Tubulipora misakiensis


Scientific Name: Tubulipora misakiensis

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Stenolaemata

Order: Cyclostomatida

Family: Tubuliporidae

Genus: Tubulipora


misakiensis [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shrikishinai, Hakodate and Otaru (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shirikishinai, Hakodate and Otaru in Hokkaido. (Mawatari & Mawatari 1974) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Mutsu Bay. (Okada 1928) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Misaki in Sagami Bay (type locality); Mera, Boso Peninusula; Amakusa, Kyushu. (Okada 1917, 1928) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Tomioka Town, Amakusa, Kyushu. (Mawatari 1948) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

[Western Pacific] Japan (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Mawatari and Mawatari collected samples at Akkeshi, Muroran and Mori, Hokkaido over 5 years from 1968 (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate

Native Temperature Range:

Muroran, Hokkaido of north Japan: max 18.0ºC in summer and min 2.0ºC in winter. (Clark et al. 2003) Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Muroran, Hokkaido in north Japan: max 32.0psu in dry period and min 23.0psu in wet period. (Clark et al. 2003)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:


Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:


Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal

Depth Range:

Intertidal species (Taylor and Grischenko 2015) T. m. occurs abundantly in shallow water along the Misaki coast. (Okada 1917, 1928)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomes] All cyclostomes brood larvae rather than release eggs into the water; larvae develop in gonozooids. Larvae are polyembryonic; a single fertilized egg giving rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993) [Bryozoans] Non-brooding bryozoans feed during the larval stage, while the larvae of brooding bryozoans do not, since these larvae tend to settle soon after release (Hill 2001) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are invariably hermaphroditic. Individual zooids may be monoecious, usually with a marked protandry. Perhaps all cyclostomes are characterized by dioecious autozooids. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] The development of the colony by budding from the ancestrula is referred to as astogeny. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomata] All Cyclostomata are firmly attached to algae, stones, shells and etc. without moving. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are sessile (Hayami 1975) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977) [Cyclostomata] It seems that larvae hatch by the stimulation of light. (Mawatari 1976)

Reproduction Time:



Each fertilized egg can give rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993)

Egg Size:

RELATED: Approximate larval diameter: 140μm; each fertilized egg can produce up to 100 larvae (McKinney 1993)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:

About 70 hours after attachment, the primary zooid or ancestrula changes its form into a curved tube with an asymmetrical secondary zooecium on the lateral side. (Mawatari 1948)

Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Macroalgal beds, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic


Cobble, Rock, Biogenic, Artifical substrate



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Found attached to fronds of seaweeds (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974) Occurs on seaweeds and stones (Taylor and Grischenko 2015) T. m. attaches to seaweed and stones at Misaki in Sagami Bay. (Okada 1917) T. m. is known as fouling organisms on the hull of the fishing boat. (Mawatari 1948) T. m. was collected from the raft and the leaf of Zostera. (Mawatari 1948) Found, attached to seaweed and stones (Okada 1928) and to frond of seaweeds (Mawatari & Matatari 1974) Semi-exposed, Rocky subtidal (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

RELATED: All bryozoans, is a suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

RELATED: All bryozoans, is a suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] The predators of bryozoans include fish, such as blennies, sea urchins, and a wide variety of smaller more specialized seloctive feeders including nudigranch sea slugs, pycnogonids, small crustaceans and mites. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Predation] [Bryozoa] The sea slugs are well known as predators of gymnolaemate bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Clarke C, Hillard R, Junqueira AOR, Neto ACL, Polglaze J, Raaymakers S (2003) Ballast water risk assessment, Port of Sepetiba, Fedral Republic of Brazil. GloBallast Monograph Series 14: 1-63 + 7 Appendices. Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/ Access Date: 7-April-2016. Hayami T (1975) Neogene Bryozoa from northern Japan. Science Reports of the Tohoku University, Ser. 2 (Geology) 45: 83-126. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110004646784.pdf?id=ART0007368357&type=pdf&lang=jp&host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1458033798&cp Hayward PJ & Ryland JS (1985) Cyclostome bryozoans. Key and notes for the identification of the species. Synopses of the British Fauna. Kermack DM & Barnes RSK (eds.) No. 34. The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Brackish-Water Sciences Association by EJ Brill/ Dr. Backhuys W: 147pp Hill, K. (2001) Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved from http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Electr_bellul.htm Mawatari S (1948) Metamorphosis of the larva of Tubulipora misakiensis Okada. Zoologicla Science 58: 27-28. (in Japanese with English resume) Mawatari S (1976) Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). In: Animal systematics. Uchida T (ed.) Nakayama-shoten Co. Ltd., Tokyo: 35-229. (in Japanese) Mawatari S & Mawatari SF (1974) Notes on the marine Bryozoa from Hokkaido II. Cyclostomata other than Crisiidae. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Series VI, Zoology 19(2): 349-360. McKinney, F. K. (1993). A faster-paced world?: contrasts in biovolume and life-process rates in cyclostome (Class Stenolaemata) and cheilostome (Class Gymnolaemata) bryozoans. Paleobiology, 335-351. Okada Y (1917) A report on the cyclostomatous Bryozoa of Japan. Annotationes Zoologicae Japonenses 9: 335-360. Okada Y (1928) Report of the biological survey of Mutsu Bay. 8. Cyclostomatous bryozoa of Mutsu Bay. Science Reports of the Tohoku Imperial University, Ser. 4 (Biology) 3: 481-496. Ostrovsky, A. N. (2013). Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates – Example of gymnolaemate bryozoans. Dordrectht: Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7146-8 Rouse, S. (2011). Aetea anguina. Bryozoa of the British Isles. Retrieved from http://britishbryozoans.myspecies.info/content/aetea-anguina-linnaeus-1758 Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A functional evolutionary approach. Ann Arbor, MN: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Taylor, P. D., & Grischenko, A. V. (2015). Two new species of heavily calcified cyclostome bryozoans from the intertidal of Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Natural History, 49(29-30), 1763-1775. Doi: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1006287 Temkin, M. H. (1991). Fertilization in the Gymnolaemate Bryozoa (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (DP23819). Tilbrook KJ (2012) Cheilostomata: first records of two invasive species in Australia and the northerly range extension for a third. Check List 8: 181-183. http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?NGD192-11 Winston JE (1977). Distribution and ecology of estuarine ectoprocts: A critical review. Chesapeake Science, 18: 34‐57. doi:10.2307/1350363. https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A6214/datastream/OBJ/view/Distribution_and_ecology_of_estuarine_ectoprocts__A_critical_review.pdf Woollacott, R. M., & Zimmer, R. L. (Eds.). (1977). Biology of Bryozoans. New York, NY: Academic Press


Little or no information; expert opinion based on general knowledge