1st Record: Novorossiysk/Russia/Novorossiysk Bay (1946, Chukhchin 1984; Gomiou et al. 2002)
Bulgaria/Varna Bay (1955, Ivanova et al. 2017); Novorossiysk/Russia/Novorossiysk Bay (1946, Chukhchin 1984; Gomiou et al. 2002); Sevastopol and Yalta/Ukraine/Black Sea(1954, Gomiou et al. 2002);Turkey/Black Sea (1960, Cinar et al. 2005); 14 km w of Akcacoca/Turkey/Black Sea (1977, Kinzelbach et al. 1986); Romania/Black Sea (1963, Gomou et al. 2002; Skolko and Preda 2010); Sinop Peninsula/Turkey (2006-2007, Chlha et al. 2009. abundant); Trabzon/Turkey/Black Sea (Chandler et al. 2008); Tuapse/Russia/Black Sea (Chandler et al. 2008); Romanian and Bulgaria/Black Sea (Bancila et al. 2022(.
|In the Black Sea, this mollusk: 'Feeds primarily on bivalve mollusks, paralyzing them with toxins and eating them with the aid of its soft proboscis. In aquariums, R. venosa eats Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean Mussels), Ostrea edulis (European Oysters), Tapes (=Venerupis decussatus, a clam), Chamelea gallina (gallina clams), Pecten (Flexopecten glaber ponticus, scallops), Cardium spp. (=Cerastoderma spp., cockles), and the gastropod mollusk Patella (spp., limpets). When Rapana is offered mussels and oysters simultaneously, it clearly prefers the former. This is explained, probably, by the thinner shell of the mussels which Rapana can more easily penetrate. Young-of-the year Rapana venosa eat Amphibalanus improvisus. Rapana venosa may also feed on carrion. In the aquarium, they eat the meat of mussels, oysters, dead fish and crabs.' (Chukhchin 1984, PF transl.). A recent increase (2004 -2012) in the abundance of this whelk around Zmiinyi Island (Ukraine), off the Danube delta, led to a sharp decline in the abundance of mussels, and a decline in demersal fishes that feed on mussels (Snigirov et al. 2013).|
|The invasion of the Black Sea by Rapana venosa severely affected shellfisheries, severely reducing populations of oysters (Ostrea edulis), scallops (Pecten ponticus), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), and clams (Chamelea gallina) (Chukhchin 1984; Zolotarev 1996). Attempts to eradicate R. venosa on the Bulgarian Coast were unsuccessful (Staykov 1997). However, the fishery for R. venosa for export to Asia, has become economically important in the Black Sea region. Management of the fishery is complex, because of environmental disturbance caused by dredging, the risk of overfishing of Rapana depleting the resource, and damage to other fisheries by Rapana predation. Janssen et al. (2014) describe efforts to develop ecosystem-based management in Bulgaria and Turkey for R. venosa fisheries.|
|Ecological Impact||Trophic Cascade|
|A recent increase (2004 -2012) in the abundance of this whelk around Zmiinyi Island (Ukraine), off the Danube delta, led to a sharp decline in the abundance of mussels, and a decline in demersal fishes that feed on mussels (Snigirov et al. 2013).|