Syllis cf. S. ehlersoides


Scientific Name: Syllis cf. S. ehlersoides

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Syllidae

Genus: Syllis


cf. S. ehlersoides [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate N. Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Tropical Northern Pacific [Japan] Shirikishinai, Izumisawa, Atsuga, Harutachi, and Irika, Hokkaido; Onagawa, northeast Japan; Misaki, Miura Peninsula, central Japan, Pacific side; Sugashima, Mie Prefecture, Kii Peninsula; Seto, Wakayama Prefecture, Kii Peninsula; Tamano, Seto Inland Sea; Usa, Kochi Prefecture, Shikoku Island; Amakusa, western Kyushu; Akiake Sea. (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Around Hokkaido and along the Pacific coast of Japan from Aomori Prefecture to Kagoshima Bay. (Imajima 1996) STATUS NOT STATED At the intertidal zone at Hayama, Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima 1968) STATUS NOT STATED At the intertidal zone at Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima & Gamo 1970) STATUS NOT STATED Tsukumo Bay, Noto Peninsula, Japan Sea side. (Imajima 1967) STATUS NOT STATED Nagasaki, Misaki Town, Osaka Bay. (Yamanishi & Kubo 1982) STATUS NOT STATED Bearing Sea (Imajima 1966) STATUS NOT STATED [T. e. Japanica] Yankich Island (middle Kuril Islands). (Kussakin & Kostina 1996) STATUS NOT STATED [T. e. Japanica] Southeast Sakhakin and south Kuril Islands. (Sirenko ed. 2013) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

On the buoy in Tokyo Bay: 35°12.3'N, 139°46.5'E. (Imajima 1980) From 32°N to 50°N at both Pacific side and Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate

Native Temperature Range:

The Ushishir Island including Yankich Island: 3-4ºC in August. (Kussakin & Kostina 1996) Nagasaki, Misaki Town, Osaka Bay: 25ºC in summer and 9ºC in winter (from the graph of Yamanishi & Kubo 1982)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Kraternaya Bight in Yankich Island: 31-32 psu. (Kussakin & Kostina 1996) East side of Osaka Bay (Nagasaki is located at east side of Osaka Bay): 30.8 psu in November and 27.5 psu in July (from the graph of Inaba 1988).

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate

Temperature Range Survival:

RELATED: [Syllis spp.] -1.632 - 29.446 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate

Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

RELATED: [Syllis spp.] 18.107 - 39.053 PPS (OBIS 2016)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Mid intertidal, Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Along the Japanese coasts: Intertidal zone to 130 m. (Imajima 1996) Seto Inland Sea: Mid intertidal to 20-30 m deep. (Inaba 1988) [Trypanosyllis ehlersioides] Yankich Island: Lower intertidal. (Kussakin & Kostina 1996)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Common, Abundant


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktotrophic planktonic larva (feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

The asexual buds arise between setigerous segment 53 and 86 of the stern form; young stolons consist of 22 to 27 setigerous segments. (Imajima 1966) RELATED: [Syllis spp.] Genus has species that reproduce by brooding with internal fertilization and direct development, in addition to species that brood with external fertilization and planktotrophic development (Wilson 1991) [Subfamily Syllinae] Stolonization (schizogamy). A part of the individual which becomes an epitokous sexual stage (stolon), which is massed with sexual products and usually has a special (stolonial) head. The stolon breaks away from the atokous benthic individual to lead a brief pelagic existence. Stolons are exclusively devoted to mating, which is followed by death. The unchanged benthic parent stock survives, regenerates the lost segments, and then reproduces again (Franke 1999) [Family Syllidae] Many species in the family reproduce asexually by transerse fission or by budding (Kozloff 1990)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

[Syllidae] Motile (Fauchald & Jumars 1979)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

[Polychaeta] Spawning is influenced by environmental factors such as temperature, day length and lunar cycles. (Clark 1979, cited in Kupriyanova et al. 2001)

Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky intertidal, Sediment subtidal, Macroalgal beds, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epiphytic, Infaunal, Other


Mud, Biogenic, Artificial substrate


Exposed, Semi exposed

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Among holdfast of algae and in mud at 20 m depth. (Imajima 1983) [Tokyo Bay] Among fouling organisms on buoys. (Imajima 1980) [Hayama, Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture] Among holdfasts of algae and in the crevice of rock. (Imajima 1968) [Nagasaki, Misaki Town, Osaka Bay] Holdfasts of Undaria pinnatifida, thalli and holdfasts of Sargassum thnbergii, and thalli of Gelidium amansii. The environment of Nagasaki is situated marginally in the Inland Sea with the character that is influenced by the open sea water from Kii-Channel. (Yamanishi & Kubo 1982)

Trophic Level:


Trophic Details:


Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:


Associated Species:


References and Notes


Fauchald K & Jumars PA (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review 17: 193-284. Franke HD (1999) Reproduction of the Syllidae (Annelida: Polychaeta). Hydrobiologia 402: 39-55. Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 19-05-2016 Imajima M (1966) The Syllidae (polychaetous annelids) from Japan (V). Syllinae (2). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 14: 253-294. Imajima M (1967) Errant polycahtous annelids from Tsukumo Bay and vicinity of Noto Paninsula, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum 10: 403-441. Imajima M (1968) Polychaetous annelids from Hayama, Miura Peninsula. Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum 14: 20-41. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1980) Polychaetes collected from buoys in Tokyo Bay. Marine Fouling 2: 23-27. (In Japanese) Imajima M (1983) Systematics and ecology of the Japanese polychaetes (21) -3. Systematics of the Family Syllidae-15. Aquabiology 5: 454-457. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1996) Polychaetous annelids. Syllidae, Nereididae, Nephtydae, Spionidae, Maldanidae and Serpulidaie. Seibutsu Kenkyusha Co. Ltd., Tokyo: 530pp. (in Japanese) Imajima M & Gamo S (1970) Polychaetous annelids from the intertidal zone of Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University, Sec. II 16: 1-18. Inaba A (1988) Fauna and flora of the Seto Inland Sea. Second edition II. Mukaishima Marine Biological Station of Hiroshima University : 1-475. (in Japanese) Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Kupriyanova EK, Nishi E, ten Hove HA, Rzhavsky AV (2001) Life-history patterns in serpulimorph polychaetes: ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 39: 1-101. Kussakin OG & Kostina EE (1996) The intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (middle Kuril Islands). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 37: 201-225. OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 01-09-2016 *Note: genus level data Sirenko BI ed. (2013) Check-list of species of free-living invertebrates of the Russian Far Eastern Seas. Russian Academy of Science Zoological Institute, Explorations of the fauna of the seas 75: 1-256pp. Wilson WH (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: Classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48(2): 500-516. Yamanishi R & Kubo J (1982) Habitats of polychaetous annelids inhabiting an intertidal rocky shore in Osaka Bay, the Inland Sea of Japan. Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History 36: 43-49.