Lichenopora radiata


Scientific Name: Lichenopora radiata

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Stenolaemata

Order: Cyclostomatida

Family: Lichenoporidae

Genus: Lichenopora (unaccepted name. Goes by Patinella radiata) (Bock 2015) [Disporella radiata (synonymised species)] *Sonar and Gaikwad listed it synonymous to Disporella radiata (2013)


radiata [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic, Temperate Northern Pacific, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Temperate Australasia, Central Indo-Pacific, Eastern Indo-Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific, Arctic

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Atlantic [UK] English Channel; Great Britain Rock; Porth Hellick; Isles of Scilly (Grant and Hayward 1985; Hayward 1971) STATUS STATED [Italy] Pliocene Sicily; Mediterranean Sea; Gulf of Naples; Ligurian Sea (McGillivray 1985; Balata et al 2007; Bussotti et al 1999; Cattaneo-Vietti et al 2002; Pardi et al 2006) STATUS STATED [Croatia] Adriatic Sea offshore from Rovinj (Lidgard et al 1993; McKinney 1992) STATUS STATED [Greece] Aegean Sea; Mediterranean Sea; Island of Rhodes (Antoniadou and Chintiroglou 2007; Antoniadou et al 2010; Antoniadou and Chintiroglou 2005; Morri et al 1999; Moissette 2013; Di Martino and Taylor 2014) STATUS STATED English Channel; Gulf of Gascony; Madeira. Mediterranean: Corse (coast); Naples; Adriatic; Majorca. (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED Along the southern and south western shores of the British Isles and widely throughout the Mediterranean but reports from elsewhere should be regarded doubtfully. (Hayward 1985) STATUS NOT STATED [Belgium] Gilgian Coast (De Blauwe 2009, cited in Bock 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [Netherlands] Bonaire (Caribbean) (Kobluk et al 1988; Pachut et al 1995) STATUS NOT STATED [Spain] Alicante, Mediterranean Sea (Fernandez-Torquemada and Sanchez-Lizaso 2005; Marti et al 2004) STATUS NOT STATED [Tunisia] Gulf of Gabes (south coast); Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins (Ben Brahim et al 2010; Ben Ismail et al 2012; Mabrouk et al 2014) STATUS NOT STATED [Montenegro] Adriatic Sea (Macic and Svircev 2014) STATUS NOT STATED [Turkey] Canakkale Strait (Cihangir et al 2013) STATUS NOT STATED West Tropical Atlantic [US] Florida Reef Tract (Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Andrews 1945; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) STATUS NOT STATED [Mexico] Southeast range in Gulf of Mexico (Winston and Maturo 2009) STATUS NOT STATED [Bermuda] North Rock (Logan et al 1984) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Pacific [Korea] Cheju-do (Rho and Seo 1986) STATUS STATED Japan; California. (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shirikishinai, and Otaru in Hokkaido. (Mawatari & Mawatari 1974) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Mutsu Bay. (Okada 1928) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Bay of Tokyo, Sagami Bay (including Misaki), Kagoshima Prefecture, Sado Island (Japan Sea). (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Wakayama Prefeture. (Okada & Mawatari 1938, Mawatari 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Seto Inland Sea. (Inaba 1988) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Toyama Bay. (Sakakura 1935) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Shirikishinai, Otaru, Southern Kuril Islands (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974; Taylor and Grischenko 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [China] Daya Bay (Huang et al 1993) STATUS NOT STATED Monterey Bay Region (Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Andrews 1945; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific [Ecuador] Galapagos Islands (Chiriboga et al 2012) STATUS STATED* see notes Temperate Australasia [Australia] Muddy Creek; Schnapper Point; Curdies' Creek; Bairnsdale; Mt. Gambier (McGillivray 1985) STATUS STATED [New Zealand] Napier (McGillivray 1985) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Sulu Archipelago, Philippines; Borneo (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED Eastern Indo-Pacific Samoa (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific Red Sea: Suez. (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED [Saudi Arabia] Northern Saudi Arabian coast; Persian Gulf (Soule and Soule 1985) STATUS NOT STATED [India] A single fossilized specimen (Holocene Rocks) from Akshi closely resembles Lichenopora radiata but ovicell details not known (Sonar and Badve 2008) Arctic Chukchi Sea (Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Andrews 1945; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm Australia (Canu & Bassler 1929) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

Cosmopolitan distribution; European and Australian seas; West Pacific Ocean (McGillivray 1985; Winston and Maturo 2009) [Western Pacific] Chukchi Sea, Russia; Japan to China; Australia and New Zealand (Rho and Seo 1986; McGillivray 1985; Mawatari and Mawatari 1974; Taylor and Grischenko 2015; Huang et al 1993; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) [Eastern Pacific] Chukchi Sea; California, US to Ecuador (Chiriboga et al 2012; Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Andrews 1945; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) [Western Atlantic] Florida, US to Mexico; Bermuda (Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Andrews 1945; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008; Winston and Maturo 2009; Logan et al 1984) [Eastern Atlantic] UK to Spain (Grant and Hayward 1985; Hayward 1971; Fernandez-Torquemada and Sanchez-Lizaso 2005; Marti et al 2004) [Mediterranean] Greece; Turkey; Tunisia; Italy (Di Martino and Taylor 2014; Fernandez-Torquemada and Sanchez-Lizaso 2005; Marti et al 2004; McGillivray 1985; Ben Brahim et al 2010; Cihangir et al 2013; Macic and Svircev 2014) [Indian Ocean] Saudi Arabia (Soule and Soule 1985) Sea of Japan: 41°36'12"N, 140°36'E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Jolo Light, Jolo: 6°04'25"N, 120°58'30"E and 6°04'30"N, 120°59'30"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Sulade Islands, Sulu Archipelago: 5°41'40"N, 120°47'10"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Siran Island, Sulu Archipelago: 5°24'40"N, 120°27'15"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Tinagta Island: 5°10'N, 119°47'39"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Anima Sola Island, between Burias and Luzon: 13°20'40"N, 123°14'15"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Borneo and its adjacent seas] Mount Dromedario, north of Tawi Tawi: 5°20'36"N, 119°58'51"E. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Borneo and its adjacent seas] Sibutu Island, Darvel Bay: 4°54'15"N, 119°09'52"E and 4°52'45"N, 119°06'45"E . (Canu & Bassler 1929) [South China Sea, vicinity of Hong Kong] 21°33'N, 116°15'E(Canu & Bassler 1929) [Japan and adajcent waters] 0°-41°N both at Pacific side and Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Conducted their own study in 1971 but their paper included specimens collected by other researchers that extends earlier including one from 1955 (Mawatari and Mawatari 1974)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

[US] Monterey Bay Region, California: Studies conducted in 1934 and 1945 (Andrews 1945)


Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical, See details

Native Temperature Range:

[Greece] Aegean Sea study site lows of about 12°C in winter to as high as 22°C in summer (Antoniadou et al 2004, cited in Antoniadou et al 2010) [Tunisia] Found at localities with temperate temperatures ranging from 20.05+/-5.17 to 20.81+/-6.02 °C (Ben Ismail et al 2012) [Saudi Arabia] Lowest water temperature recorded during collection was 16.9°C, highest 34.4°C (Soule and Soule 1985) [China] Described among species that attaches when water temperature was rising or in high-temperature season (Huang et al 1993) Hong Kong: max 28.5ºC in summer and min 18.1ºC in winter. (Clark et al. 2003) Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[Greece] Aegean Sea study site averaged 36.1-37.4psu (Antoniadou et al 2010) [Tunisia] Found at localities with salinity ranging from 35.20+/-1.74 to 38.91+/-0.41 (Ben Ismail et al 2012) [Spain] Ambient salinity levels of 36.8-38.0 where found (Fernandez-Torquemada and Sanchez-Lizaso 2005) Hong Kong: max 34.0psu in dry period and min 10.0psu in wet period. (Clark et al. 2003) Note: Referring to Hayward & Ryland (1985) and Winston (1977), L. r. may not be distributed to low salinity region less than 18psu in Hong Kong.) Cyclostomes are entirly marine in distribution and no estuarine or brackish water species are known. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) Three species of Lichenopore, L. hispida, L. intricata, and L. verrucaria are found in euhaline and polyhaline regions. To 18psu (Winston 1977)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:


Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Polyhaline, Euhaline, Hypersaline

Salinity Range Survival:

[Saudi Arabia] Salinity was high at stations sampled between 40-50%o, not typical of area (Soule and Soule 1985) Cyclostomes are entirely marine in distribution and no esturine or brackish water species are known. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) Polyhaline, Euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

Sublittoral species (Antoniadou and Chintiroglou 2005) Tested panels at 25-30m depth (Antoniadou et al 2010) Found at 10m depth in Mediterranean Sea (Balata et al 2007) Found at 5m depth Gulf of Gabes (Ben Brahim et al 2010) 4-7m depth (Cattaneo-Vietti et al 2002) Found up to 20m in coral rubble (Choi and Ginsburg 1983) Found at depths of 30 to 52m (Hayward 1971) Found 1-2m depth range (Kobluk et al 1988; Pachut et al 1995) Found at sites at shallow water, (2-12m), infralittoral (7-13m) to 41+m (Morri et al 1999) [Gulf of Mexico] 123-262m depth (Winston and Maturo 2009) [South China Sea] Vicinity of Hong Kong: 88 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Borneo and its adjacent seas] Mount Dromedaria, north of Tawi Tawi: 240 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Borneo and its adjacent seas] Sibutu Island, Darvel Bay: 165 and 175 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Sulade Islands, Sulu Archipelago: 21 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Sirun Island, Sulu Archipelago: 24 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Philippines] Anima Sola Island, between Burias and Luzon: 105 fms. (Canu & Bassler 1929) [Japan] Seto Inland Sea: Lower intertidal to 20-30m. (Inaba 1988) [Japan] Tokyo Bay: 17-32 fms. (Mawatari 1955) and 27-52m (Canu & Basller 1929). [Japan] Sagami Bay: 62-78 fms. (Mawatari 1955) and 81-243m (Canu & Basller 1929) [Japan] Toyama Bay: 30-80 fms. (Sakakura 1935) [Japan] Kagoshima: 113m. (Canu & Basller 1929) [Japan] Kagoshima Gulf: 70 fms. (Mawatari 1955)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Rare, Few, Ephemeral, Common, Abundant, See details


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

Single, central brood chambers (McKinney 1992) Sperm liberation through the tentacles have been observed. Spermatozoa fertilize egg within the gonozoid (Silen 1972, cited in Franzen 1984) RELATED: [Cyclostomes] All cyclostomes brood larvae rather than release eggs into the water; larvae develop in gonozooids. Larvae are polyembryonic; a single fertilized egg giving rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993) [Bryozoans] Non-brooding bryozoans feed during the larval stage, while the larvae of brooding bryozoans do not, since these larvae tend to settle soon after release (Hill 2001) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Bryozoan colonies are invariably hermaphroditic. Individual zooids may be monoecious, usually with a marked protandry. Perhaps all cyclostomes are characterized by dioecious autozooids. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] The development of the colony by budding from the ancestrula is referred to as astogeny. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Epibenthic encrusting (Winston and Maturo 2009) RELATED: [Cyclostomata] All Cyclostomata are firmly attached to algae, stones, shells and etc. without moving. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:

Button-like colonies with a near-circular perimeter and size restricted to 1cm diameter or less (McKinney 1992)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:



Only found on 3 month mimics of P. oceanica , likely outcompeted (Cocito et al 2012)

Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977) [Cyclostomata] It seems that larvae hatch by the stimulation of light. (Mawatari 1976)

Reproduction Time:



Each fertilized egg can give rise to up to about a hundred larvae by isolation of a series of blastomeres descended from the primary embryo (Borg 1926 and Strom 1977, cited in McKinney 1993)

Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

Approximate brooded larval diameter: 219μm (McKinney 1993) Reported as a pioneer species in benthic colonization (Manoudis et al 2005, Nicoletti et al 2007, cited in Antoniadou et al 2010)

Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Coral reef, Coralline Algae, Macroalgal beds, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Gravel, Cobble, Rock, Hardpan, Biogenic, Artificial substrate


Semi-exposed, Protected, Very protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

[UK] Coarse shell gravels substrate (Grant and Hayward 1985) Found on leaves and rhizomes of Posidonia oceanica, seagrass meadows (Balata et al 2007; Ben Brahim et al 2010; Ben Brahim et al 2012; Fernandez-Torquemada and Sanchez-Lizaso 2005; Mabrouk et al 2014; Pardi et al 2006; Cocito et al 2012) Typical leave species on Posidonia oceanica leaves (Ben Ismail et al 2012; Moissette 2013) Scraped off rocky substratum; hard substratum species (Cattaneo-Vietti et al 2002; Antoniadou and Chinigroglu 2007) Rocky substratum, cement and ceramic panels (Antoniadou et al 2010; Antoniadou and Chintiroglou 2005) Coral rubble, cobble to boulder size fragments of coral; Pleistocene basement substratum mostly; both algal and non-algal zones (shaded and lighted); cobbles and rocks (Choi and Ginsburg 1983; Kobluk et al 1988) Found on Cellaria, Crisia,Pentapora foliacea and rocks (Hayward 1971) Reef habitat; coralline algae, coral and sponge reefs (Logan et al 1984) On Cystoseira spp. (Macic and Svircev 2014) Rocky nature, limestone nature of substrate; dark caves with few amounts of light (Marti et al 2004) Rocky and biogenic banks (Morri et al 1999) Seagrass beds (Soule and Soule 1985) Epibenthic encrusting (Winston and Maturo 2009) Several specimens attached to stones at a station between Hatsushima and Ito in Sagami Bay. (Okada & Mawatari 1935) [Spain] Balearic Islands, oligotrophic sea; Catalan coast, relatively eutrophic zone. Species found at both sites (Marti et al 2004) L. r. attached to a shell of Clayms ruscherbergeri. (Okada 1928) Found on stones, shells, hydrozoans and small algae. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) Semi-exposed, Protected (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

RELATED: [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

Measured feeding current velocity of 1.24mm/second (Lidgard et al 1993) Velocities of feeding currents within 1mm above lophophores averaged 1240μm per second (McKinney 1992) RELATED: [Cyclostome] Restricted to utilizing significantly smaller food particles than range available to cheilostomes (McKinney 1993) [Cyclostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected like Cheilostomatous bryozoans do. (Mawatari 1976) [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001)

Natural Control:

COMPETITION: Competition among encrusting bryozoans, particularly with cheilostomes overgrowing cyclostomes consistently (McKinney in press, cited in Lidgard et al 1993) RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] The predators of bryozoans include fish, such as blennies, sea urchins, and a wide variety of smaller more specialized seloctive feeders including nudigranch sea slugs, pycnogonids, small crustaceans and mites. (Hayward & Ryland 1985) [Predation] [Lichenopore] Lichenopore, with their uncalcified outer body walls, perhaps provide similar opportunities for nudibranchs and pycnogonids to those offered by ctenostomes and anascans, and their spiny autozooid tubes perhaps serve to discourage such predators. (Hayward & Ryland 1985)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


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Doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2009.11.004 Balata, D., Nesti, U., & Piazzi, L. (2007). Patterns of spatial variability of seagrass epiphytes in the north-west Mediterranean Sea. Marine Biology, 151(6), 2025-2035. Doi: 10.1007/s00227-006-0559-y Ben Brahim, M., Hamza, A., Hannachi, I., Rebai, A., Jarboui, O., Bouain, A., & Aleya, L. (2010). Variability in the structure of epiphytic assemblages of Posidonia oceanica in relation to human interferences in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Marine Environmental Research, 70(5), 411-421. Doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.08.005 Ben Ismail, D., Rabaoui, L., Diawara, M., & Ben Hassine, O. K. (2012). The Bryozoan assemblages and their relationship with certain environmental factors along the shallow and subtidal Tunisian coasts. Cah. Biol. Mar, 53, 231-242. Bock, P. (2015). Lichenopora radiata (Audouin, 1826). In: P. Bock, & D. Gordon (Eds.). World List of Bryozoa. Retrieved from Bussotti, S., Bula, M. C., Di Capua, I., Gambi, M. C., Lorenti, M., Scipione, M. 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Moderate level of information; data from comparable regions or older data (more than 10 years) from the area of interest


Referred to as Disporella ovoidea but described as synonymous to L. radiata (Chiriboga et al 2012)