Hydroides ezoensis


Scientific Name: Hydroides ezoensis

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Sabellida

Family: Serpulidae

Genus: Hydroides


ezoensis [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Central Indo-Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

CONFLICT: Northwest Pacific, Seto inland sea, Japan (Washitani 2004) Temperate Northern Pacific Japan (Breton & Vincent 1999) STATED Japan (widely distributed) (Miura & Kajihara 1981) Noted that H.e. was originally described from Hokkaido in 1934 Japan (Thorp et al. 1987) STATED Japan, Russia, China and Korea (Hayes et al. 2005) STATED Jangmok Bay, Geoje Island, southern coast of Korea (Choi et al. 2011) STATUS NOT STATED Nabeta Bay, Japan (Hirata 1987) STATUS NOT STATED Ishikara Bay, Hokkaido, Japan (Imajima 1988) STATUS NOT STATED Gangneung Port (37º46′15′′N, 128º57′08′′E), Korea (Kim 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Yangpo Port (35º15′54′′N, 129º31′28′′E), Korea (Kim 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Vladivostok, Russia (Moshchenko & Zvyaginstev 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Mainland Russia; Yellow Sea coast of China (multiple authors, cited in Thorp et al. 1987) STATUS NOT STATED Northern Beibu Gulf of China (Yan et al. 2006) STATUS NOT STATED Masan Bay, Korea (Yoo et al. 2009) STATUS NOT STATED Several regions around Hokkaido; Mutsu Bay; along the Pacific coast from Iwate Prefecture, north Honshu to Kii Peninsula; the Pacific coast of Shikoku; Seto Inland Sea; Amakusa, Kyushu (Imajima 1976) STATUS NOT STATED Miyako Bay (Imajima 1968a) and Otsuchi Bay (Horikosi et al. 1979), Iwate Prefecture, north Honshu STATUS NOT STATED On the light buoy in Tokyo Bay (Imajima 1980) STATUS NOT STATED Among attaching organisms on test ropes set in Aburatsubo Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) STATUS NOT STATED On sotnes or shells at Hayama area, Miura Peninsula, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima 1968b) STATUS NOT STATED Around Shimoda, Izu Peninusula, Shizuoka Prefecture. (Imajima 1982) STATUS NOT STATED Aound Cape Shionomisaki, Kii Peniusula, Wakayama Prefecture. (Imajima 1979) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Hong Kong (Wang & Huang 1993) STATUS NOT STATED East China Sea coast of China (multiple authors, cited in Thorp et al. 1987) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-20.1000003814697 35.5,126.600006103516 51.5 (OBIS 2016) Russia (Thorp et al. 1987; Hayes et al. 2005) to Northern Beibu Gulf of China (Yan et al. 2006) Ishikari Bay: 45º 21.0'N, 140º 51.4'E (Imajima 1988) Miyako Bay: 39º 35.8'N, 141º 57.8'E (Imajima 1968a) 32º - 46º at both Pacific side and Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1982)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

CONFLICT No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015) Non-indigenous and established in the UK; present but not established in France (DAISIE 2015) Non-indigenous species with high impact globally (Bailey et al. 2011) High impact fouling non-indigenous species (Chan et al. 2011)

Non-native Region:

Northeast Atlantic, Southern Australia and New Zealand, Northwest Pacific, See details

Invasion Propens:

CONFLICT: Northwest Pacific, Seto inland sea, Japan (Washitani 2004) Temperate Northern Pacific Seto inland sea, Japan (Washitani 2004) *Invasive alien Temperate Northern Atlantic Non-indigenous and established in the UK; present but not established in France (DAISIE 2015) *Non-indigenous and ESTABLISHED Established in Britain (Minchin & Eno 2002) *Exotic and ESTABLISHED North Sea (Reise et al. 1999) *Introduced and ESTABLISHED Introduced to the UK, France (Hayes et al. 2005) *Introduced Introduced to the Fawley Power Station in the English Channel in 1977. It spread to the Hamble estuary in 1979, and was fouling tug boat hulls by 1982. H.e. arrived in Normandy, France in 1996 and rapidly settled on quays. Previously introduced to Baie de Bourgneuf and Le Croisic, but H.e. was not observed to reproduce there or spread from the oyster bed (Breton & Vincent 1999) *Introduced Found in Southampton Water (including the Hamble Estuary) and the Solent (including the harbours of Portsmouth, Langstone and Chichester); introduced to France with C. gigas imports, starting in 1966. Noted on hulls of Southampton-based tugs in autumn 1982; samples collected from Hamble Estuary, Southampton Water in September 1979 (Thorp et al. 1987) *Introduced to France, and spread to Britain Temperate Australasia Invasive in Waitemata, New Zealand (Halliday & Hewitt 2006, cited in Lehrer et al. 2008) *Invasive Medium-priority pest species in Australia (noted in Port Kembla, Newcastle and Port Phillip Bay) (Hayes et al. 2005) *Pest Uncertain region Cryptogenic in Australia (Lewis et al. 2004) *Cryptogenic Non-indigenous species with high impact globally; found in ports connected to ports in Montéal, Québec; Québec city, Québec; and Sorel-Tracy, Québec in Canada (Bailey et al. 2011) *Non-indigenous High impact fouling non-indigenous species that is in ports that are connected to ports in Canadian arctic (Chan et al. 2011) *Non-indigenous 1652 km non-native range; introduced in 1970s (Byers et al. 2015) *Doesn't specify whether Australia, New Zealand or USA

Status Date Non-native:

Hulls of Southampton-based tugs: autumn 1982; Hamble Estuary, Southampton Water: September 1979; Atlantic France: 1966 (Thorp et al. 1987) Fawley Power Station in the English Channel: 1977. Hamble estuary: 1979. Normandy, France: 1996 (Breton & Vincent 1999) Port Kembla, Newcastle and Port Phillip Bay, Australia: 1996 (Hayes et al. 2005) North Sea: first record 1976 (Reise et al. 1999)

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Ballast water, Hull fouling (not specified), Aquaculture and Fisheries

Second Vector:

Hull fouling (not specified)

Vector Details:

Introduction vector: Ballast water-mediated non-indigenous species (Bailey et al. 2011; Chan et al. 2011) Introduction vector: Ballast water, hull fouling, aquaculture associated species (Lee II & Reusser 2012) Introduction vector: Accidentally introduced with Crassostrea gigas spat to Baie de Bourgneuf and Le Croisic (Breton & Vincent 1999) Introduction vector: Hull fouling; Hitchhiker on C. gigas imported to the Atlantic coast of France from Japan since 1966 (Thorp et al. 1987) Introduction vector: hull fouling, ballast water, accidental introduction with deliberate translocations of fish or shellfish (Hayes et al. 2005) Introduction vector: transported with aquaculture and ships (Reise et al. 1999) Secondary spread (from UK): Hull fouling (Breton & Vincent 1999)

Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:


Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:

[Seto inland sea, Japan] Damage to oyster culture costing several billions of yen annually (Nishi 2002, cited in Washitani 2004) According to the orignal paper by Arakawa (1971), Hydroides elegans but not H. ezoensis caused a serious damage to the oyster culture at Hihoshima in Seto Inland Sea in 1969. Total damage on the 1969 crops is estimated 3 billions of yen. Arakawa K (1971) notes on a serious damage to cultured oyster crops in Hirohima caused by a unique and unprecedented outbreak of a serpulid worm, Hydroides norvegica (Gunnerus) in 1969. If we describe the damage caused by H. ezoensis, I tell only a small damage caused at a thermal power plant. H. ezonesis disturbed a rotation of impeller of the sea water intake pump at a thermal power plant. (Environmental Science Research Laboratory 2008)

Global Impact:

[Australia] Economic impacts to aquatic transport, water abstraction/nuisance fouling, loss of aquaculture/commercial/recreational harvest. Environmental impact through dominating/out competing and limiting resources of native species. Nuisance fouler of ship hulls, seawater cooling systems, and navigational buoys (Hayes et al. 2005) [UK] Weighs down navigational buoys, causing navigation problems (Hayes et al. 2005) High impact fouling non-indigenous species that is present in ports that are connected to ports in Canadian arctic (Chan et al. 2011)


Native Temperature Regime:

Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical

Native Temperature Range:

[Abratsubo Bay, Japan] During the setting period of test ropes, sea temperature varied from 14 ºC in March to 24 ºC in September. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) [Osaka Bay, Japan] Collected 14.7 ºC - 19.6 ºC in May. (Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association 2010) [Hamana Bay, Japan] Water temperature during the survey period varied from 6.5 ºC in winter to 32.2 ºC in summer. (Okamoto 1995) Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

See details

Non-native Temperature Range:

Temperate species (Hewitt 2002)

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, euhaline, See details

Native Salinity Range:

Euryhaline (Wang & Huang 1993) [Osala Bay, Japan] Collected at 27.1 psu - 32.1 psu in May. (Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association 2010) [Hamana Bay, Japan] Salinity during the survey varied from 20 psu to 30 psu. (Okamoto 1995) Polyhaline, euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Temperature Regime Survival:

Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical

Temperature Range Survival:

Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.) [Abratsubo Bay, Japan] During the setting period of test ropes, sea temperature varied from 14 ºC in March to 24 ºC in September. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) [Osaka Bay, Japan] Collected 14.7 ºC - 19.6 ºC in May. (Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association 2010) RELATED: [Hydroides spp.] -0.909 - 27.813ºC (OBIS 2016b)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:

Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, See details

Temperature Range Reproduction:

24 ºC had a hatching rate of 85.20±2.36%. 30ºC had the lowest hatching rate of 1.70±1.70, with an increased rate of malformation and mortality. Larvae hatched normally from 18 ºC to 27 ºC, with the shortest incubation period (511 minutes) at 27 ºC. All larvae kept under 18 ºC died at the 12th day. 75.73±4.55% of pelagic larvae survived at 21ºC, 74.03±5.98% at 24 ºC, 64.43±4.20% at 27ºC, and 58.67±8.54% at 30 ºC. The optimum temperature for metamorphosis was 24 ºC, with 60.45±7.52% metamorphosizing (18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 ºC tested; Cao et al. 2009) Cold temperate, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Salinity Regime Survival:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline, See details

Salinity Range Survival:

It is presumed that H. e. cannot live at the salinity of less than 10 psu in natural condition. (Okamoto 1995) Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline (M. Otani, pers. comm.) RELATED: [Hydroides spp.] 32.426 - 39.033 PPS (OBIS 2016b)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:

In the laboratory, the maximum fertility (96.67 ± 1.76%) at a salinity of 35, and minimum (82.23 ± 1.85%) at a salinity of 20. The maximam hatching rate (85.68 ± 1.85%) at a salinity of 32, and the minimal (62.03 ± 3.78%) at a salinity 20. The higher suvival and metamorphic rate were found at a salinity from 25 to 35, with the maximum (72.14 ± 3.04% in survival and 63.45 ± 2.13% in metamorphic rate) at a salinity of 32, and the minimum (10.82 ± 1.76%, and 5.21 ± 1.40%) at a salinity of 40. These findings indicate that the adaptive salinity is varied from 30 to 35 for fertility, hatching rate, survival, and metamorphosis in H. ezoensis larvae. (Cao et al. 2013)

Depth Regime:

Mid intertidal, Lower Intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Intertidal and shallow subtidal; prefers 0 - 2 m, but observed in 0 - 10m (Lee II & Reusser 2012) [Nabeta Bay, Japan] Recruited to plates at 1, 2.5, 4 and 5.5 m depth (Hirata 1987) [Ishikari Bay, Japan] Sampled at 84 m (Imajima 1988) [Gangneung Port, Korea] Sampled at 50 cm depth (Kim 2014) [Southampton Water, UK] Found down to 15 m depth, but most densely present from 1 - 1.5 m depth. Lower limit appoximately 1 m above low water of spring tides (Thorp et al. 1987) Low intertidal and shallow subtidal (Hayes et al. 2005) Samples collected from ~ 30 m (Yoo et al. 2009) [Miyako Bay, Japan] 9 m (Imajima 1968a) [Otsuchi Bay, Japan] 63 m (Horikoshi et al. 1979) [Tokyo Bay, Japan] Attached to light buoys. (Imajima 1980)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Abundant, Common


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktonic larva (type unspecified)

Asexual Reproduction:

Does not reproduce asexually

Reproduction Details:

Free-cast spawner; planktonic larvae (Lee II & Reusser 2012) Development type: planktonic (Byers et al. 2015) Planktonic larvae (Miura & Kajihara 1981) Planktonic phase lasts no more than 5 days from hatching to settling (Hong 1980, cited in Zvyaginstev et al. 2004) Males and females (Okamoto et al. 1994) Free-spawning; planktotrophic larvae (Kupriyanova et al. 2001) RELATED: [Family serpulidae] Planktonic stage lasts from 6 days to 2 months (ten Hove 1974, 1979, cited in Thorp et al. 1987) [Class Polychaeta] Asexual reproduction is linked to regeneration capacity, which is restricted in polychaetes (Ansell et al. 1997)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Non-motile (Lee II & Reusser 2012) Sessile (Byers et al. 2015)

Maturity Size:

Maximum body size: 45 mm (Byers et al. 2015) Related: [H. elegans] Spawning occurred 32 days after fertilization with the estimated length of about 2 cm in the laboratory. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)

Maturity Age:

Related: [H. elegans] Spawning occurred 32 days after fertilization with the estimated length of about 2 cm in the laboratory. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)

Reproduction Lifespan:

Related: [H. elegans] First spawning occurred during 32 and 69 days after fertilization in the laboratory. Spawning was repeated about every eight days during the experimental period. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)


Related: [H. elegans] The longevity of H. elegans is estimated more than 8 months. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)

Broods per Year:

Related: [H. elegans] It is estimated that spawning occurs more than 8 times for more than 2 months. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)

Reproduction Cues:

Removal from tubes and dipping into filtered seawater (both males and females) induced the release of gametes (Okamoto et al. 1994) Salinity differences can be a cue of spawning. (Okamoto 1995)

Reproduction Time:

[Jangmok Bay, Korea] Dominant recruiter to plates in October (Choi et al. 2011) [Japan] Summer breeder (multiple authors, cited in Thorp et al. 1987) [Vladivostok, Russia] Settled in the second half of August (Zvyaginstev et al. 2004) [Japan] Breeding season lasts from late May to September (Miura & Kajihara 1984, cited in Kupriyanova et al. 2001) [Japan] Settling season is from May to August wiht the peak in June and July and from September to November with the peak in October in Hamana Bay. (Okamoto 1995)



Egg Size:

Eggs released from abdominal pores measured 55 x 50 µm; fertilized eggs measured 55 x 52 µm (Miura & Kajihara 1981) 45 - 63 µm (Kupriyanova et al. 2001) Egg diameter from Nomo, Kokubu, Kouyaki and Tobo in Nagasaki Prefecture is 62.9 ± 1.5 µm. (Matsuo & Ko 1981) Egg diameter from Hamana Bay is about 55 µm. (Okamoto 1995)

Egg Duration:

[Nagasaki Prefecture] It takes 15 hours before trochophore after fertilization under the temperature regime of 19.0 - 23.3 ºC in the laboratory. (Matsuo & Ko 1981) [Hamana Bay] It takes about one day before trochophore after fertilization in the laboratory. (Okamoto 1995)

Early Life Growth Rate:

First cleavage after fertilization occurred after 45 - 60 minutes; later cleavages happened every half hour. Embryos reached the blastula stage after 4.5 hours. Gastrulation started 6 hours post fertilization. Trochophore larvae grew from 110 x 95 µm at day 1 to 150 x 120 µm in 3 - 4 days. Developed into nectochaetal larvae in 6 - 7 days, and measured 220 x 130 µm. Settlement occurred in 8 - 10 days (Miura & Kajihara 1981) [Hamana Bay] Trochophore started one day after fertilization with the size of 98 - 123 µm x 88 - 113 µm (length x width). The sixe of the meta-trochophore stage three days after the fertilization is 133 - 175 µm x 110 - 170 µm. The size of nectochaetal larvae six days after firtilization is 194 - 294 µm x 105 - 150 µm. Settlement occurred in 6 - 9 days. (Okamoto 1995)

Adult Growth Rate:

Larvae underwent metamorphosis and began to form tubes after attaching to the substratum. The tube had grown to 5 mm in length one month after fertilization; an average length of 13.5 mm (maximum 30mm) after three months; and an average length of 25.4 mm (maximum 40 mm) after four months (Miura & Kajihara 1981) [Nagasaki Prefecture] Growth of tube is 200 µm/day in first ten days after its settlement. Since then, It grows rapidly with the length of 500 - 800 µm/day. (Matsuo & Ko 1981)

Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Oyster reef, Mussel reef, Fouling, Sediment subtidal

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epizoic, Epiphytic


Rock, Biogenic, Mud, Gravel, Mixed sediments, Artificial substrate


Protected, Very protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Found in estuaries and coastal bays (semi-enclosed); rocky intertidal and subtidal; oyster/mussel reef; fouling; epibenthic and epizoic (Lee II & Reusser 2012) Epifauna (Byers et al. 2015) Oyster beds (Breton & Vincent 1999) Epizoic on shells of Crassostrea gigas (Kim 2014) and pearl-oyster, Pinctada fucata in Numazu, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan (Imajima 1976) [China] Common fouling organism; noted on aquaculture installations (Ma et al. 2009) [Japan] Lives in calcareous tubes on hard substrata from intertidal to shallow waters; also fouls artificial structures such as ship hulls, buoys, and mariculture organisms (e.g. oysters and scallops) (Miura & Kajihara 1981) [UK] Fouls ship hulls, dock and marina structures, industrial cooling systems; oysters; intertidal rocks (Thorp et al. 1987) *Note: marina structures entered as "Protected" [Japan] Found littorally and sublitorally; may find large intertidal aggregations on rocky shores; fouls ship hulls, buoys, oysters, scallops (Imajima 1976, cited in Thorp et al. 1987; Miura & Kajihara 1984, cited in Thorp et al. 1987, Imajima 1980) No evidence of habitat expansion (Thorp et al. 1987) Attaches to rocks, shells, macroalgae, ship hulls, buoys, mariculture equipment and species (scallops, oysters), pipes and jetties. Occasionally forms large aggregations in the rocky intertidal of northern Japan (Hayes et al. 2005) Samples collected from gravelly mud; mud (Yoo et al. 2009)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

Suspension feeder (Lee II & Reusser 2012) RELATED: [Family Serpulidae] All members of the family filter-feed, using the tentacular crown. (Fauchald & Jumars 1979)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

There is no information about the selectivity of feeding, nor quantitative information available. (Fauchald & Jumars 1979)

Natural Control:

OTHER [Other] [Dalian coast, China] Settlement of H.e. larvae was strongly inhibited by biofilms formed by 28 strains of bacteria, which were isolated from 12 marine organisms; 81 strains from 17 marine organisms were slightly inhibitory. In total, biofilms formed by 47 bacterial strains isolated from animals, and 62 strains isolated from algae, had any inhibitory effects on H.e. larval settlement (Ma et al. 2009)

Associated Species:

TRAVELLERS [Travellers] [Korea] Copepods found on H.e. include: Clausia parva and Pseudanthessius excertus (Kim 2014) [Travellers] [Dalian coast, China] 14 species of bacteria were isolated from H.e.; biofilms of 4 of these strains slightly inhibited the settlement of Ulva lactuca spores (Ma et al. 2009) SYMBIONTS [Symbionts] [UK] The tube aggregations provide a habitat for numerous protozoans, poriferans, polyzoans, polychaetes and amphipods (Thorp et al. 1987)

References and Notes


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Moderate level of information; data from comparable regions or older data (more than 10 years) from the area of interest