Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 1966
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record: 1966
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 2013

General Invasion History:

Grandidierella japonica was originally described from Abashiri, Hokkaido, Japan (Lowry et al. 2009). Its native range is from the southern Sea of Okhotsk to the East China Sea (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Huang 2001). It often occurs in brackish estuaries, in fine mud, and sometimes in oyster beds and fouling. It has been introduced to the Northeast Pacific, first collected in 1966 in San Francisco Bay, California and now ranges from Baja California, Mexico to the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia (Lee et al. 2008; Pilgrim et al. 2013). Other introduced populations are known from New South Wales, Australia (first record in 1981, Lowry et al. 2015); Oahu, Hawaii (first record in 1996, Muir 1997; Carlton and Eldredge 2009); and Europe (Smith 1998; Jourde et al. 2013).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the West Coast:

Grandidierella japonica was first collected in Dutchman Slough, near Vallejo, California (CA) at the mouth of Napa River in 1966 (Chapman and Dorman 1975). Subsequently, it was collected in many other locations in San Francisco Bay, including San Pablo Bay, the central Bay, the Napa and Petaluma Rivers, and South San Francisco Bay (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Cohen and Carlton 1995). It was soon found in adjacent estuaries, including Tomales Bay in 1969, Bolinas Lagoon in 1971, and Drakes Estero in 1972 (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Carlton 1979). However, it was not reported in Bodega Harbor until 2002 (Lee 2008).

To the south of San Francisco Bay, G. japonica was first collected in Elkhorn Slough in 1980 and Newport Bay in 1979 (Greenstein and Tiefenthaler 1997), but discoveries of this amphipod in many other California estuaries are more recent. It was found in Morro Bay in 1999 (Lee 2008) and was discovered in 15 southern California bays, lagoons and harbors from Santa Barbara to the Tijuana River estuary in 1995 to 2002 . The invaded estuaries included major shipping harbors (Port Hueneme in 2000; Los Angeles-Long Beach in 1998; San Diego in 1997), smaller recreational boat harbors (e.g., Channel Islands Harbor in 1998; Mission Bay in 1997) and small semi-isolated lagoons (Mugu Lagoon in 1999; Los Penasquitos Lagoon in 1996; and Tijuana River Estuary in 1995) (Cohen et al. 2002; Fairey et al. 2002; Ranasinghe et al. 2005; Lee 2008). The current southern limit for G. japonica, reached by 2004, is Bahia San Quintin, Mexico (Chapman 2007; Lee 2008).

Grandidierella japonica's spread to the north was also spotty. It was first reported in Humboldt Bay, CA and Willapa Bay, Washington (WA) in 1985 (Cohen et al. 2002; Boyd et al. 2002) and Coos Bay, Oregon and Puget Sound, WA in 1977 (Carlton 1989; Lee 2008). Reported occurrences in 10 intervening estuaries (Rogue River, Oregon-Grays Harbor, Washington) were much later (1994-2002), probably reflecting the occurrences of surveys. Surprisingly, the first record in the better-sampled Columbia River was in 1999 (Sytsma et al. 2004). The present northern limit of G. japonica's northern range is the Fraser River estuary, near Vancouver, British Columbia (Chapman 2007; Lee 2008).

Possible vectors to the West Coast of North America, include ballast water, fouling, and imports of Pacific oysters from Japan. Fouling of fishing and recreational boats is a likely vector for coastwise transport to small harbors. A genetic study found two major clades, with Clade A occurring in the minority of specimens in San Francisco Bay and predominant in estuaries to the north, while Clade B predominates in San Francisco and San Diego Bays. The pattern indicates two invasions from separate sources, and a hub-and-spoke pattern of spread from larger ports to smaller estuaries (Pilgrim et al. 2013).

Invasion History in Hawaii:

In 1996, G. japonica was collected at several locations in Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii, and is established there (Muir 1997; Coles et al. 1999b).

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In 1981, Grandidierella japonica was found to be established in the Hawkesbury River estuary, in New South Wales, Australia (Lowry et al. 2015). It has also invaded parts of Europe. In 1999, it was found in Southampton Water, England (Smith et al. 1999) and later in the Orwell estuary (Ashelby 2006), both on the English Channel. In 2010, it was found in Marennes-Oleron Bay, France (Jourde et al. 2013).


Description

Grandidierella japonica has a somewhat cylindrical, slender and shallow body. The coxal plates are small and vary from triangular to trapezoidal in shape. The head lacks a rostrum, or has a vestigial one. In mature males, the 1st pereionite (body segment) bears a medio-ventral spine. Antenna 1 is greater than half the body length, with 20 segments, 17 of which are on the flagellum. Antenna 2 is about 2/3 the length of Antenna 1, and has profuse, long setae. The eyes are large and dark (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Chapman 2007).

The gnathopods are sexually dimorphic in this family. Gnathopod 1 is greatly enlarged in males, and much larger than Gnathopod 2, but in both sexes, they are carpochelate, meaning that segments 6 (the propodus) and segment 7 (the dactyl) fold around segment 5 (carpus) when gripping. In males, segments 2 and 5 are greatly enlarged. Segment 5 has a distal thumb-like tooth. In females, Gnathopods 1 and 2 are roughly equal and Gnathopod 1 is subchelate, meaning that the dactyl (segment 7) folds up against the propodus (segment 6) at an acute angle. In both sexes, Gnathopod 2 is subchelate, but segment 2 is longer in females, than in males.

Pereiopods (walking legs) 6 and 7 are about twice the length of 2-4 with 7 being slightly longer than 6. The first two uropod segments are biramous, but uropod 3 is uniramous and elongated (3X longer than wide) with many spines which are round in cross-section. The largest male was 22 mm long and the largest female was 13 mm. The cuticle is mottled gray to gray brown. The black eyes and green eggs are useful distinguishing marks in the field. This amphipod builds U-shaped tubes in muddy bottoms. Description from Chapman and Dorman 1975, Chapman in Carlton 2007, and Lowry et al. 2001-2015.


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Gammaridea
Family:   Aoridae
Genus:   Grandidierella
Species:   japonica

Synonyms

Potentially Misidentified Species

Ecology

General:

Grandidierella japonica is a tube-building gammarid amphipod, occurring in coastal waters and estuaries (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Lee et al. 2008; Pilgrim et al. 2013). Gammarid amphipods have separate sexes, brooded embryos, and direct development (Bousfield 1973). Males reach larger sizes than females, with maxima of 22 and 13 mm respectively (Chapman and Dorman 1975). Females in Newport Bay, California, began carrying embryos at ~3.8 mm length and released broods of 10-40 juveniles (mean of 25). Embryo numbers tended to increase with the female's size. Breeding was year-round, but numbers of embryos were smaller in winter.  Females in culture released a mean of 40 offspring, with a maximum of 150, in a 35-day period (Greenstein and Tiefenthaler 1997).

Grandidierella japonica occurs over a wide latitudinal range, from cold-temperate to subtropical waters (Lee et al. 2008; Lowry et al. 2009; Pilgrim et al. 2013; Trott et al. 2020). This amphipod has been collected at salinities as low as 5 PSU in the Columbia River and San Francisco estuaries (Sytsma et al. 2004; Peterson and Vayssieres 2010). Grandidierella japonica builds a U-shaped tube in muddy substrates. A male and a female often share a tube. Habitats, include lower intertidal and subtidal muddy sand, mud with shells or brick fragments, mud among Widgeongrass (Ruppia sp.), Eelgrass (Zostera) sp. or Ulva, and in fouling communities on pilings or floats (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Ashelby 2006; Trott et al. 2020). In Tomales Bay, California, and in Marennes-Oléron Bay, France, it was found near Pacific Oyster (Crassotrea gigas) beds (Chapman and Dorman 1975; Jourde et al. 2013). Grandidierella japonica feeds on detritus, benthic diatoms, and suspended particles (Aikins and Kikuchi 2002; Chapman 2007; Whitcraft et al. 2008; Best et al. 2013). In the Tijuana estuary, G. japonica is an important prey item for a number of benthic-feeding fishes (Arrow goby- Clevelandia ios, Diamond Turbot- Hypsopsetta guttulata, Longjaw Mudsucker- Gillichthys mirabilis, and California Killifish- Fundulus parvipinnis) (West et al. 2003).

Food:

Phytoplankton, Detritus, benthic diatoms

Consumers:

Fishes

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder

SusFed

Habitats

General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Maximum Temperature (ºC)25Field, Newport Bay, California (Greenstein and Tiefenthaler 1997)
Minimum Salinity (‰)5Columbia River estuary, field data (Sytsma et al. 2004)
Maximum Salinity (‰)35Typical euhaline salinity
Minimum Length (mm)3.8Smallest females bearing young (Greenstein and Tiefenthaler 1997)
Maximum Length (mm)2222 mm adult male, 13 mm adult female (Chapman and Dorman 1975)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneMesohaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Grandidierella japonica is a widespread and abundant introduced amphipod on the West Coast. However, its ecological impacts have not been well-studied. It feeds by filtering suspended particles (phytoplankton and detritus), but also grazes epiphytic diatoms on seaweeds (Aikins and Kikuchi 2002).

Food/Prey- Grandidierella japonica is the predominant amphipod in the Tijuana River estuary, San Diego, California. It has become a major food item for several native fishes (Longjaw Mudsucker- Gillichthys mirabilis; Staghorn Sculpin- Leptocottus armatus; and California Halibut- Paralichthys californicus) (West et al. 2003). In the Tijuana estuary, this amphipod was a major user of detritus from invasive Tamarix shrubs (Whitcraft et al. 2008), potentially transferring this resource from the marsh sediments to higher trophic levels.

Regional Impacts

P010Tijuana EstuaryEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Food/Prey- Grandidierella japonica is the predominant amphipod in the Tijuana River estuary, San Diego, California. It has become a major food item for several native fishes (Longjaw Mudsucker-Gillichthys mirabilis; Staghorn Sculpin- Leptocottus armatus; California Halibot- Paralichthys californicus (West et al. 2003). In the Tijuana estuary, this amphipod was a major user of detritus from invasive Tamarix shrubs (Whitcraft et al. 2008), potentially transferring this resource from the marsh sediments to higher trophic levels.
NEP-VIPt. Conception to Southern Baja CaliforniaEcological ImpactFood/Prey
Food/Prey- Grandidierella japonica is the predominant amphipod in the Tijuana River estuary, San Diego, California. It has become a major food item for several native fishes (Longjaw Mudsucker-Gillichthys mirabilis; Staghorn Sculpin- Leptocottus armatus; California Halibot- Paralichthys californicus (West et al. 2003). In the Tijuana estuary, this amphipod was a major user of detritus from invasive Tamarix shrubs (Whitcraft et al. 2008), potentially transferring this resource from the marsh sediments to higher trophic levels.

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NWP-3b None 0 Native Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1966 Def Estab
NEP-VI Pt. Conception to Southern Baja California 1979 Def Estab
NEP-IV Puget Sound to Northern California 1977 Def Estab
NEP-III Alaskan panhandle to N. of Puget Sound 1977 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1996 Def Estab
NEA-II None 1999 Def Estab
NWP-5 None 1938 Native Estab
AUS-X None 1981 Def Estab
NWP-4a None 0 Native Estab
NWP-4b None 0 Native Estab
P020 San Diego Bay 1998 Def Estab
P050 San Pedro Bay 1998 Def Estab
P170 Coos Bay 1977 Def Estab
P130 Humboldt Bay 1985 Def Estab
P270 Willapa Bay 1985 Def Estab
P260 Columbia River 1999 Def Estab
P010 Tijuana Estuary 1995 Def Estab
P030 Mission Bay 1998 Def Estab
P022 _CDA_P022 (San Diego) 1996 Def Estab
P023 _CDA_P023 (San Louis Rey-Escondido) 1999 Def Estab
P027 _CDA_P027 (Aliso-San Onofre) 1998 Def Estab
P040 Newport Bay 1979 Def Estab
P060 Santa Monica Bay 1998 Def Estab
P062 _CDA_P062 (Calleguas) 1998 Def Estab
P080 Monterey Bay 1998 Def Estab
P090 San Francisco Bay 1966 Def Estab
P095 _CDA_P095 (Tomales-Drakes Bay) 1971 Def Estab
P100 Drakes Estero 1972 Def Estab
P110 Tomales Bay 1969 Def Estab
P290 Puget Sound 1977 Def Estab
P150 Rogue River 2002 Def Estab
P160 Coquille River 2002 Def Estab
P112 _CDA_P112 (Bodega Bay) 2002 Def Estab
P180 Umpqua River 2001 Def Estab
P190 Siuslaw River 1999 Def Estab
P200 Alsea River 1997 Def Estab
P210 Yaquina Bay 1994 Def Estab
P220 Siletz Bay 2002 Def Estab
P223 _CDA_P223 (Siltez-Yaquina) 2002 Def Estab
P226 _CDA_P226 (Wilson-Trusk-Nestuccu) 2002 Def Estab
P230 Netarts Bay 1999 Def Estab
P240 Tillamook Bay 1996 Def Estab
P250 Nehalem River 1999 Def Estab
P280 Grays Harbor 1999 Def Estab
P070 Morro Bay 1999 Def Estab
NWP-3a None 0 Native Estab
P058 _CDA_P058 (San Pedro Channel Islands) 2006 Def Estab
P093 _CDA_P093 (San Pablo Bay) 1966 Def Estab
P065 _CDA_P065 (Santa Barbara Channel) 1999 None Estab
P061 _CDA_P061 (Los Angeles) 1999 Def Estab
P288 _CDA_P288 (Dungeness-Elwha) 1999 Def Estab
NEA-IV None 2010 Def Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Native Estab
MED-III None 2013 Def Estab
B-IV None 0 Def Estab
B-I None 2016 Def Unk
B-III None 2016 Def Estab
AUS-VIII None 2010 Def Unk
NA-ET2 Bay of Fundy to Cape Cod 2018 Def Estab
N100 Casco Bay 2018 Def Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 2013 Def Estab
M040 Long Island Sound 2013 Def Estab
MED-VII None 2015 Def Estab
M020 Narragansett Bay 2019 Def Estab
M060 Hudson River/Raritan Bay 2019 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude
767340 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-21 Lucas/Tides, Bodega Bay, California, USA Def 38.3284 -123.0445
767415 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-19 SeaWorld Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7676 -117.2314
767431 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-23 Marina Village, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7605 -117.2364
767448 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-29 Mission Bay Yacht Club, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7778 -117.2485
767467 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-04 Bahia Resort Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7731 -117.2478
767545 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-02 The Dana Marina, Mission Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.7671 -117.2363
767688 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-24 NAB ACU-1 Docks, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6786 -117.1615
767725 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-22 Coronado Cays Marina, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6257 -117.1309
767737 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-07-18 NAB Fiddlers Cove, San Diego Bay, CA, California, USA Def 32.6524 -117.1486
767838 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-16 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9724 -122.4796
767955 Ruiz et al., 2015 2011 2011-09-28 Benicia Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0453 -122.1561
767971 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-24 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9134 -122.3523
768049 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-11 Ballena Isle Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7676 -122.2869
768070 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-30 Oyster Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6633 -122.3817
768094 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-29 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3174
768116 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-04 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5023 -122.2130
768138 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-06 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9736 -122.4802
768183 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-07 Jack London Square Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.7940 -122.2787
768204 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-08-31 Glen Cove Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0663 -122.2130
768213 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-10 Pittsburg Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 38.0346 -121.8829
768217 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-13 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6962 -122.1919
768240 Ruiz et al., 2015 2012 2012-09-12 Emeryville, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.8396 -122.3133
768283 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-20 Coyote Point Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5877 -122.3163
768322 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-23 Loch Lomond Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9723 -122.4829
768365 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-14 Redwood City Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.5024 -122.2134
768387 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-19 Richmond Marina Bay Yacht Harbor, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.9138 -122.3522
768424 Ruiz et al., 2015 2013 2013-08-21 San Leandro Marina, San Francisco Bay, CA, California, USA Def 37.6980 -122.1908

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