Invasion History

First Non-native North American Tidal Record:
First Non-native West Coast Tidal Record:
First Non-native East/Gulf Coast Tidal Record:

General Invasion History:


North American Invasion History:


'With regard to Pennaria disticha, we analyzed new sequences from Thuwal (Saudi Arabia, Red Sea), Sint Eustatius (the Netherlands, Caribbean), Bocas del Toro (Panama, Caribbean Sea), Bergeggi (Italy, Mediterranean Sea), Tricase (Italy, Mediterranean Sea), Dibba Al-Fujairah (United Arab Emirates, Gulf of Oman), and Galveston (Texas, Gulf of Mexico). We confirm the presence of several clades and putative cryptic species that indicates multiple invasive episodes and undercover a new clade from the Gulf of Oman. Finally, species delimitation analyses recover 2 to 3 clades as separate species within P. disticha, and 7 to 9 species withinTurritopsis, with T. lata being a complex of 2-4 cryptic species (Miglietta et al. 2019).


Taxonomic Tree

Kingdom:   Animalia
Phylum:   Cnidaria
Class:   Hydrozoa
Subclass:   Hydroidolina
Order:   Anthoathecatae
Suborder:   Filifera
Family:   Halocordylidae
Genus:   Pennaria
Species:   disticha


Aglatophenia pinnaria (Costa, 1839)
Eucoryne elegans (Leidy, 1855)
Halocordyle disticha (Stechow, 1925)
Halocordyle tiarella (Allamna, 1872)
Pennaria australis (Bale, 1884)
Pennaria cavolinii (Ehrenberg, 1834)
Pennaria disticha (Goldfuss, 1820)
Sertolara pennara (Cavolini, 1785)
Sertularia pennaria (Gmelin, 1790)

Potentially Misidentified Species



Zooplankton; small epibenthos

Trophic Status:




General HabitatMarinas & DocksNone
General HabitatOyster ReefNone
General HabitatRockyNone
General HabitatMangrovesNone
General HabitatCoral reefNone
General HabitatVessel HullNone
Tidal RangeSubtidalNone
Vertical HabitatEpibenthicNone

Tolerances and Life History Parameters

Minimum Salinity (‰)20Field observations, SC (Calder 1976)
Maximum Salinity (‰)60Field observations, Brazil (da Silveira and Migotto 1991)
Broad Temperature RangeNoneWarm temperate-Tropical
Broad Salinity RangeNonePolyhaline-Hyperhaline

General Impacts

Regional Distribution Map

Bioregion Region Name Year Invasion Status Population Status
MED-III None 1830 Native Estab
NA-ET3 Cape Cod to Cape Hatteras 0 Native Estab
CAR-VII Cape Hatteras to Mid-East Florida 0 Native Estab
NA-ET4 Bermuda 0 Native Estab
NZ-IV None 1928 Def Estab
SA-II None 1951 Crypto Estab
SA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
AUS-XII None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-XXI None 1929 Def Estab
CAR-III None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-II None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-3 None 0 Crypto Estab
RS-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
CAR-I Northern Yucatan, Gulf of Mexico, Florida Straits, to Middle Eastern Florida 0 Native Estab
WA-V None 1906 Crypto Estab
EA-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-II None 0 Native Estab
MED-IV None 0 Native Estab
MED-V None 0 Native Estab
SP-IX None 0 Def Estab
WA-I None 0 Crypto Estab
NEA-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-VI None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-3b None 0 Crypto Estab
NWP-2 None 0 Crypto Estab
MED-VII None 0 Native Estab
EAS-III None 1890 Crypto Estab
CIO-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-XII None 1998 Crypto Estab
EA-V None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-VII None 0 Crypto Estab
SEP-Z None 0 Crypto Estab
NEP-V Northern California to Mid Channel Islands 1925 Crypto Failed
P090 San Francisco Bay 1925 Crypto Failed
SP-IV None 0 Crypto Estab
SP-XIII None 0 Crypto Estab
EA-III None 0 Crypto Estab
WA-IV None 2013 Crypto Estab
PAN_CAR Panama Caribbean Coast 0 Crypto Estab

Occurrence Map

OCC_ID Author Year Date Locality Status Latitude Longitude


Bouillon, Jean; Medel, Maria Dolores; Pagès, Francesc; Gili, Josep-Maria; Boero, Ferdinando ; Gravili, Cinzia (2004) Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa., Scientia Marina 68(suppl. 2): 5-438

Calder, D.R. (1988) Shallow-water hydroids of Bermuda: the Athecatae, Royal Ontario Museum Life Sciences Contributions 148: 1-107

Calder, D.R.; Mayal, E.M. (1998) Dry season distribution of hydroids in a small tropical estuary, Pernambuco, Brazil., Zoologische Verhandelingen 323: 69-78

Calder, Dale R. (2010) Some anthoathecate hydroids and limnopolyps (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Hawaiian archipelago, Zootaxa 2590: 1-91

Carlton, J.T., Eldredge, L. (2001) <missing title>, Bernice P. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu, Hawaii,. Pp. <missing location>

Cohen, Andrew N.; Carlton, James T. (1995) Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Sea Grant College Program (Connecticut Sea Grant), Washington DC, Silver Spring MD.. Pp. <missing location>

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C. : Eldredge, L. G. (2002a) Nonindigenous marine species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai`i, Bishop Museum Technical Report 24: 1-364

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Eldredge, L. G.; Carlton, J. T. (1999b) Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands., Marine Biology 135(1): 147-158

Coles, S. L.; DeFelice, R. C.; Minton, D. (2001) Marine species survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000, Bishop Museum Technical Report 19: 1-59

Coles, S. L.; Reath, P. R.; Longenecker, K.; Bolick, Holly; Eldredge, L. G. (2004) <missing title>, Hawai‘i Community Foundation and the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu. Pp. 1-187

Cranfield, H.J.; Gordon, D.P.; Willan, R.C.; Marshall, B.A; Battershill, C.N.; Francis, M.P.; Nelson, W.A.; Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B. (1998) <missing title>, The National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, New Zealand. Pp. <missing location>

Deevey, Edward S. (1950) Hydroids from Louisiana and Texas, with remarks on the Pleistocene biogeography of the western Gulf of Mexico, Ecology 31: 334-367

Fauchauld, Kristian (1977) Polychaetes from Intertidal Areas in Panama, with a Review of Previous Shallow-Water Records, Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 221: 1-81

Galea, Horia R. (2015) Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Tristan da Cunha and St. Helena, Marine Biodiversity Records 8: e154

Hewitt, C.L.; Campbell, M.L.; Thresher, R.E.; Martin, R.B. (1999) Marine Biological Invasions of Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, In: (Eds.) . , Hobart, Tasmania. Pp. <missing location>

Kingon, Kelly; Robertson, D. Ross 2019 The alien Damselfish, Neopomacentrus cyanomos at Trinidad.

Kirkendale, Lisa; Calder, Dale R. (2003) Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas Islands (CNMI), Micronesica 35-36: 159-188

Mead, A.; Carlton, J. T.; Griffiths, C. L. Rius, M. (2011b) Introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine species of South Africa, Journal of Natural History 39-40: 2463-2524

Miglietta, Maria Pia; Odegard, Dean; Faure, Baptiste; Faucci, Anuschka (215) Barcoding techniques help tracking the evolutionary history of the introduced species Pennaria disticha (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria), PLOSOne 10(12): e0144762

Migotto, A.E. (1996) Benthic shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the coast of Sao Sebastiao, Brazil, including a checklist of Brazilian hydroids, Zoologische Verhandelingen 306: 3-125

Migotto, Alvaro E.; Marques, Antonio C.; Morandini, André C.; da Silveira, Fábio L. (2002) Checklist of the Cnidaria Medusozoa of Brazil, Biota Neotropica 2(1): 1-31

Quintanilla, Elena; Thomas Wilke; Ramırez-Portilla, Catalina; Sarmiento, Adriana; Sanchez, Juan A.2017 (2017) Taking a detour: invasion of an octocoral into the Tropical Eastern Pacific, Biological Invasions <missing volume>(17): 2583–2597
DOI 10.1007/s10530-017-1469-2

Schuchert, Peter (2003) Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) of the Danish expedition to the Kei Islands, Steenstrupia 27(2): 137-256.

Schuchert, Peter (2006) The European athecate hydroids and their medusae (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria): Capitata Part 1., Revue Suisse de Zoologie 113(2): 325-410

U.S. National Museum of Natural History 2002-2021 Invertebrate Zoology Collections Database.

Vervoort, W. (1968) Report on a collection of hydroida from the Caribbean region, including an annotated checklist of Caribbean hydroids, Zoologische Verhandelingen 92: 1-124

Vervoort, W. (1993) Report on hydroids (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria) in the collection of the Zoological Museum, University of Tel-Aviv, Israel, Zoologische Mededelingen 67(40): 537-565

Vervoort, W. (2006) Leptolida (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) collected during the CANCAP and Mauritania-II expeditions of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands [Anthoathecata, various families of Leptothecata and addenda]., Zoologische Mededelingen 80-1(11): 181-318