Trypanosyllis taeniaformis


Scientific Name: Trypanosyllis taeniaformis

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Syllidae

Genus: Trypanosyllis


taeniaformis [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Central Indo-Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific, Temperate Australasia

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific [Japan] Funadomari in Rebun Island, Matsumae, Moheji, Ishizaki and Shirikisinai in Hokkaido; off Shiriyazaki, Asamushi and Onagawa in Tohoku district; Misaki, Sugashima, Noto-ogi and Seto in central Honshu; Tamano and Mukaishima in Seto Inland Sea; Usa in Shikoku; Ariake Sea in Kyushu. (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Hayama area, Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima 1968b) STATUS NOT STATED Among attaching organisms on test ropes set in Aburatsubo Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) STATUS NOT STATED Shiraiso, Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture (Nishi 2003) STATUS NOT STATED Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture (Imajima & Gamo 1970) STATUS NOT STATED Off the coast of Aburatsubo and Ohshima Island. (Imajima 2006) STATUS NOT STATED Nagasaki in Osaka Bay, Osaka Prefecture. (Yamanishi & Kubo 1982) STATUS NOT STATED Shimoda and its adjacent seas. (Imajima 1982) STATUS NOT STATED Tsushima Strait. (Imajima 1970) STATUS NOT STATED Off the coast of Amami Ohshima Island. (Imajima 2005) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific [Egypt] Suez Canal. (Ben-Eliahu 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [Red Sea] (Wehe & Fiege 2002) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific [Palau Islands] Korou as T. zebra. (Okuda 1937) STATUS NOT STATED [China] Fujian coast, Hainan Island, Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands. (Ruiping & Dejian 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Western Australia (Day & Hutchings 1979) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Australasia [Australia] Lake Macquarie, New South Wales. (Hartmann-Schröder 1989) STATUS NOT STATED Western Australia (Day & Hutchings 1979) STATUS NOT STATED [New Zealand] (Day & Hutchings 1979) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

[Japan] 0º - 42ºN at the Pacific side and -45ºN at the Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988) Off the coast of Abratsubo, Kanagawa Prefecture: 35º 11.0'N, 139º 34.9'E - 35º11.0'N, 139º 35.2'E. (Imajima 2006) Off the coast of Ohshima Island, Tokyo: 34º 40.7'N, 139º 19.3'E - 34º 40.8'N, 139º 19.0'E. (Imajima 2006) Off the coast of Amami Ohshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture: 28º 52.1'N, 129º 33.0'E. (Imajima 2005) [Australia] Western Australia: 25º S, 113º E, 29º S, 114º E, 32º S, 115º E, 35º S, 117º E, 35º S, 118º E. (Day & Huchings 1979) New South Wales (as Syllis taeniaformis): 33º S, 151º E. (Day & Huchings 1979) [New Zealand] 34º S, 151º E, Chatham Islands: 43º S, 176º W, 44º S, 176º W. (Day & Huchings)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtripical, Tropical

Native Temperature Range:

[Japan] T. t. was collected at the temperature from 14 ºC in March to 24 ºC in September at Abratsubo Bay. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) [Australia] Collected at the temperature of 24.2 ºC in January, 1976. (Hartmann-Shröder 1989)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:


Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtripical, Tropical

Temperature Range Survival:

[Trypanosyllis taeniaeformis] 17.344°C (OBIS 2016) RELATED: [Trypanosyllis spp.] -1.789 - 27.099 ºC (OBIS 2016b)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

[Trypanosyllis taeniaeformis] 35.485 PPS (OBIS 2016) RELATED: [Trypanosyllis spp.] 32.510 - 39.053 PPS (OBIS 2016b)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

[Japan] Hokkaido: In shallow water from laminarian holdfasts and in depth to 120 m and in 150 m (Imajima 1966) Airake Sea: in 10 m (Imajima 1966) Off the coast of Shimoda, Shizuoka Prefecture: 63 - 106 m in depth (Imajima 1982) Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture: Intertidal zone. (Imajima & Gamo 1970) Off the coast of Abratsubo: 60 - 66 m and off the coast of Izu-Oshima: 228 - 252 m. (Imajima 2006) [China] Fujian coast: 0 - 5 m. South east coast of Hainan Island: 39 - 54 m. (Ruipin & Dejian 2004) [Australia] Western Australia: 0 - 100 m. (Day & Huchings 1979) [New Zealand] Including Chatham Islands: 0 - 100 m. (Day & Huchings 1979)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:

See details

Development Mode:

Planktotrophic planktonic larva (feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

The specimen collected at Hainan Island has two stolons at about 124th setigeros segment. These stolons consist of 14 - 16 segments with two pairs of eyes at the first stolon. (Ruiping & Dejian 2004) RELATED: [Trypanosyllis crosslandi] Separate sexes (Kozloff 1990) [Subfamily Syllinae] Stolonization (schizogamy). A part of the individual which becomes an epitokous sexual stage (stolon), which is massed with sexual products and usually has a special (stolonial) head. The stolon breaks away from the atokous benthic individual to lead a brief pelagic existence. Stolons are exclusively devoted to mating, which is followed by death. The unchanged benthic parent stock survives, regenerates the lost segments, and then reproduces again (Franke 1999) [Subfamily Syllinae] Separate sexes; most reproduce by stolonization (Durchon 1975) [Family Syllidae] Many species in the family reproduce asexually by transerse fission or by budding (Kozloff 1990)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

[Syllidae] Motile (Fauchald & Jumars 1979)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Sediment subtidal, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Coral reef, Macroalgal bed, Kelp forest

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic, Under rock


Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate,


Exposur, Semi exposure, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

[Japan] Collected from laminarian holdfasts and under stone in shallow water. (Imajima 1966) Dwell among thalli of Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum thumbergii and Gelidium amansii at the intertidal zone in Osaka Bay. (Yamanishi & Kubo 1982) Among sessile organisms. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) [China] Collected from coarse sand or sand mud bottm at south east coast of Hainan Island, in the dead coral at Haina Island, coral reef platform at Paracel Islands and coral reef platform or among algae and sponge at Spratly Islands . (Ruiping & Deijian 2004)

Trophic Level:


Trophic Details:


Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:


Associated Species:


References and Notes


Ben-Eliahu MN (1977) Polychaete cryptofauna from rims of similar intertidal vermetid reefs on the Mediterranean coast of Israle and in the Gulf of Elat: Syllinae and eusyllinae (Polychaeta Errantia: Syllidai). Israel Journal of Zoology 26: 1-58. Day JH & Huchings PA (1979) An annotated check-list of Australian and New Zealand Polychaeta, Archiannelida and Myzostomida. Records of the Australian Museum 32: 80-161. Fauchald K & Jumars PA (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review 17: 193-284. Franke HD (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia 402: 39-55. Durchon M (1975) Sex Reversal in the Syllinae (Polychaeta: Annelida). In: Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom. pp 41-47. Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 25-11-2015 Hartmann-Shröder G (1989) Die Polychaeten de antiborealen und subropisch-tropischen Küste Südost-Australiens zwischen Lakes Entrance (Victoria) im Süden und Maclean (New South Wales) im Norden. Teil 14. in Zur Kenntnis des Eulitorals der austarlischen Küsten unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Polychaeten und Ostracoden. Hartmann-Shröder & Hartmann eds. Mitteilungen aus den Hamburgischen Zoologischen Museum und Institut 86: 11-63. (in Germany) Imajima M (1966) The Syllidae (polychaetous annelids) from Japan. (IV). Syllinae (1). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 14: 219-252. Imajima M (1968) Polychaetous annelids from Hayama, Miura Peninsula. Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum 14: 20-41. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1982) Polychaetous annelids around Shimoda, Izu Peninsula. Memoiors of the National Science Museum 15: 155-161. Imajima M (2005) Deep-sea benthic polychaetous annelids from around Nansei Islands. in deep-sea fauna and pollutants in Nansei Islands, Hasegawa et al. eds. National Science Museum Monograph 29: 37-99. Imajima M (2006) Polychaetous annelids from Sagami Bay and the Sagami Sea, central Japan. Memoirs of the National Science Museum 40: 317-408. Imajima M & Gamo S (1970) Polychaetous annelids from the intertidal zone of Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University, Sec. II 16: 1-18. Imajima M & Hayashi K (1969) Seasonal changes of polychaetes living among the attaching organisms. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 5: 2-15. (in Japanese with English abstract) Inaba A (1988) Fauna and Frola of the Seto Inland Sea. Second edition II. Mukaishima Marine Biological Station, Hiroshima University: 1-475. (in Japanese) Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Nishi E (2003) Polychaetous annelids around Manazuru Peninsula, Sagami Bay. Actinia 15: 7-13. (in Japanese with English abstract) Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) (2016). Retrieved from OBIS b. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 01-09-2016 *Note: genus level data Okuda S (1937) Polychaetos annelids from Palau Islands and adjacent waters, the South Sea Islands. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Japan 7: 257-315. Ruiping S & Dejian Y (2004) Annelida Polycaheta II. Nereidida (=Nereimorpha) Nereididae, Syllidae, Hesionidae, Pilargidae, Nephtyidae. Fauna Sinica, Invertebrata 33. Science Press, Beijing: 520pp. (in Chinese) Wehe T & Fiege D (2002) Annotated checklist of the polychaete species of the seas surrounding the Arabian Peninsula: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, Arabian Gulf. Fauna of Arabia 19: 7-238. Yamanishi R & Kubo J (1981) Habitats of polychaetous annelids inhabiting an intertidal rocky shore in Osaka Bay, the Inland Sea of Japan. Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History 36: 43-49.