Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:

North American Invasion History:



Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Arthropoda
Subphylum:   Crustacea
Class:   Malacostraca
Subclass:   Eumalacostraca
Superorder:   Peracarida
Order:   Amphipoda
Suborder:   Caprellidea
Infraorder:   Caprellida
Superfamily:   Caprelloidea
Family:   Caprellidae
Genus:   Paracaprella
Species:   pusilla


Potentially Misidentified Species




Crustacean, phytoplankton, detritus

Trophic Status:




General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatCanalsNone
General HabitatGrass BedNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatCoarse Woody DebrisNone
General HabitatRockyNone
Salinity RangePolyhaline18-30 PSU
Salinity RangeEuhaline30-40 PSU
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Life History

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Temperature (ºC)13.4Cadiz, Spain (Ros et al. 2012)
Maximum Temperature (ºC)30Field temperatureParanagua Bay, Brazil (Ros et al. 2014)
Minimum Salinity (‰)17.848 hr LC50 (Ros et al. 2014)
Maximum Salinity (‰)46.348 hr LC50 (Ros et al. 2014)
Minimum Length (mm)3None
Maximum Length (mm)8Male. Females reached 6 mm. The means were 5 mm for males and 4 mm for females, at Mallorca, Spain (Ros et al. 2013)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm Temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
SA-II None 0 Native Estab
CAR-II None 0 Native Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Native Estab
CAR-III None 0 Native Estab
SEP-H None 2008 Def Estab
NEA-V None 2011 Def Estab
EA-III None 0 Def Estab
WA-V None 1955 Def Estab
WA-IV None 1937 Def Estab
CIO-I None 1977 Def Estab
RS-3 None 1928 Def Estab
WA-II None 1951 Def Estab
SP-XXI None 1937 Def Estab
CIO-II None 0 Def Estab
CAR-V None 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Native Estab
SEP-C None 2001 Def Estab
AUS-XII None 0 Def Estab
MED-II None 2007 Def Estab
MED-V None 2010 Def Estab
PAN_PAC Panama Pacific Coast 2008 Def Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Native Estab
NEP-VIII None 2013 Def Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Bhave, Vishal Jayant; Deshmukh, V. D. (2009) A record of skeleton shrimp Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 from Mumbai waters, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 51(1): 111-113

Carlton, James T.; Eldredge, Lucius (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawaii: The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian archipelago., Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202

Carneiro, V.A.R.; Oliveira-Carvalho, M.F; Brito, J.O.F; Lima, F.E.G.Q; Guedes, EA.C. (2019) Occurrence and distribution of the genus Caulerpa (Bryopsidales - Chlorophyta) in Estado de Alagoas, Hoehnean 46(4): e712018

Dahle, Trygve (1979) Observations of fingerling Chinook Salmon in the stomachs of Yellow Perch from the Klamath River, California, California Fish and Game 85: 158

Díaz, Yusbelly J.; Guerra-García, José M.; Martína, Alberto (2005) Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from shallow waters of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela., Organisms, Diversity and Evolution Suppl. 10: 1-25

Díaz, Yusbelly J.; Guerra-García, José M.; Martína, Alberto (2005) Caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae) from shallow waters of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela, Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5: 249-251

Foster, John M.; Thoma, Brent P.; Heard, Richard W. (2004) Range extensions and review of the caprellid amphipods (Crustacea: Amphipoda; Caprellidae) from the shallow coastal waters from the Suwannee River, Florida, to Port Aransas, Texas, with an illustrated key, Gulf and Caribbean Research 16(2): 161-175

Lacerda, Mariana Baptista; Masunari, Setuko (2011) [Identification key for caprellids (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina states.], Biota Neotropica 11(3): Published online

Love, Joseph W.; Newhard, Joseph J. (2018) Expansion of Northern Snakehead in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 147: 342-349

McCain, John C. (1968) The Caprellidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) of the Western North Atlantic, Bulletin of the United States National Museum 278: 1-115

McCain, John C., Sr. (1965) The Caprellidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) of Virginia, Chesapeake Science 6(3): 190-196

Montelli, Luciana; Lewis, John (2008) <missing title>, Maritime Platforms Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia, Fishermans Bend, Victoria, Australia. Pp. 1-50

Revanales, Triana; Guerra-García, José M.; Ros, Macarena (2022) Colonization dynamics of potential stowaways inhabiting marinas: Lessons from caprellid crustaceans, Water 14(2659.): Published online

Ros, M.; Guerra-García, J. M. (2012) On the occurrence of the tropical caprellid Paracaprella pusilla Mayer,1890 (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Europe, Mediterranean Marine Science 13(1): 134-139

Ros, Macarena and 6 authors (2014) Exploring trophic strategies of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda): Comparison between habitat types and native vs introduced distribution ranges, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 139: 88-98

Ros, Macarena and 6 authors (2014) The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: Evaluation of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean, Marine Environmental Research 99: 201-211

Ros, Macarena; Vazquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-Garcia, Jose Manuel (2013) The tropical caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla: a new alien crustacean in the Mediterranean Sea, Helgoland Marine Research 67: 675-685

Ros, Macarena; Guerra-García, José M.; González-Macías, Manuel; Saavedra, Ángela; López-Fe, Carlos M. L (2013) Influence of fouling communities on the establishment success of alien caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in Southern Spain, Marine Biology Research 9(3): 261-273

Ros, Macarena; Lacerda, Mariana B.; Vazquez-Luis, Maite; Masunari, Setuko; Guerra-Garc?a, Jose´ M. (2016) Studying exotics in their native range: Can introduced fouling amphipods expand beyond artificial habitats?, Biological Invasions Published online: <missing location>

Ros, Macarena; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M. (2013) The role of marinas and recreational boating in the occurrence and distribution of exotic caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in the Western Mediterranean: Mallorca Island as a case study, Journal of Sea Research 83: 94-103

Sato-Okoshi, W.; Okoshi, K.; Abe, H.; Li, J. Y. (2013) Polydorid species (Polychaeta, Spionidae) associated with commercially important mollusk shells from eastern China, Aquaculture 406-407: 153-159

Sato-Okoshi, Waka; Abe, Hirokazu (2013) Morphology and molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of oyster shell borers, Polydora species (Polychaeta: Spionidae), from Japan and Australia, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93(5): 1279–1286

Thiel, Martin; Guerra-García, José M.; Lancellotti, Domingo A.; Vásquez, Nelson (2003) The distribution of littoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea) along the Pacific coast of continental Chile, Revista Biologia Chilena de Historia Natural 76: 297-312

Thiel, Von Max Egon (1935) Zur kenntnis der hydromedusenfauna des Schwarzen Meeres, Zoologischer Anzeiger 111(7/8): 161-174

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002-2021 Invertebrate Zoology Collections Database.

Wells, Christopher D.; Van Volkom, Kaitlin S.; Edquist, Sara; Marovelli, Sinead; Marovelli, John (2023) Investigating the impact of introduced crabs on the distribution and morphology of littorinid snails: Implications for the survival of the snail Littorina saxatilis, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 569(151958): Published online