Modiolus nipponicus


Scientific Name: Modiolus nipponicus

Phylum: Mollusca

Class: Bivalvia

Order: Mytilida

Family: Mytilidae

Genus: Modiolus


nipponicus [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific Oura harbor, Shizuika, Japan (Kyuno et al. 2009) STATUS NOT STATED Sagami Bay, Japan (Won et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Japan (Lee and Morton 1985a, cited in Valentich-Scott 2003) STATUS NOT STATED Kii Peninsula, Japan (Ohgaki 2010) STATUS NOT STATED From Mutsu Bay of Aomori prefecture to Kyushu, Japan (Okutani ed. 2001) STATUS NOT STATED East China Sea (Zhongyan ed. 2004) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

Geographic coverage: 108.199996948242 -5.60000038146973,139.300003051758 35.1000022888184 (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016) South of 41ºN at Pacific side and Japan Sea side (Inaba 1982)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015, 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

Mild temperate, Warm temperate, See details

Native Temperature Range:

28.170 °C (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016) Mild temperate, warm temperate (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:


Native Salinity Range:

34.120 PPS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

Mild temperate, Warm temperate, See details

Temperature Range Survival:

28.170 °C (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016) Mild temperate, warm temperate M. Otani, pers. comm.) RELATED: [Modiolus spp.] -0.262 - 28.393 ºC (OBIS 2016b)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:

Mild temperate, Warm temperate

Temperature Range Reproduction:

Mild temperate, warm temperate M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

34.120 PPS (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016) RELATED: [Modiolus spp.] 22.343 - 38.506 PPS (OBIS 2016b)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

Subtidal (Lee and Morton 1985a, cited in Valentich-Scott 2003) 4 - 921 m (Ocean Biogeographic Information System 2016) Shallow water mussel (Kyuno et al. 2009) From intertidal to 20 - 30 m deep (Habe et al. 1971, Inaba 1982) M. nipponicus is found in a narrow range below mid-intertidal level but never below the low water mark in general at Hatakejima, Wakayama prefecture (Senawong 1971b)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Common, rare, See details


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktonic larva (type unspecified)

Asexual Reproduction:

Does not reproduce asexually

Reproduction Details:

external; gonochoristic/ dioecious; broadcast; planktonic larva (type unspecified); does not reproduce asexually (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

sedentary (Ohgaki 2010) RELATED: [genus Modiolus] byssal thread attachment (Kozloff 1990)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:

RELATED: [Bivalvia] Spawning occurs from early summer to autumn is common for bivalves are in temperate or tropical zone. (Sumikawa 1994)



Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bivalvia] Among several reproduction cues including wave shock, the change of salinity, lunar age and tidal rhythm, the change of the water temperature is the most important factor. (Orton 1920 and etc., cited in Sumikawa 1994)

Reproduction Time:

RELATED: [Bivalvia] Spawning occurs from early summer to autumn is common for bivalves are in temperate or tropical zone. (Sumikawa 1994)



Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Sediment subtidal

Habitat Type:



Rock, sand, mud



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Subtidal; attaches to solid objects (Lee and Morton 1985a, cited in Valentich-Scott 2003) Shallow water (Kyuno et al. 2009) This inhabits in shallow tide pool forming rather small groups at the outer part of the bay, whereas this forms bigger colonies in strongly protected places at the inner bay at Hatakejima Island (Senawong 1971b) Sand bottom; mud and sand substrate; protected (M. Otani pers. comm.) RELATED: [genus Modiolus] byssal thread attachment to firm objects like rocks, shells, wood (Kozloff 1990)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

low trophic level: eats phytoplankton (or resuspended benthic microalgae), zooplankton, or macroalgae-derived particulate organic matter (Won et al. 2007) filter-feeder (Ohgaki 2010) RELATED: [Mytilus spp.] suspension feeders (Wolowicz et al. 2006)

Forage Mode:

See details

Forage Details:

RELATED: [Mytilus edulis] experiments indicate that this species can modulate the retention efficiency of food particle size in relation to resources availability (Strohmeier et al. 2012)

Natural Control:


Associated Species:

EPIBIONT [Epibiont] Chondracanthus intermedius algae attached to the shell might be effectual to a life in silty habitats by preventing materials that enter the mantle cavity (Senawong 1971a)

References and Notes


Association for the Research of Littoral Organisms in Osaka Bay (2012) Rocky shore macrobiota of southeastern Osaka Bay. Results of surveys carried out in the years 2006-2010. Shizenshi-Kenkyu 211-224. (in Japanese with English abstract) Global Invasive Species Database. Access Date: 11-Aug-2015 and 7-Mar-16 Horikoshi A & Okamoto K (2007) Present structure of sessile organisms communities of lighted buoys in Tokyo Bay. Sessile Organisms 24: 21-32. (in Japanese with English abstract) Inaba A (1982) Molluscan fauna of the Inland Sea, Japan. Hiroshima shell club, Hiroshima: 181pp. (in Japanese) Kozloff EN (1990) Invertebrates. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders College Publishing Kyuno A, Shintaku M, Fujita Y, Matsumoto H, Utsumi M, Watanabe H, Fujiwara Y, Miyazaki JI (2009) Dispersal and differentiation of deep-sea mussels of the genus Bathymodiolus (Mytilidae, Bathymodiolinae). Journal of Marine Biology. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Modiolus nipponicus.  Access Date: 7-Mar-16 OBIS b. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 22-09-2016 *Note: for genus level data Ohgaki S (2005) Ecology of molluscs vicinity of Tanabe Bay. Argonauta 11: 27-46. (in Japanese) Ohgaki SI (2010) List of shore molluscs along the south-west coast of the Kii Peninsula, 2007–2008. Argonauta. 18:31-49. Okutani T (ed) (2000) Marine mollusks in Japan. Tokai University Press, Tokyo: 1173pp. (in Japanese) Senawong C (1971a) Biological studies of a littoral mussel, Hormomya mutabilis (Gould) II. Comparative observations on cleaning and squirting activities in two littoral mussels, Hormomya mutabilis (G.) and Modiolus agripetus (Iredale). Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 19: 27-38. Senawong C (1971b) Biological studies of a littoral mussel, Hormomya mutabilis (Gould) III. Distributions of Hormomya and Modiolus on Hatakezima Island. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 19: 269-291. Strohmeier T, Strand Ø, Alunno-Bruscia M, Duinker A, Cranford PJ (2012) Variability in particle retention efficiency by the mussel Mytilus edulis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 412: 96-102. Sumikawa S (1994) Reproduction. In: Handbook of Malacology Vol. 1. Habe T, Okutani T, Nishiwaki S (eds.), Scientist-sha Inc., Tokyo: 159-176. (in Japanese) Valentich-Scott P (2003) A taxonomic, distributional and bibliographic checklist of Hong Kong marine bivalve molluscs and research published on them from 1971-2000. Perspectives on Marine Environmental Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001: Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, Hong Kong, 21-26 October 2001 (p. 259). Hong Kong University Press. Wolowicz M, Sokolowski A, Bawazir AS, Lasota R (2006) Effect of eutrophication on the distribution and ecophysiology of the mussel Mytilus trossulus (Bivalvia) in southern Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdansk). Limnology and Oceanography 51: 580-590. Won NI, Kawamura T, Onitsuka T, Hayakawa J, Watanabe S, Horii T, Takami H, Watanabe Y (2007) Community and trophic structures of abalone Haliotis diversicolor habitat in Sagami Bay, Japan. Fisheries Science. 73(5):1123-36. Zhongyan Q (ed) (2004) Seashells of China. China Ocean Press, Beijing: 418pp.


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence