Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:




Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Bryozoa
Class:   Gymnolaemata
Order:   Cheilostomata
Suborder:   Anasca
Family:   Flustridae
Genus:   Sinoflustra
Species:   amoyensis


Membranipora amoyensis (Robertson, 1921)
Membranipora hastingsae (Li, 1989)
(, )

Potentially Misidentified Species

Sinoflustra annae



Phytoplankton; detritus

Trophic Status:

Suspension Feeder



General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatRockyNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm Temeprate-Tropica
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Euhaline

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
NWP-3a None 1921 Native Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Native Estab
CAR-III None 2004 Def Estab
CIO-I None 0 Native Estab
CIO-II None 0 Native Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 2004 Def Estab
EAS-VI None 2014 Native Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Calder, Dale R.; Faucci, Anuschka (2021) Shallow water hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the 2002 NOWRAMP cruise to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Zootaxa 5085: 1-73

Gordon, Dennis P. (2016) Bryozoa of the South China Sea: an overview, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 34: 604-618

Hastings, Anna B. (1930) Cheilostomatous Polyzoa from the vicinity of the Panama Canal, collected by Dr, C. Crossland on the cruise of S. Y. St. george, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 47: 697–750

Huang, Zongguo (Ed.), Junda Lin (Translator) (2001) Marine Species and Their Distributions in China's Seas, Krieger, Malabar, FL. Pp. <missing location>

Liu, X. Xing (1995) On the genus Membranipora (Anasca:Cheilostomata:Membraniporidae) from south China Seas, Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 40(1): 103-144

Madhaven Pillai, S. R. (1981) Further report on the taxonomy of fouling bryozoans of Bombay Harbour and vicinity., Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 78: 317-329

McCann, Linda D.; Hitchcock, Natasha Gray; Winston, Judith E.; Ruiz, Gregory M. (2007) Non-native bryozoans in coastal embayments of the southern United States: new records for the western Atlantic., Bulletin of Marine Science 80(2): 319-342

Oh, Dong-Ha and 6 auhtora (2021) Novel genome characteristics contribute to the invasiveness of Phragmites australis (common reed), Molecular Ecology Resources 31: 1142–1159.
DOI: 10.1111/mec.16293

Rao, K. Satyanarayana; Baljaji, M. (1988) Marine biodeterioration- advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean, Oxford & IBH Pub. Co., New Delhi. Pp. 551-574