Syllis hyalina


Scientific Name: Syllis hyalina

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Syllidae

Genus: Syllis


hyalina [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Temperate Northern Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

CONFLICT: STATED AS "NEW TO JAPAN" AND ALSO LISTED AS NATIVE (STATUS NOT STATED) Temperate Northern Atlantic Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Northern Cyprus (Cinar 2013) STATED Turkey; Sea of Marmara; Aegean Sea; Levantine Sea (Cinar et al. 2014) STATED Aegean Sea (Antoniadou et al. 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Brittany, France (Schaal et al. 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Meteor and Josephine seamounts, Atlantic Ocean (Gillet & Dauvin 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Alexandria, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean) (Dorgham et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Romanian coast of the Black Sea (44°01'15.7"N, 28°39'36.9"E; Surugiu & Feunteun 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Ionian Sea (Zenetos et al. 1996) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Lundy, UK (George 1974) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Mediterranean Sea; North Atlantic Ocean (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Pacific Tokyo Bay to Uraga Channel, Shiraiso Coast, Manazuru, Sagimi Bay, Japan (Aguado et al. 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Japan (Imajima 1966d, cited in Fauchald 1977) STATUS NOT STATED Scorpian Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, California, USA (Hewatt 1946) STATUS NOT STATED Hecate Strait, BC, Canada (Burd & Brinkhurst 1987) STATUS NOT STATED Shirikishinai and Matsumae, Hokkaido; Onagawa, Miyagi Prefecture; Ogi, Noto Town, Noto peninsula (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Among attaching organisms on hanging ropes of test panels at Abratsubo Bay. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) STATUS NOT STATED Tsukumo Bay, Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture (Imajima 1967) STATUS NOT STATED Off the coast of Amami-Oshima Island (Imajima 2005) STATUS NOT STATED Bohai Bay; Quingdao, Yellow Sea (Ruiping & Dejian 2004) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada (Macdonald et al. 2010) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Dokdo, Republic of Korea (Ryu et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Vancouver Island, Canada; California, USA (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific Gorgona Island, Taboga Island, Panama (Fauchald 1977) STATUS NOT STATED Isla del Coco National Park, Pacific Costa Rica (Cortes 2012) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Atlantic Cuba (San Martín 1992) STATUS NOT STATED Morrocoy National Park, Venezuela (San Martín & Bone 2001) *Noted as first observation in Venezuela, but status not stated Western Indo-Pacific Mumbai Harbour, India (Pati et al. 2015) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Nansha Islands, South China Sea in China (Ruiping & Dejian 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm Cosmopolitan (Capa et al. 2001; Aguado et al. 2008) Worldwide (Imajima 1966d, cited in Fauchald 1977) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Panama (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-175.900009155273 -70.4000015258789,167.600006103516 70.9000091552734 (OBIS 2016) Lundy, UK (George 1974) to Venezuela (San Martín & Bone 2001) Panama (Imajima 1966; Fauchald 1977) to Panama (Imajima 1966) [Japan] 28º 52.1'N, 129º 33.0'E (Imajima 2005)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

CONFLICT: noted as both native and new in this region Northwest Pacific

Invasion Propens:

CONFLICT: STATED AS "NEW TO JAPAN" AND ALSO LISTED AS NATIVE (STATUS NOT STATED) Temperate Northern Pacific [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Japan (Imajima 1966) *Noted as "new to Japan"

Status Date Non-native:


Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:


Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical, See details

Native Temperature Range:

Warm and tropical seas (Aguado et al. 2008) [Black Sea] Sampled at 24.6 ºC (Surugiu & Feunteun 2008) [Aegean Sea] Mean values for summer, autumn, winter and spring are: 21.6, 19.3, 12.9, 14.1 ºC (Antoniadou et al. 2004)

Non-native Temperature Regime:


Non-native Temperature Range:


Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[Black Sea] Sampled at 17.5 psu (Surugiu & Feunteun 2008) [Aegean Sea] Mean values for summer, autumn, winter and spring are: 36.1, 36.8, 37.4, 36.9 psu (Antoniadou et al. 2004)

Non-native Salinity Regime:


Temperature Regime Survival:

Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical, See details

Temperature Range Survival:

0.071 - 27.499 ºC (OBIS 2016) Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:

Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Temperature Range Reproduction:

Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Salinity Regime Survival:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

32.895 - 39.053 (OBIS 2016) Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Depth Regime:

Lower Intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

Sampled from 0 - 1400 (OBIS 2016) 0 - 100 m (Cinar et al. 2014) 12 - 15 m; 31.4 - 41.5 m; intertidal (Dean et al. 2012) 15 fm (~27 m) (Fauchald 1977) Sampled at 0.5 m, 1.5 m, 3 m depth (San Martín 1992) Sampled at 100-200m; intertidal and subtidal (Aguado et al. 2008) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Intertidal (Imajima 1992) *Note: May be (Imajima 1966) (M. Otani, pers. comm.) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Intertidal to shallow shelf depths (Carlton 2007) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found at 18 - 23 m depth (George 1974) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found at 163-167 m off the coast of Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. (Imajima 2005) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found in the dead coral at the depth of 3-5 m in China.

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Abundant, Common


Fertilization Mode:

See details

Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Direct development

Asexual Reproduction:

See details

Reproduction Details:

[Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Architomic stolonization. A part of the individual which becomes an epitokous sexual stage (stolon), which is massed with sexual products and usually has a special (stolonial) head. The stolon breaks away from the atokous benthic individual to lead a brief pelagic existence. Stolons are exclusively devoted to mating, which is followed by death. The unchanged benthic parent stock survives, regenerates the lost segments, and then reproduces again (Franke 1999) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Direct development (Gillet & Dauvin 2000) RELATED: [Syllis spp.] Genus has species that reproduce by brooding with internal fertilization and direct development, in addition to species that brood with external fertilization and planktotrophic development (Wilson 1991) [Subfamily Syllinae] Separate sexes; most reproduce by stolonization (Durchon 1975) [Family Syllidae] Many species in the family reproduce asexually by transerse fission or by budding (Kozloff 1990)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

[Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow. Movement is required for feeding (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:



Estimated life span of 2 years (Wildish et al. 1983)

Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Coastal shore, SAV, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Kelp forest, Macroalgal beds, Coralline algae, Coral reef, Mangrove, Mussel reef, Worm reef, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epizoic, Epiphytic


Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate, Gravel


Exposed, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Posidonia oceanica meadows (Cinar 2013) Hard substratum (including algae, sponge, mussels, etc) and soft substratum (including all phanerogames) (Cinar et al. 2014) Subtidal on calcareous rocks, sediment; intertidal in chaetopterid colony (Dean et al. 2012) Hard and soft substrata. Found in rocky patches with Corallina spp., Jania rubens, Ulva rigida, Hypnea musciformis; continuous wave action; exposed; sandy beach with patches of calcaeous shell fragments; protected by concrete blocks; embayment with sandy bottom; surrounded by cement wall covered with macroalgal growth; exposed rocky area with a beach composed of hard debris of different benthic animals. Ulva rigida and Gelidium sp. dominate hard bottoms with sessile invertebrates (Dorgham et al. 2014) Shell, gravel, dead coral; floats on pier (Fauchald 1977) Found in sponges on Rhizophora mangle roots; inside living coral (San Martín 1992) Found with algae, corals, sponges and coarse sand (San Martín & Bone 2001) Rocky shore; sea grass; algae (Aguado et al. 2008) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found on holdfasts of Laminaria spp. (Imajima 1992) Note: This information may be from Imajima (1966) 'The Syllidae (polychaetous annelids) from Japan V'. (M. Otani, pers. comm.) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Associated with algae, mussels, sponges on hard surfaces in cryptic habitats (Carlton 2007) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found on granite shores; in hydroid and bryozoan undergrowth (George 1974) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found among the holdfasts of Laminariaceae in Hokkaido and among small algae at other locality except Hokkaido. (Imajima 1983) [Typosyllis hyalina] Among attaching organisms on hanging ropes of test panels at Abratsubo Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) [Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Found among dead coral and coral reef platform in China. (Ruiping & Dejian 2004)

Trophic Level:


Trophic Details:

[Typosyllis hyalina (synonymized taxon)] Omnivorous surface feeders on live meiofauna (< 500 µm seive size, but larger than single-cell), benthic microorganisms (e.g. diatoms and other single-celled organisms); and particulate organic matter (Macdonald et al. 2010) Trophic type 4 (Not defined; Wildish et al. 1983) Listed as both carnivore and omnivore (trophic level 2.4; omnivore is between 2 - <3; 3 is strictly carnivorous) (Schaal et al. 2010) Omnivore (Giangrande et al. 2004) RELATED: [Family Syllidae] Feed on various small invertebrates (Kozloff 1990)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:


Associated Species:


References and Notes


Aguado MT, San Martin G, Nishi E (2008) Contribution to the knowledge of Syllidae (Annelida, Phyllodocida) from Japan with descriptions of three new species. Systematics and Biodiversity 6(4): 521-550. www-tandfonline-com/doi/abs/10.1017/S1477200008002831 Antoniadou C, Nicolaidou A, Chintiroglou C (2004) Polychaetes associated with the sciaphilic alga community in the northern Aegean Sea: spatial and temporal variability. Helgoland Marine Research 58(3):68-182. Burd BJ & Brinkhurst RO (1987) Macrobenthic Infauna from Hecate Strait, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 88. Capa M, San Martin G, Lopez E (2001) Autolytinae, Eusyllinae y Exogoninae (Syllidae: Polychaeta) del Parque Nacional de Coiba, Panama. Revista de Biología Tropical. 49(2): 621-628.|A109180281&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&userGroup=ubcolumbia&authCount=1 Carlton JT (2007) The Light and Smith manual: intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd Çinar ME (2013) Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) associated with Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile along the coasts of Turkey and northern Cyprus. First National Workshop on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile on the coasts of Turkey 19-20 September 2013. Cinar ME, Dagli E, Kurt Sahin G (2014) Checklist of Annelida from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38: 734-764. Cortés J (2012) Marine biodiversity of an Eastern Tropical Pacific oceanic island, Isla del Coco, Costa Rica. REVISTA DE BIOLOGIA TROPICAL 60(supp 3): 131-185. Dean HK, Sibaja-Cordero JA, Cortes J (2012) Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) of Cocos Island National Park, Pacific Costa Rica. Pacific Science 66(3): 347-386. Dorgham MM, Hamdy R, El-Rashidy HH, Atta MM, Musco L (2014) Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida) along the coast of Alexandria, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean). Mediterranean Marine Science 15(3): 635-649. Durchon M (1975) Sex Reversal in the Syllinae (Polychaeta: Annelida). In: Intersexuality in the Animal Kingdom. pp 41-47. Fauchald K (1977) Polychaetes from Intertidal Areas in Panama, with a Review of Previous Shallow-Water Records. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 221: 1-92. Franke HD (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia 402: 39-55. George JD (1974) THE MARINE FAUNA OF LUNDY. Rep. Lundy Fld Soc. 25: 33-48. Giangrande A, Delos AL, Musco L, Licciano M, Pierri C (2004) Polychaete assemblages of rocky shore along the South Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea). Cahiers de Biologie Marine 45: 85-95. Gillet P & Dauvin JC (2000) Polychaetes from the Atlantic seamounts of the southern Azores; biogeographical distribution and reproductive patterns. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 80(06): 1019-1029. Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 05-10-2015 Imajima M (1966) The Syllidae (polychaetous annelids) from Japan. (V). Syllinae (2). PUBLICATIONS OF THE SETO MARINE BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY14(4): 253-294. Imajima M (1967) Errant polychaetes from Tsukumo Bay of the Noto Peninsula and its vicinity (Preliminary). Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 3: 6-10. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1983) Systematics and the ecology of Japanese polychaetous annelids (20). Systematics of Syllidae. Aquabiology 5: 376-379. (in Japanese) Imajima M (2005) Deep-sea benthic polychetous annelids from around Nansei Islands. National Science Museum Monograph 29: 37-99. Imajima M & Hayashi K (1969) Seasonal changes of polychaetes living among the attaching organisms. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 5: 2-15. (in Japanese with English abstract) Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Macdonald TA, Burd BJ, Macdonald VI, van Roodselaar A (2010) Taxonomic and Feeding Guild Classification for the Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874. OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 07-01-2016 Pati SK, Swain D, Sahu KC, Sharma RM (2015) Diversity and Distribution of Polychaetes (Annelida: Polychaeta) Along Maharashtra Coast, India. In: Aquatick Ecosystem: Biodiversity, Ecology and Conservation. pp 53-65. Ruiping S & Deijian Y (2004) Annelida, Polychaeta II. Nereidida (= Nereimorpha). Fauna Sinica Invertebrate 33: 1-520. (in Chinese) Ryu SH et al. (2012) Biodiversity of marine invertebrates on rocky shores of Dokdo, Korea. Zoological Studies 51(5): 710-726. San Martín G (1992) Syllis Savigny in Lamarck, 1818 (Polychaeta: Syllidae: Syllinae) from Cuba, the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and North Carolina, with a Revision of Several Species Described by Verrill. Bulletin of Marine Science 51(2): 167-196. San Martín G & Bone D (2001) Syllidae (Polychaeta) testudinum Thalassia meadows in the Morrocoy National Park (Venezuela). Revista de Biolgíca Tropica 49(2): 609-620.|A109180280&v=2.1&it=r&sid=summon&userGroup=ubcolumbia&authCount=1 Schaal G, Riera P, Leroux C (2010) Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp (Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays. Journal of Sea Research 63(1): 24-35. Surugiu V & Feunteun M (2008) The structure and distribution of polychaete populations influenced by sewage from the Romanian coast of the Black Sea. Analele Ştiinţifice ale Universităţii “Al. I. Cuza” Iaşi, s. Biologie animală 54: 177-184. Wildish DJ, Peer DL, Wilson AJ, Hines J, Linkletter L, Dadswell MJ (1983) SUBLITTORAL MRCRO-INFAUNA OF THE UPPER BAY OF FUNDY. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Oceans Canada 1194. Wilson WH (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: Classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48(2): 500-516. Zenetos A, Christianidis S, Pancucci MA, Simboura N, Tziavos C (1996) Oceanologic study of an open coastal area in the Ionian sea with emphasis on its benthic fauna and some zoogeographical remarks. Oceanologica acta 20(2): 437-451.


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence