Syllis elongata


Scientific Name: Syllis elongata

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Syllidae

Genus: Syllis


elongata [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Arctic, Temperate Northen Pacific, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Tropical Atlantic

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific Pacific Grove, California, USA (Banse 1972) PARATYPE San Francisco Bay, California, USA (Cohen et al. 2005) STATED Morro Bay, California (Needles & Wendt 2013) STATED Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Richoux et al. 2006) STATED, but is uncertain Gabriola Pass, British Columbia; Yakan Point, Haida Gwaii, British Columbia (Banse 1972) STATUS NOT STATED Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada (Macdonald et al. 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Scorpian Harbor, Willow Harbor, Santa Cruz Island, California, USA (Hewatt 1946) STATUS NOT STATED Delmont wharf (near Monterey Bay), California, USA (Moore 1909) STATUS NOT STATED Burrard Inlet, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (Cross & Brinkhurst 1991) STATUS NOT STATED Hecate Strait, British Columbia, Canada (Fargo et al. 1984) STATUS NOT STATED Southwest Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (Brinkhurst 1987) STATUS NOT STATED Western Canada to southern California; Gulf of California, Mexico (Kudenov 1979) STATUS NOT STATED [Typosyllis elongata (synonymized taxon)] Washington to California, USA (Hartman 1948) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific Albacora, Tumbes, Peru (Alvarez-Campos et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Arctic [Typosyllis elongata (synonymized taxon)] Pribilof Islands of the Bering Sea, USA (Hartman 1948) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Atlantic St. Helena Island, tropical south Atlantic (1080 miles off the coast of tropical west Africa; 16º south of the equator) (Day 1949) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-132.100006103516 48.7999992370605,-125.099998474121 54.1000022888184 (OBIS 2016) Pribilof Islands of the Bering Sea, USA (Hartman 1948) to Albacora, Tumbes, Peru (Alvarez-Campos et al. 2014) St. Helena Island, tropical south Atlantic (1080 miles off the coast of tropical west Africa; 16º south of the equator) (Day 1949)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

See details

Native Temperature Range:

[San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled at 13.8 and 18.6 ºC (Cohen et al. 2005) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled at 19 ºC, 15 ºC water temperature (Richoux et al. 2006) [St. Helena] Sea temperature ranges from 21 - 25 ºC (Day 1949) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled at 15, 16, 16.5 ºC (Chapman et al. 1989)

Non-native Temperature Regime:


Non-native Temperature Range:


Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled at 30.7 and 28.0 psu (Cohen et al. 2005) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled at 22, 24 psu (Richoux et al. 2006) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled at 15, 16, 16.5 ºC (Chapman et al. 1989) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled at 28, 29, and 30 psu (Chapman et al. 1989)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

9.215 ºC (OBIS 2016) RELATED: [Syllis spp.] -1.632 - 29.446 ºC (OBIS 2016b)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

31.235 PPS (OBIS 2016) RELATED: [Syllis spp.] 18.107 - 39.053 PPS (OBIS 2016b)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Sampled from 0 - 146 m (OBIS 2016) Sampled at 1.7 m and 5.5 m (Cohen et al. 2005) Sampled from 140-142 m; 115 m; 118 m; 118 m; 115 m (Brinkhurst 1987) [St. Helena] Lower intertidal; 12 - 20 fathoms (~22 - 36.5 m) (Day 1949) Found at 20 m depth (Alvarez-Campos et al. 2014) [Typosyllis elongata (synonymized taxon)] [Alaska, USA] Shore to 125 fathoms (~229 m) (Hartman 1948)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:

See details

Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:

See details

Development Mode:

See details

Asexual Reproduction:

See details

Reproduction Details:

VARIABILITY RELATED: [Syllis spp.] Genus has species that reproduce by brooding with internal fertilization and direct development, in addition to species that brood with external fertilization and planktotrophic development (Wilson 1991) [Subfamily Syllinae] Stolonization (schizogamy). A part of the individual which becomes an epitokous sexual stage (stolon), which is massed with sexual products and usually has a special (stolonial) head. The stolon breaks away from the atokous benthic individual to lead a brief pelagic existence. Stolons are exclusively devoted to mating, which is followed by death. The unchanged benthic parent stock survives, regenerates the lost segments, and then reproduces again (Franke 1999) [Family Syllidae] Many species in the family reproduce asexually by transverse fission or by budding (Kozloff 1990)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow. Movement is required for feeding (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Sediment subdital, Mussel reef, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Macroalgal beds, SAV, Fouling

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epizoic, Epiphytic


Mixed fine sediments, Mixed sediments, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate


Exposed, Semi-exposed, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Algal holdfasts; rocky shores (Carlton 2007) [Vancouver, Canada] Sampled from a mussel dominated float; boulder with Fucus spp., brown algae, barnacles, snails, limpets (Richoux et al. 2006) [Wreck Bay, Vancouver Island, Canada] Found among eelgrass roots (Berkeley & Berkeley 1932, cited in Beak Consultants Ltd. 1976) Mixture of mud and sand; mud, sand, and gravel (Chapman et al. 1989) [St. Helena] Moderate to heavy surf; intertidal; subtidal; bottom of a boat (Day 1949) Found on sponges (Alvarez-Campos et al. 2014) Lives in colonies of Dodecaceria feukesi (Berkeley & Berkeley 1954) [Typosyllis elongata (synonymized taxon)] [San Francisco Bay, USA] Floating docks and associated strucutures (Cohen et al. 2005)

Trophic Level:


Trophic Details:

Carnivorous surface feeders on live meiofauna (< 500 µm seive size, but larger than single-cell) (Macdonald et al. 2010) RELATED: [Family Syllidae] Feed on various small invertebrates (Kozloff 1990)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:


Associated Species:

EPIBIONT [Epibiont] Rhabdostyla spp. found on S.e. (Alvarez-Campos et al. 2014)

References and Notes


Alvarez-Campos et al. (2014) The tag-along friendship: epibiotic protozoans and syllid polychaetes. Implications for the taxonomy of Syllidae (Annelida), and description of three new species of Rhabdostyla and Cothurnia (Ciliophora, Peritrichia). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172(2): 265-281. Banse K (1972) On Some Species of Phyllodocidae, Syllidae, Nephtydiae, Goniadidae, Apistobranchidae, and Spionidae (Polychaeta) from the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Pacific Science 26: 191-222. Beak Consultants Ltd. (1976) SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF MARINE BENTHIC FAUNA IN SAANICH INLET. Department of the Environment; Institute of Ocean Sciences 011783. Berkeley & Berkeley (1954) Notes on the Life-History of the Polychaete, Dodecaceria feukesi. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada 11(3): 326-334. Brinkhurst RO (1987) DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF MACROBENTHIC INFAUNA FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OFF SOUTHWESTERN VANCOUVER ISLAND, BRITISH COLUMBIA. Canadian Technical Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 85. Carlton JT (2007) The Light and Smith manual: intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd Chapman PM, McPhearson CA, Munkittrick KR (1989) AN ASSESSMENT OF THE OCEAN DUMPING TIERED TESTING APPROACH USING THE SEDIMENT QUALITY TRIAD. Institute of Ocean Sciences EVS Project No. 3/047-21. Cohen AN, Calder DR, Carlton JT, Chapman JW, Harris LH, Kitayama T, Lambert CC, Lambert G, Piotrowski C, Shouse M, Solórzano LA (2005) Rapid Assessment Shore Survey for Exotic Species in San Francisco Bay - May 2004. Final Report for the California State Coastal Conservancy, Association of Bay Area Governments/San Francisco Bay-Delta Science Consortium, National Geographic Society and Rose Foundation. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Cross SF & Brinkhurst RO (1991) SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF MACROBENTHIC INFAUNA IN BURRARD INLET: NOVEMBER, 1989. Canadian Data Report of Hydrography and Ocean Sciences No. 92. Day JH (1949) On the Polychaeta collected by Mr. J. Colman at St. Helena. Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology 41(281): 535-451. Fargo J, Foucher RP, Shields SC, Ross D (1984) English Sole Tagging in Hecate Strait, R/V G. B. Reed, June 6-24, 1983. Canadian Data Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 427. Franke HD (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia 402: 39-55. Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 02-10-2015 Hartman O (1948) The polychaetous annelids of Alaska. Pacific Science 2: 3-58. Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Kudenov JD (1979) New species and records of polychaetous annelids from the Tetraclita (Cirripedia: Crustacea) zone of the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 78(2): 116-121. Macdonald TA, Burd BJ, Macdonald VI, van Roodselaar A (2010) Taxonomic and Feeding Guild Classification for the Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874. Moore JP (1909) Polychætous Annelids from Monterey Bay and San Diego, California. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61(2): 235-295. OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 07-01-2016 OBIS b. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 01-09-2016 *Note: genus level data Wilson WH (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: Classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48(2): 500-516.


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence