Tubulipora pacifica


Scientific Name: Tubulipora pacifica

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Stenolaemata

Order: Cyclostomatida

Family: Tubuliporidae

Genus: Tubulipora


pacifica [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific [Canada] Banks Island, North east corner of Union Bay, Cape Lazo, Schooner Bay, Departure Bay, Northumberland Channel, Cowichan Gap, Gabriola Pass, Ruxton Pass, Brotchie Ledge; Coast of BC; Strait of Georgia (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926; Burd et al 2009; Macdonald et al 2010) STATUS NOT STATED [US] Monterey Bay region; Santa Barbara Channel (Andrews 1945; Bram et al 2005; Oregon State University 1971; Smith and Haderlie 1969; Soule 1963) STATUS NOT STATED [Mexico] Gulf of California (Soule 1963; Soule and Soule 1964) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Misaki, Sagami Bay (Okada 1917, cited in Taylor and Grischenko 2015) STATUS NOT STATED San Clemente Island (Type locality). (Soule et al. 1995) STATUS NOT STATED Reported from British Columbia southward to Baja California and to Colombia, South America. (Soule et al. 1995) STATUS NOT STATED Isla Conchas, Scammoon's Lagoon, Baja California, Mexico. (Soule & Soule 1964) STATUS NOT STATED Mutsu Bay. (Okada 1928) STATUS NOT STATED Misaki, Sagami Bay. (Okada 1917) STATUS NOT STATED CONFLICT: Unknown if native in Ketchikan, US; Stated as both Native and Unknown in Sitka, US (Ruiz et al 2006)

Geographic Range:

[Western Pacific] Japan (Okada 1917, cited in Taylor and Grischenko 2015) [Eastern Pacific] West coast from BC to central California; Mexico (Gulf of California) (Oregon State University 1971; (Soule 1963; Soule and Soule 1964) Scammoon's Lagoon, Baja California, Mexico: Between 27°35'N and 28°15N, 113°51W and 114°20'W. (Soule & Soule 1964) Gorgona, Colombia: 2°58'55"N, the most southern record. (Osbrun 1953)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:

Previously described in southern California by Robertson (1910), first reported in Gulf of California from samples collected during 1950-1953 (Soule 1963)

Date First Observed in Japan:

Okada (1917) described specimens from Sagami Bay (Taylor and Grischenko 2015)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

[Alaska, US] Studies conducted from 2000-2003 (Ruiz et al 2006) [Canada] Collection during summers of 1923 and 1924 and smaller collection from 1906 (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926)


Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Native Temperature Range:

Collected at 10.15°C (OBIS 2016) Known to inhabit cool temperate, warm temperate and tropical waters (Soule 1963; Soule and Soule 1964) Surface water temperature at Isla Conchas, Scammon's Lagoon, Baja California, Mexico in July: 25ºC. (Soule & Soule 1964) Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Collected at 31.89PPS (OBIS 2016) Polyhaline, Euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:


Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:


Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Shallow water species but dredged down to 47 fms (84.6m) (Oregon State University 1971) [Canada] 6-20fms (7.2-36m) (O'Donoghue and O'Donoghue 1926) Found at depths from intertidal; 0.5 - 32 fms (0.9-57.6m) (Soule 1963) Apparently, T. p. is a shollow-water species, but dredged down to 47 fms. (Osburn 1953) Depth from intertidal to over 100m. (Soule et al. 1995)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Common, Abundant


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomes] All cyclostomes brood larvae rather than release eggs into the water; larvae develop in gonozooids. Larvae are polyembryonic; a single fertilized egg giving rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993) [Bryozoans] Non-brooding bryozoans feed during the larval stage, while the larvae of brooding bryozoans do not, since these larvae tend to settle soon after release (Hill 2001) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are invariably hermaphroditic. Individual zooids may be monoecious, usually with a marked protandry. Perhaps all cyclostomes are characterized by dioecious autozooids. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] The development of the colony by budding from the ancestrula is referred to as astogeny. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Encrusting species; sessile (Macdonald et al 2010) T. p. is sessile. (Macdonald et al. 2010) RELATED: [Cyclostomata] All Cyclostomata are firmly attached to algae, stones, shells and etc. without moving. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are sessile (Hayami 1975) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:

Approximately 15mm (Smith and Haderlie 1969)

Maturity Age:

Typically reach maximum size in 6 months (Smith and Haderlie 1969)

Reproduction Lifespan:



Lifespan typically about 6 months (Smith and Haderlie 1969)

Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977) [Cyclostomata] It seems that larvae hatch by the stimulation of light. (Mawatari 1976)

Reproduction Time:



Each fertilized egg can give rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993)

Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

Typically reaches maximum size in 6 months (Smith and Haderlie 1969)

Adult Growth Rate:

Typically reaches maximum size in 6 months (Smith and Haderlie 1969)

Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Oyster/mussel/worm reef, Macroalgal beds, Kelp forest, Fouling

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Cobble, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial Substrate


Semi-exposed, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Found on Mytilus shell fragments at lower intertidal (Oregon State University 1971) Kelp fronds and stipes (Andrews 1945) Found on panels (Ruiz et al 2006) Attaches to algae, mollusk shells and rocks (Soule 1963; Soule and Soule 1964) The colonies are incrusted on shells, algae, and rocks. (Soule & Soule 1964, Soule et al. 1995) The zoarium is encrusting, usually on algae. (Osburn 1953) T. p. is quite common along the near Misaki attached on kelps and stones. (Okada 1917) Semi-exposed, Protected (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

Food of T. p. is assumed to be particulate organic matter and phytoplankton. (Macdonald et al. 2010) RELATED: [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Suspension feeder. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

Suspension feeder (Macdonald et al 2010) Food of T. p. is assumed to be particulate organic matter and phytoplankton. (Macdonald et al. 2010) RELATED: [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Suspension feeder. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] The predators of bryozoans include fish, such as blennies, sea urchins, and a wide variety of smaller more specialized seloctive feeders including nudigranch sea slugs, pycnogonids, small crustaceans and mites. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Predation] [Bryozoa] The sea slugs are well known as predators of gymnolaemate bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Andrews, H. L. (1945). The Kelp Beds of the Monterey Region. Ecology, 26(1), 24-37. Doi: 10.2307/1931912 Bram, J. B., Page, H. M., & Dugan, J. E. (2005). Spatial and temporal variability in early successional patterns of an invertebrate assemblage at an offshore oil platform. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 317(2), 223-237. Doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2004.12.003 Burd, B. J., McGreer, E., Taekema, B., & Macdonald, T. A. (2009). Utility of Large Regional Databases for Understanding Abundance and Diversity Characteristics of Natural Marine Soft Substrate Fauna (Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2859). Retrieved from DFO website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340084.pdf Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/ Access Date: 8-April-2016. Hayami T (1975) Neogene Bryozoa from northern Japan. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Ser. 2 (Geology) 45: 83-126. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110004646784.pdf?id=ART0007368357&type=pdf&lang=jp&host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1458033798&cp Hayward PJ & Ryland JS (1985) Cyclostome bryozoans. Key and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses of the British Fauna. Kermack DM & Barnes RSK (eds.) No. 34. The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Brackish-Water Sciences Association by EJ Brill/ Dr. Backhuys W: 147pp Hill, K. (2001) Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved from http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Electr_bellul.htm Macdonald TA, Burd BJ, Macdonald VI, van Roodselaar A (2010) Taxonomic and Feeding Guild Classification for the Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia (Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874). Retrieved from DFO website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340580.pdf Mawatari S (1976) Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). In: Animal systematics. Uchida T (ed.) Nakayama-shoten Co. Ltd., Tokyo: 35-229. (in Japanese) OBIS. (2015). Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Retrieved from http://iobis.org/mapper Okada Y (1917) A report on the cyclostomatous Bryozoa of Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 9: 335-360. Okada Y (1928) Report of the biological survey of Mutsu Bay. 8. Cyclostomatous bryozoa of Mutsu Bay. Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Ser. 4 (Biology) 3: 481-496. Osburn RC (1953) Bryozoa of the Pacific Coast of America. Part 3, Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Entoprocta, and Addenda. The University of Southern California Publication. Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 14: 613-841. Oregon State University. (1971). Oceanography of the Nearshore Coastal Waters of the Pacific Northwest Relating to Possible Pollution. Retrieved from http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/9100GCEO.PDF?Dockey=9100GCEO.PDF Ostrovsky, A. N. (2013). Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates – Example of gymnolaemate bryozoans. Dordrectht: Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7146-8 Rouse, S. (2011). Aetea anguina. Bryozoa of the British Isles. Retrieved from http://britishbryozoans.myspecies.info/content/aetea-anguina-linnaeus-1758 Ruiz, G. M., Huber, T., Larson, K., McCann, L., Steves, B., Fofonoff, P., & Hines, A. H. (2006). Biological Invasions in Alaska's Coastal Marine Ecosystems: Establishing a Baseline. Retrieved from University of Alaska Fairbanks website: http://uaf.edu/files/ces/aiswg/resources/BioInvasionsAKCoastal.pdf Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A functional evolutionary approach. Ann Arbor, MN: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Smith, S. V., & Haderlie, E. C. (1969). Growth and Longevity of Some Calcareous Fouling Organisms, Monterey Bay, California. Pac. Sci., 23(4), 447-451. Soule, J. D. (1963). Results of the Puritan-American Museum of Natural History Expedition to Western Mexico. 18. Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata (Ectoprocta), and Entoprocta of the Gulf of California. American Musuem Novitates, 2144, 1-34 Soule DF & Soule JD (1964) The Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) of Scammon's Lagoon, Baja California, Mexico. American Museum Novitates 2199: 1-56. http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/bitstream/handle/2246/3312/N2199.pdf;jsessionid=5E0AE6C695C83BEC9577AB2783F707E9?sequence=10 Soule DF, Soule JD, Chaney HW (1995) The Bryozoa. Tamonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and Western Santa Barbara Channel. Blake JA, Chaney HW, Scott PH, Lissner AL (eds.), Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History 13: 1-344. Taylor, P. D., & Grischenko, A. V. (2015). Two new species of heavily calcified cyclostome bryozoans from the intertidal of Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Natural History, 49(29-30), 1763-1775. Doi: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1006287 Temkin, M. H. (1991). Fertilization in the Gymnolaemate Bryozoa (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (DP23819). Tilbrook KJ (2012) Cheilostomata: first records of two invasive species in Australia and the northerly range extension for a third. Check List 8: 181-183. http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?NGD192-11 Winston JE (1977). Distribution and ecology of estuarine ectoprocts: A critical review. Chesapeake Science, 18: 34‐57. doi:10.2307/1350363. https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A6214/datastream/OBJ/view/Distribution_and_ecology_of_estuarine_ectoprocts__A_critical_review.pdf Woollacott, R. M., & Zimmer, R. L. (Eds.). (1977). Biology of Bryozoans. New York, NY: Academic Press


Little or no information; expert opinion based on general knowledge