Havelockia versicolor


Scientific Name: Havelockia versicolor

Phylum: Echinodermata

Class: Holothuroidea

Order: Dendrochirotida

Family: Sclerodactylidae

Genus: Havelockia


versicolor [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Central Indo-Pacific, Western Info-Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Central Indo-Pacific Phillipines (Thandar 1989) *Type locality South China Sea (Lane et al. 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Gulf of Thailand (Putchakarn & Sonchaeng 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Ashmore reef/Cartier Island, Australia (Marsh et al. 1993) STATUS NOT STATED East Indies, Philippine Islands, North Australia (Sastry et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED East coast of Thailand: Ko Lueam Noi (E), Chon Buri (12º58'N 100º40'E); Indo-west Pacific: East Indies, Philippine Is. (Mucharin et al. 2005) STATUS NOT STATED North Australia; Philippines (James 1975) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific Sri Lanka (James 1989) STATUS NOT STATED Indian Ocean (James 1982) STATUS NOT STATED India: Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Andaman Islands; Bay of Bengal (Sastry et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Raghunathan & Venkataraman 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Inhaca Island, Mozambique. Distributed in the Indo-West-Pacific (Thandar 1989) STATUS NOT STATED. Note: only found once in Mozambique Mandapan and Ceylon, Gulf of Munnar, India; East Africa; Palk Bay, Malacca Strait; East Indies (James 1975) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm West Australia (James 1975) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

79 8.5,110.800003051758 21.6000003814697 (OBIS 2016) Bay of Bengal (Sastry et al. 2012) to Inhaca Island, Mozambique (Thandar 1989) South China Sea (Lane et al. 2000) to West Australia (James 1975)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

See details

Native Temperature Range:

[South China Sea] Shallow coastal waters range from 16-20ºC in the winter, but can get up to 27-30ºC in midsummer. The continental shelf ranges from 20-22ºC in winter. Surface waters range from 24-26ºC during winter to 28-29ºC in summer. Subsurface waters (100m-300m depth) range from 12 - 20ºC (China Oceanic Information Network 2016) RELATED: [Havelockia pegi] [Patagonia and Buenos Aires] Temperate and cold waters (Arribas et al. 2016)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:


Native Salinity Range:

[South China Sea] Shallow coastal waters are less than 32 in the winter, but is usually less than 34 in midsummer. The continental shelf ranges from 33.0-34.4. Surface waters range from 33.2-34.2 during winter to less than 33 in summer. Subsurface waters (100m-300m depth) has a salinity of 34.6 (China Oceanic Information Network 2016) *Note: no unit used

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:


Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:


Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

[Indian Ocean] Infralittoral zone (James 1982) [South China Sea] 0 - 60 m (Lane et al. 2000) Lives at 4 - 6 m (Mucharin et al. 2005)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktonic larva (type unspecified)

Asexual Reproduction:

See details

Reproduction Details:

May be able to reproduce asexually through fission, but needs to be confirmed (Monticelli 1896, cited in Dolmato 2014) RELATED: [Sea Cucumbers] Separate sexes in most species, with broadcast spawning, external fertilization, and free swimming larvae (Denny & Gaines 2007)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Havelockia scabra] Likely a burrowing species (Pawson et al. 2010) [Sea Cucumbers] Locomotion aided by tube feet (Denny & Gaines 2007)

Maturity Size:

Up to 130 mm long (Thandar 1989)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Coral reef

Habitat Type:



Rock, Biogenic



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

[Australia] On a reef (Marsh et al. 1993) On Coral (Thandar 1989) Coral reef; on dead coral or on rock in coral reefs (Mucharin et al. 2005) RELATED: [Havelockia scabra] Likely a burrowing species (Pawson et al. 2010)

Trophic Level:

See details

Trophic Details:

RELATED: [Sea Cucumbers] Species are deposit feeders or suspension feeders (Denny & Gaines 2007)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Sea Cucumbers] [Predation] Eaten by sea stars (Denny & Gaines 2007)

Associated Species:

RELATED: ENDOBIONTS [Sea Cucumbers] [Endobionts] Host of various parasitic and commensal species (Denny & Gaines 2007)

References and Notes


Arribas LP, Martinez MI, Brogger MI (2016) Echinoderms in San Matías Gulf, Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Thalassas: An international Journal of Marine Sciences 32(1): 11-18. link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41208-015-0002-6 China Oceanic Information Network (2016) http://www.coi.gov.cn/scs/introduction/wenyan.htm Access date: 05-08-2016 Denny MW & Gaines SD (2007) Encyclopedia of Tidepools and Rocky Shores. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press Dolmatov IY (2014) Asexual Reproduction in Holothurians. The Scientific World Journal. Article ID 527234. 13 pages. www.hindawi.com/journals/tswj/2014/527234/abs/ Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/search.php. Access date: 27-05-2016 James DB (1975) Studies on Indian Echinoderms 6. Redescription of two little known holothurians with a note on an early juvenile of Holothuria scabra Jaeger from the Indian Seas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 18(1): 55-61. eprints.cmfri.org.in/1458/ James DB (1982) Ecology of intertidal echinoderms of the Indian Seas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India 24(1&2):124-129. eprints.cmfri.org.in/1346/ James DB (1989) Echinoderms of Lakshadweep and their zoogeography. CMFRI Bulletin Marine living resources of the union territory of Lakshadweep An Indicative Survey With Suggestions For Development, 43. pp. 97-144. http://eprints.cmfri.org.in/2644/ Lane DJW, Marsh LM, VandenSpiegel D, Rowe FWE (2000) Echinoderm fauna of the South China Sea: An inventory and analysis of distribution patterns. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology supplement 8: 459-493. lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/s8/s08rbz459-493.pdf?pagewanted=all Marsh LM, Vail LL, Hoggett AK, Rowe FWE (1993) Echinoderms of Ashmore Reef and Cartier Island. Rec. West. Aust. Mus. Suppl. No. 44. frogwatch.museum.wa.gov.au/sites/default/files/6. Marsh, Vail, Hoggett, Rowe.pdf Mucharin A, Putchakarn S, Sonchaeng P (2005) Holothurians (Holothuroidea : Echinodermata) of the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Thail. Nat. Hist. Mus. J. 1(2): 97-136. www.vliz.be/en/imis?refid=225217 OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. http://iobis.org/mapper/ Access date: 27-05-2016 Pawson DL, Pawson DJ, King RA (2010) A taxonomic guide to the Echinodermata of the South Atlantic Bight USA: 1. Sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa 2449: 1-48. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228393258_A_taxonomic_guide_to_the_Echinodermata_of_the_South_Atlantic_Bight_USA_1_Sea_cucumbers_Echinodermata_Holothuroidea_Zootaxa Putchakarn S & Sonchaeng P (2004) Echinoderm Fauna of Thailand: History and Inventory Reviews. ScienceAsia 30: 417-428. www.scienceasia.org/2004.30.n4/v30_417_428.pdf Raghunathan C & Venkataraman K (2014) Status Survey of Holothurians (Sea Cucumber) in the Territorial waters of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Director, Zool. Surv. India, Kolkata. 1–96. http://faunaofindia.nic.in/PDFVolumes/sse/011/index.pdf Sastry DRK et al. (2012) ON SOME COLLECTIONS OF ECHINODERMATA FROM ANDHRA PRADESH AND ORISSA COASTS OF INDIA. Rec. zool. Surv. India 112(part-3): 61-87. faunaofindia.nic.in/PDFVolumes/records/112/03/0061-0087.pdf Thandar AS (1989) The sclerodactylid holothurians of southern Africa, with the erection of one new subfamily and two new genera (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). South African Journal of Zoology 24(4): 290-304. www-tandfonline-com/doi/abs/10.1080/02541858.1989.11448167


Little or no information; expert opinion based on general knowledge