Tubulipora pulchra


Scientific Name: Tubulipora pulchra

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Stenolaemata

Order: Cyclostomatida

Family: Tubuliporidae

Genus: Tubulipora


pulchra [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Temperate Australasia

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific [Korea] Cheju-do; South Sea (Rho and Seo 1986) STATUS STATED [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shirikishinai, Hakodate and Otaru; Sagami Bay (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974; Okada 1917, cited in Taylor and Grischenko 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shirikishinai, Hakodate and Otaru in Hokkaido. (Mawatari & Mawatari 1974) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Off Ishihama in Mitsu Bay. (Okada 1928) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Izushima, Onagawa Bay. (Okada & Mawatari 1937) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan. (Sakakura 1935) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Sagami Bay. (Okada 1928) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Along the coast of Sagami Sea. (Okada 1917) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Nakiri at Kii Peninsula, Mie Prefecture. (Mawatari 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Kushimoto, Syakusizima, Ttigatani, Tonda (Okada & Mawatari 1938) and Shirahama (Mawatari 1952) at Kii Peninsuka, Wakayama prefecture. STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Iyo, Seto Inland Sea. (Inaba 1988) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Tomioka Town, Amakusa, Kyushu. (Mawatari 1947) STATUS NOT STATED Other localities in Japan: Matsushima Bay. (Mawatari 1955) STATUS NOT STATED [Korea] Pŏmdo, Yellow Sea. (Rho & Seo 1986, Seo 2005) STATUS NOT STATED [Korea] Beomseom, near Jeju-do. (Seo 2005) STATUS NOT STATED [China] Daya Bay (Huang et al 1993) STATUS NOT STATED [Canada] Cape Lazo; Gabriola Pass; Houston Channel; British Columbia (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED [US] California (Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED From southern California coast (Robertson 1910, cited in Osburn 1953) to British Columbia. (O'Donoghue 1923, cited in Osburn 1953) STATUS NOT STATED San Diego. (Roberston 1910, cited in Soule et al. 1995) STATUS NOT STATED Hancock stations: along the coast of California and among the Channel Islands; Guadalupe Island. (Osburn 1953) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific [Galapagos] (Chiriboga et al 2012) STATUS STATED Clarion Island, west of Mexico; Port Parker, Costa rica; James Island, Galapagos. (Osburn 1953) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Australasia [Australia] Sydney, South Australia (Anderson 1999; Connell and Anderson 1999) STATUS NOT STATED Southern Australia (MacGillivary 1885, cited in Soule et al 1995). STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

[Western Pacific] Korea and Japan; China; Australia (Rho and Seo 1986; Anderson et al 1999; Connell and Anderson 1999; Huang et al 1993) [Eastern Pacific] British Columbia, Canada to southern California, US (Rho and Seo 1986; Oregon State University 1971) [Galapagos] (Chiriboga et al 2012) 0-43°N at both Pacific side and Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Natural dispersal

Second Vector:


Vector Details:

Rafting on floating macroalgae (Thiel and Gutow 2005)

Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Mawatari and Mawatari collected samples at Akkeshi, Muroran and Mori, Hokkaido over 5 years from 1968 (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Samples were collected in 1923/1924 from Vancouver Island, Canada (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926)


Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Native Temperature Range:

[China] Daya Bay: 17.7-29.3°C (Huang et al 2013) San Diego: max 22.0ºC in summer and min 13.0ºC in winter. (Clark et al. 2003) Muroran, Hokkaido of north Japan: max 18.0ºC in summer and min 2.0ºC in winter. (Clark et al. 2003) Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[China] Daya Bay: 29.0-33.5%o (Huang et al 2013) San Diego: max 37.0psu in dry period and min 33.5.0psu in wet period. (Clark et al. 2003) Muroran, Hokkaido in north Japan: max 32.0psu in dry period and min 23.0psu in wet period. (Clark et al. 2003)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:


Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:


Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Occurs on intertidal belt along Onagawa Bay (north-eastern Honshu Island) (Okada and Mawatari 1937, cited in Taylor and Grischenko 2015) [Canada] 6-20fms (7.2-36m) (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926) [The Pacific Coast of North America] Hancock Stations: shore to a depth of 35 fms. (Osburn 1953) Shore kelp at San Diego to depth of 58.5m. (Robertson 1910, cited in Soule et al. 1995) [Japan] Sagami Bay: shallow water. (Okada 1928) [Japan] Toyama Bay: 100 fms. (Okada 1928) [Japan] Iyo, Seto Inland Sea: 20-30m deep. (Inaba 1988)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Abundant, Rare


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomes] All cyclostomes brood larvae rather than release eggs into the water; larvae develop in gonozooids. Larvae are polyembryonic; a single fertilized egg giving rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993) [Bryozoans] Non-brooding bryozoans feed during the larval stage, while the larvae of brooding bryozoans do not, since these larvae tend to settle soon after release (Hill 2001) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are invariably hermaphroditic. Individual zooids may be monoecious, usually with a marked protandry. Perhaps all cyclostomes are characterized by dioecious autozooids. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] The development of the colony by budding from the ancestrula is referred to as astogeny. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomata] All Cyclostomata are firmly attached to algae, stones, shells and etc. without moving. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are sessile (Hayami 1975) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:

Colonies flat, about 5 - 10mm diameter (Bock 1982)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977) [Cyclostomata] It seems that larvae hatch by the stimulation of light. (Mawatari 1976)

Reproduction Time:



Each fertilized egg can give rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993) 1-10 larvae/ovicell. (Mawatari 1947)

Egg Size:

RELATED: Approximate larval diameter: 150μm; each fertilized egg can produce up to 100 larvae (McKinney 1993)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:

About 50 hours after attachment, ancestrula was formed and after 70 hours, first septum was formed. (Mawatari 1947)

Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Rocky subtidal, Fouling, Macroalgal beds, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Gravel, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Adhering to seaweed (Rho and Seo 1986) Encrusting shells or algae (Bock 1982) T. p. attached to Ulva. (Okada 1928) Several colonies of T. p. attached to sea-weeds. (Okada & Mawatari 1937) A large number of colonies attached to stones and seaweeds. (Okada 1917) T. p. was collected from the raft and the leaf of Zostera. (Mawatari 1947) T. p. lives on algae, gravels and rocks. (Inaba 1988) Fouling, Artificial substrate, Semi-exposed (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

RELATED: All bryozoans, is a suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

RELATED: All bryozoans, is a suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] The predators of bryozoans include fish, such as blennies, sea urchins, and a wide variety of smaller more specialized seloctive feeders including nudigranch sea slugs, pycnogonids, small crustaceans and mites. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Predation] [Bryozoa] The sea slugs are well known as predators of gymnolaemate bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Anderson, M . J. (1999). Effects of Patch Size on Colonisation in Estuaries: Revisiting the Species-Area Relationship. Oecologia, 118(1), 87-98. Bock, P. E. (1982). Bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa or Ectoprocta). In S. A. Shepherd & I. M. Thomas (Eds.), Marine invertebrates of southern Australia, Part I (pp. 319-394). Australia: Government Printer. Chiriboga, A., Ruiz, D., & Banks, S. (2012). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Bryozoans. Retrieved from Darwin Foundation website: http://checklists.datazone.darwinfoundation.org/media/lists/download/2012May21_Chiriboga_et_al_Galapagos_Bryozoa_Checklist.pdf Clarke C, Hillard R, Junqueira AOR, Neto ACL, Polglaze J, Raaymakers S (2003) Ballast water risk assessment, Port of Sepetiba, Fedral Republic of Brazil. GloBallast Monograph Series 14: 1-63 + 7 Appendices. Connell, S. D., & Anderson, M. J. (1999). Predation by fish on assemblages of intertidal epibiota: effects of predator size and patch size. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 241(1), 15-29. Doi: 10.1016/S0022-0981(99)00067-2 Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/ Access Date: 8-April-2016. Hayami T (1975) Neogene Bryozoa from northern Japan. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Ser. 2 (Geology) 45: 83-126. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110004646784.pdf?id=ART0007368357&type=pdf&lang=jp&host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1458033798&cp Hayward PJ & Ryland JS (1985) Cyclostome bryozoans. Key and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses of the British Fauna. Kermack DM & Barnes RSK (eds.) No. 34. The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Brackish-Water Sciences Association by EJ Brill/ Dr. Backhuys W: 147pp Hill, K. (2001) Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved from http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Electr_bellul.htm Huang, Z. G., Zheng, C. X., Lin, S., Li, C. Y., Wang, J. J., & Yan, S. K. (1993). Fouling organisms at Daya Bay nuclear power station, China. In B. Morton (Ed.), The Marine Biology of the South China Sea (pp. 121-130). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. Inaba A (1988) Fauna and Flora of the Seto Inland Sea. Second edition II. Mukaishima Marine Biological Station of Hiroshima University: 1-475. (in Japanese) Mawatari S (1947) On the attachment of the larvae of Tubilipora pulchra MacGillivary. zoological Science 57: 49-50. (in Japanese) Mawatari S (1952) Bryozoa of Kii Peninsula. Publications of the Seto Marine biological Laboratory 2: 261-288. Mawatari S (1955) Check list of known species of Japanese cyclostomatous Bryozoa. Biogeographical Society of Japan 16-19: 44-50. Mawatari S (1976) Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). In: Animal systematics. Uchida T (ed.) Nakayama-shoten Co. Ltd., Tokyo: 35-229. (in Japanese) Mawatari S & Mawatari SF (1973) Notes on the marine Bryozoa from Hokkaido I. Crisiidae (Cyclostomata). Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series VI, Zoology 19: 95-104. Mawatari S & Mawatari SF (1974) Notes on the marine Bryozoa from Hokkaido II. Cyclostomata other than Crisiidae. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series VI, Zoology 19: 349-360. McKinney, F. K. (1993). A faster-paced world?: contrasts in biovolume and life-process rates in cyclostome (Class Stenolaemata) and cheilostome (Class Gymnolaemata) bryozoans. Paleobiology, 335-351. O'Donoghue, C. H., & O'Donoghue, E. (1926). No. 3: A Second list of the bryozoa (polyzoa) from Vancouver Island region. Contributions to Canadian Biology and Fisheries, 3(1), 47-131. Okada Y (1917) A report on the cyclostomatous Bryozoa of Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 9: 335-360. Okada Y (1928) Report of the biological survey of Mutsu Bay. 8. Cyclostomatous bryozoa of Mutsu Bay. Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Ser. 4 (Biology) 3: 481-496. Okada Y & Mawatari S (1937) On the collection of Bryozoa along the coast of Onagawa Bay and its vicinity, the northern part of Honshu, Japan. Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Ser. 4 (Biology) 3: 433-445. Okada Y & Mawatari S (1938) On the collection of Bryozoa along the coast of Wakayama-ken, the middle part of Honshu, Japan. Annotationes zoologicae japonenses 17: 445-462. Oregon State University. (1971). Oceanography of the Nearshore Coastal Waters of the Pacific Northwest Relating to Possible Pollution. Retrieved from http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/9100GCEO.PDF?Dockey=9100GCEO.PDF Osburn RC (1953) Bryozoa of the Pacific Coast of America. Part 3, Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Entoprocta, and Addenda. The University of Southern California Publication. Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 14: 613-841. Ostrovsky, A. N. (2013). Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates – Example of gymnolaemate bryozoans. Dordrectht: Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7146-8 Rho BJ & Seo JE (1986) A systematic study on the marine bryozoans in Cheju-do. Korean Journal of Zoology 29(1): 31-60. http://www.koreascience.or.kr/search/articlepdf_ocean.jsp?url=http://ocean.kisti.re.kr/downfile/volume/zsk/HGDMB7/1986/v29n1/HGDMB7_1986_v29n1_31.pdf&admNo=HGDMB7_1986_v29n1_31 Rouse, S. (2011). Aetea anguina. Bryozoa of the British Isles. Retrieved from http://britishbryozoans.myspecies.info/content/aetea-anguina-linnaeus-1758 Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A functional evolutionary approach. Ann Arbor, MN: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Sakakura K (1935) Bryozoa from Toyama Bay, Sea of Japan. Annotationes zoologicae japonenses 15: 106-119. Seo JE (2005) Illustrated encyclopedia of fauna & frola of Korea. Vol. 40. Bryozoa. : 598pp. (in Korean) Soule DF, Soule JD, Chney HW (1995) The Bryozoa. Tamonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Blake JA, Chaney HW, Scott PH, Lissner AL (eds.), Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History 13: 1-344. Taylor, P. D., & Grischenko, A. V. (2015). Two new species of heavily calcified cyclostome bryozoans from the intertidal of Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Natural History, 49(29-30), 1763-1775. Doi: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1006287 Temkin, M. H. (1991). Fertilization in the Gymnolaemate Bryozoa (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (DP23819). Thiel, M., & Gutow, L. (2005). The Ecology of Rafting in the Marine Environment. II. The Rafting Organisms and Community. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review, 43, 279-418. Tilbrook KJ (2012) Cheilostomata: first records of two invasive species in Australia and the northerly range extension for a third. Check List 8: 181-183. http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?NGD192-11 Winston JE (1977). Distribution and ecology of estuarine ectoprocts: A critical review. Chesapeake Science, 18: 34‐57. doi:10.2307/1350363. https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A6214/datastream/OBJ/view/Distribution_and_ecology_of_estuarine_ectoprocts__A_critical_review.pdf Woollacott, R. M., & Zimmer, R. L. (Eds.). (1977). Biology of Bryozoans. New York, NY: Academic Press


Little or no information; expert opinion based on general knowledge


Soule et al. (1995) treated T. pulchra of Robertson (1910) and Osburn (1953) as a junior synonym of T. aliciae. But WoRms accepted both T. pulchra and T. aliciae, although the former species does not appear in Systematic List of Families of Bryozoa (http://www.bryozoa.net/famsys.html). Since I have not certain information whether T. pulchra is a junior synonym of T. aliciae or not, I use T. pulchra of Robertson (1910) and Osburn (1952) as valid name here.