Trypanosyllis zebra


Scientific Name: Trypanosyllis zebra

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Syllidae

Genus: Trypanosyllis


zebra T. zebra described by Fauvel (1934) and Okuda (1937) in Japan is considered as T. taeniaformis by Imajima (1966) because it has the pharynx which has a trepan of 10 teeth and no subterminal mid dorsal tooth. (M. Otani, pers. comm. [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Atlantic, Temperate Northern Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific, Central Indo-Pacific, Eastern Indo-Pacific, Temperate Australasia, Temperate South America, Tropical Atlantic, Temperate Southern Africa

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Atlantic Aegean Sea, Northern Cyprus (Cinar 2013) STATED Turkey; Black Sea, Sea of Marmara; Aegean Sea; Levantine Sea (Cinar et al. 2014) STATED Algiers (Durchon 1975) STATUS NOT STATED Alexandria, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean) (Dorgham et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Lundy, UK (George 1974) STATUS NOT STATED South-west coast of England (50º21.75' N, 4º08.60' W; Blight & Rhompson 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean (Cinar et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Lough Ine, County Cork, Republic of Ireland (Goss-Custard et al. 1979) STATUS NOT STATED Southern Adriatic coast (Giangrande et al. 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Brittany, France (Leclerc et al. 2013) STATUS NOT STATED Throughout the Atlantic, English Channel to South Africa; possibly the Mediterranean (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Atlantic Throughout the Atlantic, English Channel to South Africa (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Brazil: Bahia and Pernambuco, north-eastern region, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, south-eastern region (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Southern Africa Throughout the Atlantic, English Channel to South Africa (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate South America Meteor seamount, Atlantic Ocean (Gillet & Dauvin 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Brazil: Bahia and Pernambuco, north-eastern region, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, south-eastern region (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Pacific China (Wu et al. 1980, cited in Paxton & Chou 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Dokdo, Republic of Korea (Ryu et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED Shiraiso Coast, Manazuru, Sagimi Bay, Japan (Aguado et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Australasia New Zealand (Inglis et al. 2008) STATED Australia (all states; San Martín et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Look-at-me-now and Woolgoolga Headlands, located north of Coffs Harbour, mid-north coast, New South Wales, Australia (30°18'S, 153°09'E; Smith 1996) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Australia (all states; San Martín et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Eastern Indo-Pacific Kaho'olawe, Hawaii (Coles et al. 1998) STATED Northern Marshall Islands (Hartman 1954) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific Palk Bay, India (James et al. 1969) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm Cosmopolitan (Aguado et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Northern Adriatic Sea; cosmopolitan in temperate and tropical seas (Mikac & Musco 2010) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-97.8000030517578 -40.3000030517578,172.600006103516 58.4000015258789 (OBIS 2016) Lough Ine, County Cork, Republic of Ireland (Goss-Custard et al. 1979) to South Africa (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) Japan (Aguado et al. 2008) to New Zealand (Inglis et al. 2008)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

Tropical, See details

Native Temperature Range:

[Aegean Sea] Mean values for summer, autumn, winter and spring are: 21.6, 19.3, 12.9, 14.1 ºC (Antoniadou et al. 2004) [Northern Adriatic Sea] Sampled at 26.8, 26.4, 25.2, 25.2, 24.8 ºC (Mikac & Musco 2010) Temperate and tropical seas (Mikac & Musco 2010) [Izmir Bay] Sampled at 21 ºC (Cinar et al. 2008)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:


Native Salinity Range:

[Aegean Sea] Mean values for summer, autumn, winter and spring are: 36.1, 36.8, 37.4, 36.9 psu (Antoniadou et al. 2004) [Northern Adriatic Sea] Sampled at 37.91, 37.93, 37.95, 37.95, 37.96 psu (Mikac & Musco 2010) [Izmir Bay] Sampled at 38.6 psu (Cinar et al. 2008) [Lough Ine, Ireland] Sampled at 34.8 8psu (Goss-Custart et al. 1979)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

15.316 - 27.099 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

34.545 - 38.444 PPS (OBIS 2016)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

Sampled from 0 - 320 (OBIS 2016) 0 - 50 m (Cinar et al. 2014) Found on sublittoral fringe and at 15 m depth (George 1974) Found from 0.5 - 5 m depth (Cinar & Demirci 2005) Sampled from 0.2 m depth (Cinar et al. 2008) Intertidal to 50 m depth (San Martín et al. 2008) [Kaho'olawe, Hawaii] Intertidal and subtidal (Coles et al. 1998)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Hermaphrodite/ monoecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Direct development

Asexual Reproduction:

See details

Reproduction Details:

Successive hermaphroditism; usually female to male (protandric) (Durchon 1975) Direct development (most likely) (Gillet & Dauvin 2000) Stolonization. Can regenerate a head with a prostomium, peristomium and one or two setigerous segments from anterior cut surfaces; requires a head plus 24 segments to regenerate posteriorly (Berrill 1952) Tetraglene (with two pairs of eyes; lacking antennae and palps) individuals are asexually produced by budding of posterior segments (part of stolonization; Blake et al. 1995) RELATED: [Trypanosyllis crosslandi] Separate sexes (Kozloff 1990) [Subfamily Syllinae] Stolonization (schizogamy). A part of the individual which becomes an epitokous sexual stage (stolon), which is massed with sexual products and usually has a special (stolonial) head. The stolon breaks away from the atokous benthic individual to lead a brief pelagic existence. Stolons are exclusively devoted to mating, which is followed by death. The unchanged benthic parent stock survives, regenerates the lost segments, and then reproduces again (Franke 1999) [Subfamily Syllinae] Separate sexes; most reproduce by stolonization (Durchon 1975) [Family Syllidae] Many species in the family reproduce asexually by transerse fission or by budding (Kozloff 1990)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Typosyllis hyalina] Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow. Movement is required for feeding (Macdonald et al. 2010) [Syllis elongata] Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow. Movement is required for feeding (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Macroalgal beds, Coralline algae, Kelp forest, Mussel reef

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epizoic, Epiphytic


Mud, Sand, Gravel, Biogenic, Rock


Exposed, semi-exposed, protected, very protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Lives on on algae, sponges, ascidians and sabelariid reefs at the intertidal zone of rocky shores (Nogueria & Fukuda 2008) Intertidal to subtidal rocky shore; seagrass; algae (Aguado et al. 2008) Posidonia oceanica meadows (Cinar 2013) Hard substratum (including algae, sponge, mussels, etc) and soft substratum (including all phanerogames) (Cinar et al. 2014) Hard substrata. Found on concrete blocks with Corallina spp., Colpomenia sinuosa, Ulva rigida; blocks extend 100 m into the sea; cement wall in a semi-circular embayment, which is covered with macroalgal growth (Dorgham et al. 2014) Found in Corallina, Laminaria holdfasts, on rock face (Georgie 1974) Found on Laminaria digitata and L. ochroleuca (Blight & Rhompson 2008) Present on the windward side, leeward side, lagoon side, and outer side of islands (Hartman 1954) Found with sponges and in Ecklonia radiata holdfasts (Smith 1996) Found with Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Cinar & Demirci 2005) [Northern Adriatic Sea] Sampled from four locations: 1) macroalgal beds (Peyssonelia squamaria, P. pavonica, Flabelia petiolata, Dyctiota dichotoma, Jania sp., and Amphiroa sp.); 2) Sciaphylous habitat dominated by sponges (possibly Ircinia sp.) and the algae P. squamaria and encrusting algae in the lower layer, and D. dichotoma, P. pavonica, F. petiolata and Jania sp. (and in low numbers Amphiroa sp. and Cladophora sp.) in the upper layer; 3) Macroalgal bed covered by Corallina officinalis in the bottom layer; with abundant P. pavonica and D. dichotoma (with Laurentia sp. and Amphiroa sp. present in low numbers) in the upper layer; 4) Abundant P. squamaria in the bottom layer and P. pavonica, D. dichotoma, Galaxaura oblongata, Jania sp. and encrusting algae in the upper layer (Mikac & Musco 2010) Sampled with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Cinar et al. 2008) [Lough Ine, Ireland] Tide pools (Goss-Custart et al. 1979) All substrates, including algae, calcareous concretions, sponges, dead corals, bryozoans, hydroids, ascidians, sand, silty clay and gravel (San Martín et al. 2008)

Trophic Level:

See details

Trophic Details:

VARIABILITY Predator (Leclerc et al. 2013) Carnivore (Smith 1996) Sessile fauna-predators (Jocelyn's interpretation: predator on sessile fauna because species known to be mobile were also noted as this type) (Leclerc et al. 2015) Deposit feeder (Giangrande et al. 2004)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:

DISTURBANCE [Disturbance] Sensitive to pollution levels. Not found at sites close to discharge of nitrogen and phosphate phosphorus (Cinar et al. 2008)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Aguado MT, San Martin G, Nishi E (2008) Contribution to the knowledge of Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from Japan with descriptions of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity 6(4): 521-550. www-tandfonline-com/doi/abs/10.1017/S1477200008002831 Antoniadou C, Nicolaidou A, Chintiroglou C (2004) Polychaetes associated with the sciaphilic alga community in the northern Aegean Sea: spatial and temporal variability. Helgoland Marine Research 58(3):68-182. Berrill NJ (1952) REGENERATION AND BUDDING IN WORMS. Biological Reviews 27(4): 401-438. Blake JA, Hilbig B, Scott PH (1995) Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the Western Santa Barbara Channel, Volume 5: Annelida, Part 2: Polychaeta (Phyllodocida, [Syllidae and Scale-Bearing Families], Amphinomida and Eunicida). Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Blight AJ & Rhompson RC (2008) Epibiont species richness varies between holdfasts of a northern and a southerly distributed kelp species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 88(3): 469-475. Çinar ME (2013) Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) associated with Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile along the coasts of Turkey and northern Cyprus. First National Workshop on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on the coasts of Turkey 19-20 September 2013. Çinar ME et al. (2008) Faunal assemblages of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in and around Alsancak Harbour (Izmir Bay, eastern Mediterranean) with special emphasis on alien species. Journal of Marine Systems 7(1-2): 1-17. Çinar ME, Dagli E, Kurt Sahin G (2014) Checklist of Annelida from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38: 734-764. Çinar ME & Demirci GG (2005) Polychaete assemblages on shallow-water benthic habitats along the Sinop Peninsula (Black Sea, Turkey). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 46(3): 253-263. Coleman MA, Vytopil E, Goodsell PJ, Gillanders BM, Connell SD (2007) Diversity and depth-related patterns of mobile invertebrates associated with kelp forests. Marine and Freshwater Research 58(7): 589–595. Coles SL, DeFelice RC, Smith JE, Muir D, Eldredge LG (1998) DETERMINATION OF BASELINE CONDITIONS FOR INTRODUCED MARINE SPECIES IN NEARSHORE WATERS OF THE ISLAND OF KAHO‘OLAWE, HAWAII. Bishop Museum Technical Report No. 14. Dorgham MM, Hamdy R, El-Rashidy HH, Atta MM, Musco L (2014) Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida) along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean). Mediterranean Marine Science 15(3): 635-649. Durchon M (1975) Sex Reversal in the Syllinae (Polychaeta: Annelida). In: Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom. pp 41-47. Franke HD (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia 402: 39-55. George JD (1974) THE MARINE FAUNA OF LUNDY. Rep. Lundy Fld Soc. 25: 33-48. Giangrande A, Delos AL, Musco L, Licciano M, Pierri C (2004) Polychaete assemblages of rocky shore along the South Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 45: 85-95. Gillet P & Dauvin JC (2000) Polychaetes from the Atlantic seamounts of the southern Azores; biogeographical distribution and reproductive patterns. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 80(06): 1019-1029. Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 07-10-2015 Goss-Custard S, Jones J, Kitching JA, Norton TA (1979) Tide Pools of Carrigathorna and Barloge Creek. Philisophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences 287: 1-45. Hartman O (1954) Marine Annelids from the Northern Marshall Islands. Geological Survey Professional Paper 260-Q. Inglis G et al. (2008) Port of Picton Second baseline survey for non-indigenous marine species. MAF Biosecurity New Zealand Technical Paper No: 2008/04. James PSBR, Thomas PA, Pilla CSG, Kumaraswamy Achari GP, Thomas MM, James DB (1969) Catalogue of Types and of Sponges, Corals, Polychaetes, Crabs and Echinoderms in the Reference Collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Technical Report. CMFRI. Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Leclerc et al. (2015) Community, trophic structure and functioning in two contrasting Laminaria hyperborea forests. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 152(5): 11-22. Leclerc JC, Riera P, Leroux C, Lévêque L, Laurans M, Schaal G, Davoult D (2013) Trophic significance of kelps in kelp communities in Brittany (France) inferred from isotopic comparisons. Marine Biology 160(12): 3249-4358. Mikac B & Musco L (2010) Faunal and biogeographic analysis of Syllidae (Polychaeta) from Rovinj (Croatia, northern Adriatic Sea). Scientia Marina 74(2): 353-370. Nogueria JMDM & Fukuda MV (2008) A new species of Trypanosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from Brazil, with a redescription of Brazilian material of Trypanosyllis zebra. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 88(5): 913-924. OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 07-01-2016 Paxton H & Chou LM (2000) POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS FROM THE SOUTH CHINA SEA. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (supplement 8): 209-232. Ryu SH et al. (2012) Biodiversity of marine invertebrates on rocky shores of Dokdo, Korea. Zoological Studies 51(5): 710-726. San Martín G, Hutchings P, Aguado MT (2008) Syllinae (Polychaeta, Syllidae) from Australia, Part 2: Genera Inermosylis, Megasyllis n. gen., Opisthosyllis, and Trypanosyllis. Zootaxa 1840: 1-53. Smith SDA (1996) The macrofaunal community of Ecklonia radiata holdfasts: Variation associated with sediment regime, sponge cover and depth. Australian Journal of Ecology 21(2): 144-153.


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence


Because of no information of literature, It cannot be confirmed if T. zebra in Aguado et al. (2008) is true. According to Nishi (2003), T. zebra is not recorded at Shiraiso Coast, Manazuru, but T. taeniaformis is recorded there. For literature, see T. taeniaformis. (M. Otani, pers. comm.)