 1960). It apparently disappeared from British waters in the 1960s, possibly because of severe winters or cool summers, but reappeared or was rediscovered by 2004 in several locations on the south coast of England (Arenas et al. 2006). By 2011 it was widespread on Britain's south coast and present further north in the Irish Sea, to Wales, Scotland, and Ireland (Ryland et al. 2011). Elsewhere in Europe, it was found in Costa Lugo, Spain, on the Bay of Biscay (1997, Cesar-Aderiz et al. 1997), and subsequently found in many locations from the Netherlands to Cadiz, Spain (Ryland et al. 2011). Bugula neritina has also been found in the Azores (Ryland et al. 2011) 
 
In the southwest Atlantic, B. neritina was reported from Santos, near Sao Paulo by 1937 (Marcus 1937). On the subtropical-temperate Atlantic Coast of South America, B. neritina is reported from lha Grande Bay in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil to Cabo Blanco, Argentina (47 S) and Port William in the Falkland Islands (52 S) (Gappa 2000; Orensanz et al. 2002; Vieira et al. 2008; Ignacio et al. 2010). In the mid-South Atlantic, it has been found on the remote island of Tristan da Cunha (37 S) (Ryland et al. 2011). On the west coast of South America, it was widespread in Chile in 1982, ranging from Arica (18 S) to Aruaco (37 S) (Moyano 1982, cited by Castilla et al. 2005). Bugula ‘neritina’ is considered an introduction to the Galapagos Islands, where it may have been first found in 1924 (Banta 1991, cited by Carlton 2019; McCann et al. 2019). 
 
Bugula neritina has been introduced to Pacific Island harbors, including those in American Samoa (Coles et al. 2002) and Palau (Marnie Campbell and Chad Hewitt 2009, personal observations). It was introduced to Port Philip Bay, Victoria, Australia by 1881 (Keough and Ross 1999) and is now widespread in harbors on the Australian coast (Brock 1983; Keough and Ross 1999; Wyatt et al. 2005; Mackie et al. 2006). In New Zealand, the first definite collection was at Wellington on the Cook Straits (1949, Ralph and Hurley 1952, cited by Gordon and Matawari 1992), but it is now widespread in New Zealand ports (Gordon and Matawari 1992).


Description

Colonies of Bugula 'neritina' form bushy tufts 100 mm or more in height. The tips of the branches show slight spiral growth, and the bases consist of two parallel series of zooids (bifurcation type 4 of Ryland 1960, Hayward and Ryland 1998). The zooecia (zooids) are large, 600-800 µm, narrowing proximally. Spines are absent, but the distal margin forms an angular projection. This bryozoan has no avicularia. The polyps have 23-24 tentacles. The ooecia are attached to inner distal angles of the zooids, obliquely to the angle of the branch, and resemble 'miniature snail shells' (Hayward and Ryland 1998), and 'seem to form a series of small beads along the branches' (Osburn 1950). Colony color is 'purplish brown', or 'dark reddish purple' and translucent brown when preserved. The developing embryos are brown, and reach ~250 µm in diameter. The ancestrula is symmetrical, with a pedestal-like base, and lacks spines or rootlets. This description is based on information from Osburn (1940), Maturo (1957), Ryland (1960), Gordon and Mawatari (1992), Hayward and Ryland (1998) and Winston and Hayward (2012).

Bugula 'neritina' constitutes a widespread species complex of forms which can only be distinguished by molecular methods. At least three cryptic species are present, designated as 'Type S' (shallow-water, cosmopolitan), ‘Type D’ (open water, California, presumed native), and a ‘North Atlantic lineage’ (Connecticut and Delaware) (Davidson and Haygood 1999; McGovern and Hellberg 2003; Mackie et al. 2006). A recent analysis (Fehlman-Ale et al. 2014) supports this general picture, but found haplotype N, the 'Northwest Atlantic genotype' occurring in Queensland, Australia, and central California).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Bryozoa
Class:   Gymnolaemata
Order:   Cheilostomata
Suborder:   Anasca
Family:   Bugulidae
Genus:   Bugula
Species:   neritina

Synonyms

Anamarchis neritina (Verrill, 1878)
Sertularia neritina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Bugulina californica
Native to the Northeast Pacific

Bugulina flabellata
Native to the Northeast Atlantic, maybe a misidentification of Bugulina foliolata (Linda McCann, pers. comm.)

Bugulina fulva
Native to the North Atlanticc, maybe a mis-identifcation of Bugulina foliolata (Linda McCann, pers. comm.)

Bugulina stolonifera
Cryptogenic in the Northwest Atlantic, introduced in the Northeast Atlatnic and West Coast, mostly in harbor areas.

Crisularia pacifica
Formerly Bugula pacifica, native to Northeast Pacific

Ecology

General:

Life History- Bugula neritina is a bush-like, calcified bryozoan, composed of many individual zooids. The zooids feed by extending the ciliated tentacles of the lophophore as a funnel, creating a current, and driving food particles into their mouths. The food is guided along the tentacles and through the pharynx by the cilia. Larger food particles can be moved or captured by flicking or contracting the tentacles. The zooids are hermaphroditic and produce large yolky eggs that hatch into lecithotrophic larvae, which are planktonic for short periods (less than 1 day). Larvae settle on a substrate and metamorphose into the first zooid of a colony, an ancestrula (Barnes 1983).

Ecology- Bugula neritina attaches to stones, wood, pilings, floats, buoys, ship hulls, seaweed, seagrasses, oysters, other bryozoans, and other hard substrates (Ryland 1965; Gordon and Mawatari 1992; Hayward and Ryland 1998; Ryland et al. 2011).

Food:

Phytoplankton, detritus

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatCoral reefNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Life History


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)2.2Field, based on coldest site in geographical range, Boston MA (Zerebecki and Sorte 2011); 9 C Experimental, Japan (Kitamura and Hirayama 1984)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)30Experimental, Japan (Kitamura and Hirayama 1984). Temperature tolerances vary with acclimation and geographical location. For B. neritina, from Lynn Harbor MA, acclimated at 17 C, the median lethal 24 h temperature (LT50) was 26.4 C, but significantly lower (24.4) for this species from Bodega Bay CA (Sorte et al. 2013).
Minimum Salinity (‰)18Field observations, Italian coastal lagoons (Occhipinti Ambrogi and D'Hondt 1981).
Maximum Salinity (‰)40Field salinity (Shark Bay, Western Australia) (Wyatt et al. 2005)
Minimum Duration0Larval period (Wendt 2000)
Maximum Duration0.5Larval period (Wendt 2000)
Maximum Height (mm)98New Zealand, Gordon and Mawatari 1992
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Economic Impacts 

Shipping, Industry- Bugula 'neritina' is a frequent fouling organism and has been found on fixed structures, ship hulls, in ships' internal water systems, and in power plants using seawater in warm waters worldwide (Ryland 1971). Bugula 'neritina' collected in Botany Bay, Australia, proved highly resistant as larvae and adults to dissolved copper, an active agent in many antifouling paints, and therefore have the potential to foul coated hulls (Piola and Johnston 2006).

Fisheries- Bugula 'neritina' has fouled aquaculture nets and cages (Hodson et al. 1997). This bryozoan also contributed to fouling which slowed the growth of cultured mussels (Perna perna) in Brazil (de Sá et al. 2007).

Human Health- Bugula 'neritina' has a positive economic impact, as a source of bryostatins, potential anticancer compounds (Davidson and Haygood 1999). The extracted, purified compounds can be worth $380,000 per pound (Lovell et al. 2008).

Ecological Impacts 

Competition- Bugula 'neritina' in subtropical-tropical waters worldwide is a major competitor in the fouling community (Sutherland and Karlson 1977; Winston 1982). The tolerance of Bugula 'neritina' to copper-based antifouling paints (Piola and Johnston 2006) may give it a competitive advantage over more sensitive species, such as Schizoporella errata and Tricellaria occidentalis (Piola and Johnston 2006). Bugula neritina was one of several invasive fouling species which showed increased growth (zooid number) at temperatures 3.5 and 4.5C above the ambient temperature in Bodega Harbor (13.5C), while the native colonial tunicate Distaplia occidentalis showed reduced survival (Sorte et al. 2010). Bugula 'neritina' was one of a group of seven non-native species in Bodega Harbor, most of which were rare or absent in 1970-1971, but were among the eight most abundant species in 2006. Spawning periods and the abundance of species in this group appeared to be favored by a 1C increase in average temperatures at this site over a 30-year period (Sorte and Stachowicz 2011).


Regional Impacts

NEP-VNorthern California to Mid Channel IslandsEcological ImpactCompetition
Bugula neritina was one of several invasive fouling species which showed increased growth (zooid number) at temperatures 3.5 and 4.5⁰C above the ambient temperature in Bodega Harbor (13.5⁰C), while the native colonial tunicate Distaplia occidentalis showed reduced survival (Sorte et al. 2010). Bugula neritina was one of a group of seven non-native species in Bodega Harbor, most of which were rare or absent in 1970-1971, but were among the eight most abundant species in 2006. Spawning periods and abundance of species in this group appeared to be favored by a 1⁰C increase in average temperatures at this site over a 30-year period (Sorte and Stachowicz 2011).
P112_CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay)Ecological ImpactCompetition
Bugula neritina was one of several invasive fouling species which showed increased growth (zooid number) at temperatures 3.5 and 4.5⁰C above the ambient temperature in Bodega Harbor (13.5⁰C), while the native colonial tunicate Distaplia occidentalis showed reduced survival (Sorte et al. 2010). Bugula neritina was one of a group of seven non-native species in Bodega Harbor, most of which were rare or absent in 1970-1971, but were among the eight most abundant species in 2006. Spawning periods and abundance of species in this group appeared to be favored by a 1⁰C increase in average temperatures at this site over a 30-year period (Sorte and Stachowicz 2011).
AUS-IXNoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Bugula neritina was one of several organisms causing severe fouling of net-pens used for rearing Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) in Tasmania (Hodson et al. 1997).
SEP-CNoneEcological ImpactCompetition
Dumont et al. (2011) found that Bugula neritina dominated fouling communities in La Herradura Bay when predators (sea urchins, shrimp) were excluded by caging or by an unfavorable environment (sandy bottom).
SA-IIINoneEconomic ImpactFisheries
Bugula neritina, together with the algae Ulva rigida and Polysiphonia subtilissima, were major fouling organisms of cultured mussels (Perna perna) in Espiritu Santo state, Brazil. Fouling slows the growth of mussels, but the costs of cleaning mussels exceeded the effects of reduced growth (de Sa et al. 2007).
G170West Mississippi SoundEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Drifting mats of detached Bugula neritina and Amathia verticillata form an important habitat for a wide variety of invertebrate taxa on muddy bottoms of Biloxi Bay, Gulf of Mexico (Pederson and Peterson 2002).
CAR-INorthern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern FloridaEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Drifting mats of detached Bugula neritina and Amathia verticillata form an important habitat for a wide variety of invertebrate taxa on muddy bottoms of Biloxi Bay, Gulf of Mexico (Pederson and Peterson 2002).
NEA-VNoneEcological ImpactHabitat Change
Bugula neritina supports high densities of the introduced caprellid Caprella scaura, possibly because the color and morphology of the two species match, providing camouflage, and because the physical structure of the colonies does not hinder the movement of the animals as much as that of bryozoans with more defensive structures (Ros et al. 2011; Ros et al. 2013).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 1878 Crypto Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 1914 Crypto Estab
CAR-III None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-H None 1924 Crypto Estab
MED-II None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-III None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-II None 1959 Def Estab
CIO-I None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-X None 1950 Def Estab
AUS-XII None 2001 Def Estab
NZ-IV None 1949 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-4a None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1905 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1905 Def Estab
NEP-VIII None 1980 Crypto Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1986 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1921 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 1881 Def Estab
AUS-VII None 1975 Def Estab
NZ-VI None 1992 Def Estab
MED-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-I None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-V None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-4b None 0 Crypto Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 1985 Def Estab
NEA-V None 1997 Def Estab
IP-1 None 0 Crypto Estab
SA-I None 1980 Def Estab
NEA-III None 1911 Def Estab
CIO-II None 1913 Crypto Estab
SEP-Z None 1924 Def Estab
NEA-VI None 2001 Def Estab
WA-I None 1845 Crypto Estab
WA-IV None 1945 Def Estab
WA-II None 0 Crypto Estab
NA-ET4 Bermuda 1900 Crypto Estab
CAR-IV None 1914 Crypto Estab
SA-II None 1937 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 0 Crypto Estab
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 2000 Def Estab
CIO-III None 1913 Crypto Estab
RS-3 None 1924 Crypto Estab
RS-2 None 1852 Crypto Estab
RS-1 None 1852 Crypto Estab
NWP-3b None 1966 Crypto Estab
AUS-V None 2001 Def Estab
SP-IX None 2002 Def Estab
AUS-III None 2002 Def Estab
SEP-B None 1982 Def Estab
SEP-C None 1982 Def Estab
N170 Massachusetts Bay 2000 Def Estab
M130 Chesapeake Bay 2000 Def Estab
M110 Maryland Inland Bays 2003 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 1985 Def Estab
S030 Bogue Sound 0 Crypto Estab
S080 Charleston Harbor 0 Crypto Estab
S180 St. Johns River 0 Crypto Estab
S183 _CDA_S183 (Daytona-St. Augustine) 0 Crypto Estab
S190 Indian River 0 Crypto Estab
G070 Tampa Bay 0 Crypto Estab
G080 Suwannee River 0 Crypto Estab
G090 Apalachee Bay 0 Crypto Estab
G100 Apalachicola Bay 0 Crypto Estab
G210 Terrebonne/Timbalier Bays 0 Crypto Estab
G120 Choctawhatchee Bay 0 Crypto Estab
N100 Casco Bay 2003 Def Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1946 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1977 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 2001 Def Estab
P027 _CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre) 2001 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1939 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1961 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 2001 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 2001 Def Estab
P064 _CDA_P064 (Ventura) 2003 Def Estab
P065 _CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel) 2001 Def Estab
P070 Morro Bay 2001 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1905 Def Estab
P086 _CDA_P086 (San Francisco Coastal South) 1997 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 2001 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 1969 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1983 Def Estab
P022 _CDA_P022 (San Diego) 1999 Def Estab
P058 _CDA_P058 (San Pedro Channel Islands) 1999 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 1999 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1986 Def Estab
P135 _CDA_P135 (Mad-Redwood) 1999 Def Estab
AUS-IV None 2001 Def Estab
AUS-II None 2001 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
M010 Buzzards Bay 2003 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 2000 Def Estab
AUS-IX None 1997 Def Estab
M128 _CDA_M128 (Eastern Lower Delmarva) 2009 Def Estab
SP-XIII None 2009 Def Estab
NEA-IV None 2005 Def Estab
ANT-AR2 None 2011 Def Estab
SA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-V None 0 Def Estab
M023 _CDA_M023 (Narragansett) 2010 Def Estab
G170 West Mississippi Sound 1932 Crypto Estab
N180 Cape Cod Bay 1876 Def Estab
M120 Chincoteague Bay 2013 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 2007 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 1924 Crypto Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Crypto Estab
MED-IV None 2015 Crypto Estab
EAS-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-I None 0 Crypto Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 2019 Def Estab
SA-III None 2010 Crypto Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
767319 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-13 Coast Guard, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3126 -123.0512
767333 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-14 Spud Point North, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3301 -123.0572
767359 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-22 Tomales-Marshall, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1514 -122.8888
767389 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-16 Tomales-SNPS, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.1359 -122.8719
767419 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-19 SeaWorld Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7676 -117.2314
767433 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767452 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-29 Mission Bay Yacht Club, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7778 -117.2485
767472 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-04 Bahia Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7731 -117.2478
767490 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-31 Campland on the Bay, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7936 -117.2234
767502 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-01 Hyatt Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7634 -117.2397
767519 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-03 Mission Bay Sport Center, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7857 -117.2495
767548 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-02 The Dana Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7671 -117.2363
767561 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-05 Paradise Point Resort, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7730 -117.2406
767574 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-30 201 Main, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3564 -120.8474
767587 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-27 City Harbor, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3709 -120.8582
767598 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-05 Launch Ramp, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3577 -120.8508
767609 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-29 Moorings, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3619 -120.8548
767620 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-31 Morro Bay Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3641 -120.8532
767630 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-28 Sealion Dock, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3658 -120.8555
767638 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-03 State Park Marina, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3459 -120.8423
767650 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-09-04 Tidelands, Morro Bay, CA, California, USA Def 35.3602 -120.8521
767661 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-16 Naval Base Point Loma, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6886 -117.2343
767702 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-25 Navy Ammo Dock, Pier Bravo, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6939 -117.2276
767728 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-22 Coronado Cays Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6257 -117.1309
767741 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-18 NAB Fiddlers Cove, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6524 -117.1486
767781 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-28 Marriott Marquis and Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7059 -117.1655
767795 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-15 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9117 -122.3494
767808 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-20 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6979 -122.1912
767828 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-14 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5880 -122.3160
767848 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6725 -122.3864
767864 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-13 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8046 -122.3985
767874 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-15 Berkeley Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8758 -122.3181
767883 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2012-09-19 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
767911 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-20 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7947 -122.2822
767925 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-22 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
767974 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
767996 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-23 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8609 -122.4853
768050 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-11 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
768072 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768097 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768120 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-04 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5023 -122.2130
768144 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-06 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9736 -122.4802
768162 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-05 Port of Oakland, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7987 -122.3228
768185 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-07 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7940 -122.2787
768223 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6962 -122.1919
768241 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-12 Emeryville, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8396 -122.3133
768263 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-15 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7656 -122.2858
768287 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768307 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-22 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7926 -122.2746
768325 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-23 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9723 -122.4829
768346 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-13 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6639 -122.3821
768367 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-14 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5024 -122.2134
768390 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768427 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-21 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6980 -122.1908
768441 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-16 Sausalito Marine Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8611 -122.4851

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