Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record: 2011
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record: 2011

General Invasion History:

Palaemon adspersus has a wide native distribution in the Northeast Atlantic, from southern Norway and southwest Finland (Baltic Sea) to the Mediterranean and Black Seas, the south coast of Morocco, and the Canary Islands (Holthuis 1980; Katajisto et al. 2013; U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2014). It is characteristic of brackish water and rare in exposed open-sea environments (Holthuis 1980; Berglund 1985). It was introduced as fish forage to the Caspian and Aral Seas (Zenkevitch 1963). In 2011, it was discovered in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Newfoundland and the Magdalen Islands, Quebec where it was probably introduced by ballast water. Owing to its similarity with three native Palaemon species (formerly Palaemonetes) and two other introduced Palaemon (P. elegans and P. macrodactylus) this shrimp could be overlooked in other East Coast estuaries (González-Ortegón et al. 2015).

North American Invasion History:

Invasion History on the East Coast:

In 2011, specimens of Palaemon adspersus were collected at Stephen's Crossing, Newfoundland, and in the Magdalen Islands, Quebec. The identification was confirmed by molecular comparisons with European specimens. In 2012 - 2013, this shrimp was found at three other sites on the west coast of Newfoundland. Ballast water of ships from Europe is the most likely vector for the transport of these animals. Further surveys of Palaemon spp. (González-Ortegón et al. 2015) in East Coast waters are needed to determine whether P. adspersus is found in any other estuaries.

Invasion History Elsewhere in the World:

In 1934-1937, Palaemon adspersus and P. elegans, were stocked in the Caspian Sea as forage for commercial fishes. Both species are established and abundant in the Caspian Sea (Zenkevitch 1963; Aladin et al. 2002; Grigorovich et al. 2003). In 1954-1956, both species were transferred to the Aral Sea (Zenekvitch 1963). Through time, the Aral Sea has dried and shrunk. Palaemon elegans was still established in 2006, but P. adspersus was not reported (Aladin et al. 2008) and may be extinct.


Description

Palaemon adspersus is a caridean shrimp characteristic of brackish water. It has a distinct, well-developed rostrum, with 5-7 dorsal teeth (one dorsal tooth lying posteriorly to the orbit), and usually three (sometimes two or four) ventral teeth. The rostrum has a weak ventral expansion. The carapace bears antennal and branchiostegal spines. The antennules are triramous. The shorter ramus of the outer antennule exceeds the length of its peduncle and is fused for about 1/3 of its length to the longer flagellum. Both legs of the first pair are chelate (with claws). The palp of the mandible has three segments. Adult shrimp are up to 80 mm long. The overall color is yellowish-gray, but the ventral side of the rostrum is marked with dark red spots. The long flagella and the peduncle of the antennules are also red. Description from: Holthuis 1980, Hayward and Ryland 1990, Ashelby et al. 2004, d'Udekem d'Acoz et al. 2005, González-Ortegón and Cuesta 2006, and González-Ortegón et al. 2015.

Larval development of several Northeast Atlantic Palaemon, including P. elegans, is described, with a key, in Fincham and Figueras (1986).


Taxonomy

Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Eucarida
Order:   Decapoda
Suborder:   Pleocyemata
Infraorder:   Caridea
Family:   Palaemonidae
Genus:   Palaemon
Species:   adspersus

Synonyms

Cancer squilla (Linnaeus, 1758)
Palaemon communis (Anslijn, 1826)
Palaemon fabricii (Rathke, 1843)
Palaemon rectirostris (Zaddach, 1844)
Palaemon leachii (Bell, 1851)
Palaemon imbellis (Fischer, 1872)
Palaemon rectirostris octodentatus (Neumann, 1878)
Leander rectirostris typica (Czerniavsky, 1884)
Leander brandti (Czerniavsky, 1884)
Palaemon (Leander) brandti (Thallwitz, 1892)
Leander adspersus (Ortmann, 1894)
Leander adspersus fabricii (De Man, 1915)
Leander rectirostris octodentatus (Bolivar, 1916)
Leander imbellis (Kent, 1925)

Potentially Misidentified Species

Palaemon elegans
Rockpool Shrimp, native to East Atlantic, introduced to East Coast

Palaemon macrodactylus
Oriental Prawn, NW Pacific native, introduced to East and West coasts of North America

Palaemon mundusnovus
= Palaemonetes intermedius, NW Atlantic native (de Grave and Ashelby 2013; González-Ortegón 2015)

Palaemon pugio
= Palaemonetes pugio, NW Atlantic native (de Grave and Ashelby 2013; González-Ortegón et al. 2015)

Palaemon vulgaris
= Palaemonetes vulgaris, NW Atlantic native (de Grave and Ashelby 2013; González-Ortegón et al. 2015)

Ecology

General:

Life History- During reproduction in caridean shrimps, the copulating pair is usually oriented at right angles to one another, with the genital regions opposing each other. The modified first and second pairs of pleopods are used to transfer a spermatophore to a receptacle between the thoracic legs of the female (Barnes 1983). After mating, female palaemonid shrimps carry broods of fertilized eggs on their abdomen. Populations in the Adriatic and Black Sea had a range of 1000-2200 eggs per individual (Bilgin et al. 2009; Glamuzina et al. 2014). These hatch into planktonic larvae with feathery appendages, called zoeae. Shrimp zoeae lack the prominent spines seen in brachyuran crabs, and look shrimplike (Johnson and Allen 2005; Fincham and Figueras 1986). They go through several molts and metamorphose into postlarvae, which have well-developed walking legs and pleopods (swimmerets). After a subsequent molt, the body takes on the adult shape. Juveniles mature at about 1 year of age when they are 27-30 mm in size. Females tend to be larger than males, reaching 60-80 mm length vs. 60-62 mm for males. Lifespan is estimated at about 2.5- 3 years (Bilgin et al. 2009; Glamuzina et al. 2014).

Ecology- Palaemon aspersus inhabits shallow sandy areas in algal and eelgrass beds, often in brackish water (Holthuis 1980; Berglund 1985; González-Ortegón, et al. 2015). Individuals from the Baltic tolerate salinities as low as 1 PSU at 12 and 22°C, with little to no mortality. At 2°C, animals survived for at least 7 days at 7 PSU, but not at 1 or 5 PSU. Adult shrimps in colder regions may migrate into deeper water in winter, because of a reduced ability to regulate body fluids at low temperatures (Janas et al. 2013). A stable isotope study in the Baltic Sea population showed that P. elegans fed on animal prey, primarily Crustacea (70%) and green algae (10%). Most of the animal prey appeared to be benthic crustaceans. Mysids were readily eaten in experiments (Guerao 1994).

Food:

Amphipods, mollusks, plant material

Consumers:

fishes, humans

Competitors:

Other shrimps

Trophic Status:

Omnivore

Omni

Habitats

General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatUnstructured BottomNone
General HabitatSalt-brackish marshNone
Salinity RangeOligohaline0.5-5 PSU
Salinity RangeMesohaline5-18 PSU
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone
Vertical HabitatNektonicNone


Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)0Janas et al.2013
Maximum Temperature (ºC)26.5Glamuzina et al. 2014 (field, Croatia). However, in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden, this shrimp migrates to deeper waters at temperatures above 19 C (Berglund 1980).
Minimum Salinity (‰)1Janas et al. 2013
Maximum Salinity (‰)38Typical salinity, Mediterranean Sea
Minimum Reproductive Temperature10Field, Turkey, Black Sea (Bilgin et al. 2009)
Maximum Reproductive Temperature26Croatia, Adriatic Sea (Glamuzina et al. 2014)
Minimum Reproductive Salinity5Experimental (Sweden, Berglund 1985)
Maximum Reproductive Salinity35Field (González-Ortegón et al. 2015), but not tested at salinities above 25 PSU (Berglund 1985)
Maximum Duration24Experimental. MAKAROV YU N; GOLODETSKII L A 1980. LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLACK SEA PRAWN PALAEMON-ADSPERSUS CRUSTACEA DECAPODA IN THE LABORATORY. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal Volume: 59 Issue: 3 Pages: 375-382 Published: 1980
Minimum Length (mm)27Matue males, Croatia, Turkey (Bilgin et al. 2009; Glamuzina et al. 2014); 30mm for females with eggs, Croatia (Glamuzina et al. 2014); 38 mm, Turkey, Black Sea (Bilger et al. 2009).
Maximum Length (mm)80Holthuis 1980; Bilgin et al. 2009
Broad Temperature RangeNoneCold temperate-Warm temperate
Broad Salinity RangeNoneOligohaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Palaemon adspersus supports small, localized fisheries in Europe (Holthuis 1980). In the Caspian Sea, P. adspersus was introduced as a forage item for fishes (Zenkevitch 1963). No impacts are known in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada where this shrimp was only recently discovered (Gonzalez-Ortegon et al. 2015).

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NA-S3 None 2011 Def Estab
NEA-II None 0 Native Estab
B-I None 0 Native Estab
NEA-IV None 0 Native Estab
NEA-V None 0 Native Estab
MED-II None 0 Native Estab
WA-I None 0 Native Estab
MED-III None 0 Native Estab
MED-VIII None 0 Native Estab
B-VII None 0 Native Estab
MED-IX None 0 Native Estab
B-X None 0 Native Estab
MED-VII None 0 Native Estab
MED-IV None 0 Native Estab
MED-VI None 0 Native Estab
CASP Caspian Sea 1937 Def Estab
MED-V None 0 Native Estab
B-III None 0 Native Estab
ARAL Aral Sea 1956 Def Unk
B-IV None 0 Native Estab
B-VI None 0 Native Estab
B-II None 0 Prb Estab
MED-I None 0 Native Estab
AR-V None 0 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude

References

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