Walkeria uva


Scientific Name: Walkeria uva

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Gymnolaemata

Order: Ctenostomatida

Family: Walkeriidae

Genus: Walkeria


uva [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Arctic, Temperate Northern Atlantic

Native Region:

Origin Location:

CONFLICT: Northwest Atlantic Temperate Northern Atlantic [Turkey] Sea of Marmara; Aegean Sea; Levantine Sea (Kocak and Aydin Onen 2014) STATUS STATED [US] East coast, Maine to Massachusetts (Karlson and Osman 2012) STATUS NOT STATED [UK] Plymouth Sound, England; Eastern English Channel; Humber area of the North Sea; south coast Ireland - Kinsale Harbour; Oxwich Point, South Wales(Blight and Thompson 2008; Covey 1998; Delduca 2011; Dinneen et al 1986; Keegan et al 1987; Stebbing 1971) STATUS NOT STATED [Norway] Skagerrak; Svalbard (Frederiksen et al 2005; Palerud et al 2004) STATUS NOT STATED [France] Atlantic coast, out of M-Oleron Bay (de Montaudouin and Sauriau 2000) STATUS NOT STATED [Germany] North Sea off Helgoland (Dietrich et al 2015; Harms 1993; Reichert and Buchholz 2006) STATUS NOT STATED [The Netherlands] Oosterschelde estuary (de Kluijver 1989) STATUS NOT STATED [Italy] Lazio (Relini 2000) STATUS NOT STATED [Spain] La Herradura, south coast of Spain; Alboran Sea (Cebrian and Ballesteros 2004) STATUS NOT STATED [Portugal] Leixões; Foz do Douro; Costa da Arrábida (Reverter-Gil et al 2014) STATUS NOT STATED [Red Sea] Coast of Sudan (Waters 1910, cited in Ostrovsky et al 2011) STATUS NOT STATED Westgat, west of Den Helder, The Netherlands. (Hoffman van 1920, cited in Faasse & Blauwe 2004) STATED All British coasts. (Hayward 1985) STATUS NOT STATED Hurst Point to Durlston Head, Great Britain faced to English Channel. (Covey 1998) STATUS NOT STATED Widely distributed in the North Atlantic region, from the Barents Sea (Kluge 1962, cited in Hayward 1985) to the Mediterranean, and also in the western Atlantic. (Hayward 1985) STATUS NOT STATED Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, and Levantine Sea in Turkey. (Koçak & Önen 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Leixões and Foz do Douro (Rosas 1944, as Valkeria uva, cited in Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) and Coata da Arrábida (Saldanha 1974, cited in Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Baltic Sea Kattegat Area. (Borg 1930; Brattstrom 1954; Kramp 1918, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Baltic Sea including inner areas. (Androsowa 1962; Bock 1950; Braem 1951; Jebram 1969; Ryland 1970, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] North Sea, Riveroff Canal, Elbe Estuary, Nordostsee Canal, Schleswig-Holstein. (Jebram 1969, Kuhl 1972, Schutz 1963, Hagmeier 1927, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Former Zuiderzee, Netherlands. (Vorstman 1936; Van Benthem Jutting 1922, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Netherlands, all areas. (Lacourt 1951, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Western Mediterranean (Gautier 1958, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED Arctic Widely distributed in the North Atlantic region, from the Barents Sea (Kluge 1962, cited in Hayward 1985) to the Mediterranean, and also in the western Atlantic. (Hayward 1985) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

[Western Atlantic] US: Maine to Massachusetts (Karlson and Osman 2012) [Eastern Atlantic] Norway; UK, Italy, The Netherlands; Germany; France; Portugal; Spain (Relini 2000; Blight and Thompson 2008; de Kluijver 1989; de Montaudouin and Sauriau 2000; Dietrich et al 2015; Cebrian and Ballesteros 2004; Reverter-Gil et al 2014; Frederiksen et al 2005; Palerud et al 2004) [Turkey] Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea (Kocak and Aydin Onen 2014) Western Mediterranean (Cebrian and Ballesteros 2004; Di Martino and Taylor 2014; Piazzi et al 2015) [Sudan] Red Sea (Waters 1910, cited in Ostrovsky et al 2011)

General Diversity:

Molecular sequencing is almost the same to Bowerbankia citrina (Waeschenbach et al 2012)

Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

Cryptogenic (Pederson et al. 2003)

Non-native Region:

Northwest Atlantic

Invasion Propens:

CONFLICT: Northwest Atlantic Temperate Northern Atlantic [As Valkeria uva (Synonymized taxon)] Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, US. (Pederson et al. 2003) *Cryptogenic

Status Date Non-native:


Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Natural dispersal

Second Vector:


Vector Details:

Ability to raft on macroalgae (Thiel and Gutow 2005)

Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:


Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mid temperate, Warm temperate

Native Temperature Range:

Sampled at temperatures 9 - 15˚C (OBIS 2016) Cold water, Cool temperate, Middle temperate, Warm temperate (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:


Non-native Temperature Range:


Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Sampled at 34.76-38.82 PPS (OBIS 2016) [Valkeria uva] Occur from the sea into the pleiomesohaline zone 18-8‰. (Winston 1977)

Non-native Salinity Regime:


Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

Sampled at temperatures 9 - 15˚C (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

Sampled at 34.76-38.82 PPS (OBIS 2016)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Mid intertidal, Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

[UK] Sampled at depths 1-3m; 15-20m (Blight and Thompson 2008; Stebbing 1971) [The Netherlands] Sampled from 2-4m (de Kluijver 1989) [Spain] Sampled at depths 23-28m (Cebrian and Ballesteros 2004) [Portugal] intertidal; 0-140m (Reverter-Gil et al 2014) [Turkey] Sampled from 11-100m (Kocak and Aydin Onen 2014) British coast and in the north Atlantic region: mid-tidal level into shallow subtidal. (Hayward 1985) Leixões and Foz do Douro, Portugal: intertidal (Rosas 1944, as Valkeria uva, cited in Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) Lille Middelgrund, Swedish part of Kattegat: 11.9m deep. (Lundsteen et al. 2008) Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, and Levantine Sea in Turkey: 11-100m deep. (Koçak & Önen 2014)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

Coronate larvae (Zimmer and Woollacott 2013; Ostrovsky 2013) Internal fertilization (Ryland and Bishop 1993; Joliet 1877, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) Ovarian oocytes do not degenerate along with the polypide but, instead, one of them starts to grow faster (Joliet 1877, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) Considered Pattern III Reproductive pattern (Ostrovsky 2013): - Small eggs, extra embryonic nutrition and endotrophic larvae (Ostrovsky 2013) - Produce from 2–3 to 100 female gametes, of which 1–10 mature as small oligo- or mesolecithal oocytes; they ovulate and are brooded one by one or in groups of 2–5, considerably enlarging during embryogenesis (Ostrovsky 2013) - Mature eggs ovulate and are transferred to the "polypide sac"; eggs are fertilized prior to or just after oviposition; some 4-11 larvae are brooded simultaneously (Ostrovsky 2013) RELATED: [Ctenostomata] Dioecious autozooides occur in Cheilostomata but at present no examples are known among the Ctenostomata. (Hayward 1985) [Ctenostomata] A majority of Ctenostomata, excepting Alcyonidium and Flustrellidra which fertilize in the sea water, brood their embryos and through the group as a whole there is a trend of increasing complexity in brooding patterns. (Hayward 1985, Mawatari 1976) [Ctenostomata] There is no difference in morphology between the ancestrula and later zooids. In most stoloniferans the ancestrula gives rise to a rapidly elongating stolon bud from which the first generation of autozooids is budded vertically. (Hayward 1985, Mawatari 1976) [Gymnolaemates] Internal fertilization, whether intracoelomic or intraovarian, is obligatory (Temkin 1994 and 1996, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Differ from most organisms in that sperm-egg fusion does not stimulate egg activation. Egg activation may not occur until "spawned" outside of maternal zooid (Temkin 1991) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are invariably hermaphroditic. In most species sperm and ova develop in the same autozooid, usually with a degree of protandry. (Hayward 1985) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Bryozoa] The abundance and taxonomic diversity of benthic bryozoan faunas are directly related to substratum. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are sessile (Hayami 1975) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977) [Ctenostomata] Larvae hatch by the stimulation of light. (Mawatari 1976)

Reproduction Time:



Each mature egg can produce 4-11 larvae simultaneously (Ostrovsky 2013) Produce from 2–3 to 100 female gametes, of which 1–10 mature as small oligo- or mesolecithal oocytes; they ovulate and are brooded one by one or in groups of 2–5, considerably enlarging during embryogenesis (Ostrovsky 2013)

Egg Size:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] About 200µm (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] Two phases of larvae metamorphosis: first stage about 20mins; second stage 1-6 days (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Sediment subtidal, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Oyster reef, Mussel reef, Coralline Algae, Macroalgal beds, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Sand, Mixed sediments, Cobble, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Found on concrete (Relini 2000) Algae (Hayward 1985; Blight and Thompson 2008; Frederiksen et al 2005) Rocky bottoms, large boulders (Cebrian and Ballesteros 2004) Stones and shells, with substrates of subtidal coarse sand (Covey 1998) Sediment a mixture of sand and gravel (Delduca 2011; Dietrich et al 2015; Dinneen et al 1986) Associated with seagrass in Mediterranean Sea (Di Martino and Taylor 2014) Hard substratum (including algae, sponge, mussels, etc.) and soft substratum (including phanerogams) (Koçak & Önen 2014) Frequently found on the calcareous algae Corallina officinalis (Hayward 1985) [UK] Stacks of the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata and individual oysters Ostrea edulis provided a substratum for W. uva (Covey 1998) [Norway] Found on Fucus serratus L. (Frederiksen et al 2005) [Mediterranean] Found on rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica (Piazzi et al 2015) W. u. is frequently found on the calcareous alga Corallina officinalis. (Hayward 1985) Stones and shells such as Crepidula fornicata and Ostrea edulis provided a point of attachment for the W. u. (Covey 1998) Leixões and Foz do Douro, intertidal on Chartella papyracea (Rosas 1944, as Valkeria uva, cited in Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) Collected from floating docks and pontoons in Buzzards Bay. (Pederson et al. 2003)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

RELATED: [Ctenostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Suspension feeders. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

RELATED: [Ctenostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Suspension feeders. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies may be grazed by shore fish, such as blenny and sea urchins but most predators of bryozoans are small and specialized, such as nudibranch molluscs, and pycnogonids. Mites, amphipods and other small crustaceans are often found on bryozoan colonies, but it is not known whether they should be regarded as scavengers or predators. (Hayward 1985)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


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CBM-Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 41(2), 181-222. Delduca, E. (2011). New record of depth distribution for the cheilostome bryozoan Cauloramphus spinifer. Marine Biodiversity Records, 4, e71. Doi: 10.1017/S1755267211000686 Di Martino, E., & Taylor, P. D. (2014). A brief review of seagrass-associated bryozoans, recent and fossil. Studi Trentini di Scienze Naturali, 94, 79-94. Dietrich, A., Hager, T., Bönsch, R., Winkelmann, C., Schmidt, A., & Nygren, A. (2015). A new species of Myrianida (Autolytinae, Syllidae, Annelida) from the North Sea, with short notes on the distribution and habitat of Northeast Atlantic autolytines. Marine Biology Research, 11(8), 804-813. Doi: 10.1080/17451000.2015.1016971 Dinneen, P., Keegan, B. F., Crowe, W. A., O'Connor, B., McGrath, D., Costelloe, M., & Könnecker, G. (1986). Littoral and benthic investigations on the south coast of Ireland: I. Macrofaunal distribution patterns and their relationship to the sedimentary environment in Kinsale Harbour. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science, 86B, 81-106. Faasse M & De Blauwe H (2004) Faunistisch overzicht van de mariene mosdiertjes van Nederland (Bryozoa: Stenolaemata, Gymnolaemata). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen 21: 17-54. (in Dutch) Fredriksen, S., Christie, H., & Andre Sæthre, B. (2005). Species richness in macroalgae and macrofauna assemblages on Fucus serratus L.(Phaeophyceae) and Zostera marina L.(Angiospermae) in Skagerrak, Norway. Marine Biology Research, 1(1), 2-19. Doi: 10.1080/17451000510018953 Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/ Access Date: 12-April-2016. Harms, J. (1993). Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight)—a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 47(1), 1-34. Doi: 10.1007/BF02366182 Hayami T (1975) Neogene Bryozoa from northern Japan. 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Species composition and geographic distribution of invertebrates in fouling communities along the east coast of the USA: a regional perspective. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 458, 255-268. Keegan, B. F., O'Connor, B. D. S., McGrath, D., Könnecker, G., & Ó Foighil, D. (1987). Littoral and Benthic Investigations on the South Coast of Ireland: II. The Macrobenthic Fauna off Carnsore Point. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section B: Biological, Geological, and Chemical Science, 87B, 1-14 Koҫak, F., & Aydin Önen, S. (2014). Checklist of Bryozoa on the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 38(6), 880-891. Doi: 10.3906/zoo-1405-85. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/issues/zoo-14-38-6/zoo-38-6-8-1405-85.pdf Lundsteen, S., Dahl, K., & Tendal, O. S. (2008). Biodiversity on boulder reefs in central Kattegat (BALANCE Interim Report No. 15). Retrieved from BALANCE website: http://balance-eu.org/xpdf/balance-interim-report-no-15.pdf Mawatari S (1976) Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). 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Woollacott & R. L. Zimmer (Eds.), Biology of Bryozoans (pp. 57-89). Elsevie


Moderate level of information; data from comparable regions or older data (more than 10 years) from the area of interest


Some authors refers it as Valkeria uva (Waters 1910, cited in Ostrovsky et al 2011)