Halosydna brevisetosa


Scientific Name: Halosydna brevisetosa

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Polynoidae

Genus: Halosydna


brevisetosa (reported as synonym to H. johnsoni by Carlton (2007); challenged by other authors, including Salazar-Silva (2013)) [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Temperate South America, Central Indo-Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific Saanich Inlet, BC, Canada (Macdonald & MacConnachie 2011) STATED Morro Bay, California (Needles & Wendt 2013) STATED San Francisco Bay, California, USA (Cohen et al. 2005) STATED California (Blake 1975) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska to Baja California (Sept 1999) STATUS NOT STATED Kodiak Island, Alaska to Baja Calfornia (Harbo 1999) STATUS NOT STATED San Ignacio Lagoon, Mexico (Kurth et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Northern and central California (Carlton 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Long Beach Port, California, USA (Loi 1981) STATUS NOT STATED Northeast Pacific from Alaska to southern California (Hartman 1948) STATUS NOT STATED Yaquina Bay, Oregon (Markham 1967) STATUS NOT STATED San Diego Bay and Monterey Bay, California, USA (Moore 1909) STATUS NOT STATED San Pedro Basin, California, USA (Hartman 1966) STATUS NOT STATED Monterey Bay, California, USA (Andrews 1945) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska to Peru (Gaffney 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Geojedo Island, Korea (Lee 1998) STATUS NOT STATED Dokdo, Republic of Korea (Ryu et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED Daya Bay, China (on ship hulls; Yan & Huang 1993) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Rishiri Island, Hokkaido (Kato et al. 2003) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Asamushi in Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture (Izuka 1912) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Jogashima, Kanagawa Prefecture (Izuka 1912) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Among attaching organisms on test ropes set in Aburatsubo Bay, Kanagawa Prefecture. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Choshi, Chiba Prefecture (Izuka 1912) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Ariake Bay, Kyushu (Izuka 1912) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture as Halosydna nebulosa (Okuda & Yamada 1954) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Susaki, near Shimoda Harbor (Okuda 1938), Hayama (Imajima 1968) ,and Manazuru (Imajima & Gamo 1970) in Sagami Bay STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Osaka Bay (Yamanishi 1980) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Around Kii Peninusula, Wakayama Prefecture (Uchida H 1985) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Tsukumo Bay, Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture (Imajima 1967) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Korean Strait and Tsushima Strait (Imajima 1970) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Hakodate to Ryukyu Island (Imajima & Gamo 1970) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific Alaska to Peru (Gaffney 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical eastern Pacific and worldwide (Salazar-Silva 2013) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska to southern California (Rudy et al. 2015) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Hong Kong (Mak 1982, cited in Paxton & Chou 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm Panama (Monro 1928, cited in Gaffney 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska (Sept 1999) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska (Hartman 1948) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska (Gaffney 1973) STATUS NOT STATED RELATED: Temperate Northern Pacific [Halosydna johnsoni (synonymised by some authors)] Northern Strait of Georgia, Johnstone St, BC, Canada (Burd et al. 2009) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-153.900009155273 48.3999977111816,-123 59.6000022888184 (OBIS 2016) Alaska (Hartman 1948, Harbo 1999, Sept 1999, Rudy et al. 2015) to Peru (Gaffney 1973) Hong Kong (Mak 1982, cited in Paxton & Chou 2000) to Dokdo, Republic of Korea (Ryu et al. 2012) [Japan] 35º 12.6'N, 139º 36.0'E (Imajima 1997) 35º 12.7'N, 139º 36.7'E (Imajima 1997) 35º 12.7'N, 139º 36.4'E (Imajima 1997) 35º 13.5'N, 139º 35.7'E (Imajima 1997) 35º 16.0'N, 139º 33.7'E (Imajima 1997) 34º 08.1'N, 130º 28.6'E (Imajima 1970) 34º 37.2'N, 129º 13.4'E (Imajima 1970) 34º 42.0'N, 129º 16.0'E (Imajima 1970) 24º - 41ºN at the Pacific side and - 44ºN at the Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

See details

Native Temperature Range:

[Port of Long Beach, California] Surface water temperature ranged from 13.6 ºC to 20.5ºC (Loi 1981) [Oregon, USA] Water temperature varied from 9.3 - 14.2 ºC during sampling (July - December 1966) (Markham 1967) [California, USA] Collected from multiple sites sites; water temperature ranged from 8 - 24 ºC (Gaffney 1973) [California, USA] Collected from two sites with different temperature ranges: 13.3-24.0 ºC, 12.3-19.5 ºC (Hillger & Reish 1970) [San Ignacio Lagoon, Mexico] Varied from 14 to 19 ºC (Kurth et al. 2007) [San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled from multiple sites, with temperatures ranging approximately: 11.5 - 22.5 ºC, 11 - 21 ºC (Thompson 1977) [San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled at 13.8 ºC (Cohen et al. 2005) [Osaka Bay, Japan] Sampled at 14.6 - 22.0 ºC in May 21st. (Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association 2010) [Seto Inland Sea, Japan] Sea temperature at surface is 23.9 - 28.6 ºC in summer and 17.5 - 19.6 ºC in winter at Takehara, Hiroshima Prefecture. (Marine Ecology Research Institute 2012) [Aburatsubo Bay, Japan] During the setting period of test ropes, sea temperature varied from 14 ºC in March to 24 ºC in September. (Imajima & Hayashi 1969)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[Port of Long Beach, California] Surface water salinity ranged from 23.53 to 33.65 psu (Loi 1981) [San Ignacio Lagoon, Mexico] Varied from 29 to 40 psu (Kurth et al. 2007) [San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled from multiple sites, with salinities ranging approximately: 3 - 18 psu, 6 - 19 psu (Thompson 1977) [San Francisco Bay, USA] Sampled at 30.7 psu (Cohen et al. 2005) [Osaka Bay, Japan] Sampled at 22.4 - 32.1 psu in May 29th. (Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association 2010) [Seto Inland Sea, Japan] Salinity at surface is 31.8 - 32.0 ºC in summer and winter at Takehara, Hiroshima Prefecture. (Marine Ecology Research Institute 2012)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

Survived at 16-18 ºC and 18-20 ºC; did not survive 23-26.5 ºC (Hillger & Reish 1970) Note: length of exposure not reported 6.431 - 10.151 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

31.325 - 33.795 PPS (OBIS 2016)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

Sampled from 0 - 183 m (OBIS 2016) Low intertidal zone to 545 m depth (Sept 1999) Intertidal to 545 m depth (Harbo 1999) Sampled at 25 - 40 fathoms (~44 - 73 m) (Hartman 1944) Intertidal and subtidal (samples taken from the water line; 10 - 70 cm above water line; 5 - 30 cm below water line) (Markham 1967) Sampled from kelp holdfasts at 6 - 15 m (Andrews 1945) Intertidal to several hundred fathoms (Gaffney 1973) Intertidal to 28 m depth (Lwebuga-Mukasa 1970) Sampled from water surface and 61 cm depth (Thompson 1977) Sampled from 1.7 m depth (Cohen et al. 2005) Intertidal zone to 500 m depth (Imajima 2001) 150 m depth off the coast of Hayama, Japan (Imajima 1968) Intertidal zone at Tsukumo Bay, Japan (Imajima 1967) 3 m to 87 m depth in Sagami Bay (Imajima 1997)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Abundant, Common


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktotrophic planktonic larva (feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Does not reproduce asexually

Reproduction Details:

Free spawning with planktotrophic larvae (Wilson 1991) Dioecious; external fertilization (Ruff 1993, cited in Rudy et al. 2015) Pelagic larvae and benthic juveniles; metatrochophores and nectochaete (Blake et al. 1994) RELATED: [Family Polynoidae] Planktotrophic larvae (Rouse 2000) [Class Polychaeta] Asexual reproduction is linked to regeneration capacity, which is restricted in polychaetes (Ansell et al. 1997)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

Free-moving (Harbo 1999) Crawled freely in open areas at night (Lwebuga-Mukasa 1970) RELATED: [Halosydna johnsoni (synonymised by some authors)] Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow. Movement is required for feeding (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Maturity Size:

Up to 11 cm long (Sept 1999) Up to 5.9 cm long (Harbo 1999) Up to 5 cm (Kozloff 1993)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:

[California, USA] Planktonic larvae occur from September to October, and sporadically in May and August. Sexually mature specimens observed in August (Blake 1975) [Japan] Breeding season extends from March to April in Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture, central Japan at the Pacific side. (Izuka 1912)



Egg Size:


Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Mussel reef, worm reef, Macroalgal beds, Kelp forest, Fouling, Coralline algae, Sediment subtidal, Tide flats

Habitat Type:

Epiphytic, Epibenthic, Epizoic, Under rock


Mud, Sand, Gravel, Cobble, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial Substrate


Exposed, semi-exposed, protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Rocky intertidal, pilings, wharves (Blake 1975) May live independently or commensally on a host (Sept 1999) Lives on floats, in mussel beds, in encrusting growths (Harbo 1999) Rocky shores; lives in tubes of various polychaetes (notably the terebellids such as Thelepus crispus, Neoamphitrite robusta, Pista elongata); has a few molluscan hosts; also free-living (Kozloff 1993) Rocky habitats; commensal with terebellids or molluscs or free-living; prominant in mussel beds (Carlton 2007) Free living under stones and in crevices, among mussels. Commensal in tubes of Thelepus crispus, Platynereis agassizi, Pista pacifica (Hartman 1944) Sampled from holdfasts (including kelps) growing on a variety of substrates: cobble, wood floats, wood pile, wood boards, rubber tires, boulders, concrete, mud (Markham 1967) Kelp holdfasts where the bottom consists of small rock, gravel, sand, solid and smooth rock bottom; slow current in some areas (but still exposed to winter storm waves), moderate currents in others, some areas experience tremendous waves and currents of open ocean (Andrews 1945) Found under rocks in protected areas on the outer coast; in mussel beds (Ricketts & Calvin 1939, cited in Lwebuga-Mukasa 1970) Under rocks, on pilings, in mussel beds (Rudy et al. 2015) Found on ship hulls (Yan & Huang 1993) Coralline mats and kelp holdfasts (Dearn 1987) Often involved in commensal relationships, notably with members of the family Terebellidae (notably Thelepus crispus, Neoamphitrite robusta, Pista elongata); has a few molluscan hosts (Kozloff 1993) Commensal in tubes of Thelepus crispus, Platynereis agassizi, Pista pacifica (Hartman 1944) H. brevisetosa may be commensal in the tubes of Pista pacifica (Carlton 2007) Commensal with terebellids or molluscs (Carlton 2007) Commensal of nudibranch Meibe leonina; feeds on the faecal matter of its host (Fauchald & Jumars 1979) Occasionally commensal in tubes of other chaetopods (Hartman 1948) Commensal with hermit crabs (Paguristes), moon snails (Polinices) and other polychaetes (e.g., Pista pacifica, Amphitrite robusta, Thelepus crispus, Eupolymnia heterobranchia) (McGinitie and McGinitie 1949, cited in Rudy et al. 2015; Fernald et al. 1987, cited in Rudy et al. 2015) Free-living, in rocky habitats between tide-marks, or in large terebellid tubes, or on pilings. (Hartman 1968) [Japan] Found under boulder and among holdfasts (Nishimura & Suzuki 1977)

Trophic Level:

See details

Trophic Details:

VARIABILITY Carnivorous: feeds on a variety of small invertebrates (Harbo 1999) Commensal of nudibranch Meibe leonina; feeds on the faecal matter of its host (Fauchald & Jumars 1979) May cannibalize each other in captivity; voracious eaters; may share host food when commensal (Rudy et al. 2015) RELATED: [Halosydna johnsoni (synonymized by some authors)] Surface predatory carnivore, feeds on live benthic macro-organisms (organisms retained on a >500 µm seive) (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

May cannibalize each other in captivity; voracious eaters; may share host food when commensal (Rudy et al. 2015)

Natural Control:


Associated Species:

SYMBIONT [Symbiont] Often involved in commensal relationships, notably with members of the family Terebellidae (notably Thelepus crispus, Neoamphitrite robusta, Pista elongata) (Kozloff 1993) [Symbiont] Commensal with terebellids or molluscs (Carlton 2007)

References and Notes


Ansell AD, Gibson RN & Barnes M (1997) Oceanography and Marine Biology, Volume 35. CRC Press. London, UK. Andrews HL (1945) The Kelp Beds of the Monterey Region. Ecology 26(1): 24-37. www.jstor.org/stable/1931912?seq=1 Association for the Research of Littoral Organisms in Osaka Bay (2012) Rocky shore macrobiota of southeastern Osaka Bay. Results of surveys carried out in the year 2006-2010. Shizenshi-Kenkyu 3: 211-224. (in Japanese with English abstract) Blake JA (1975) The larval development of Polychaeta from the Northern California Coast. III Eighteen species of Errantia. Ophelia 14(1-2): 23-84. Blake JA, Hilbig B, Scott PH (1994) Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the Western Santa Barbara Channel, Volume 4: The Annelida, Part 1, Oligochaeta and Polychaeta: Phyllodocida (Phyllodocida to Paralacydoniidae). Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Burd BJ, McGreer E, Taekema B, Macdonald TA (2009) Utility of large regional databases for understanding abundance and diversity characteristics of natural marine soft substrate fauna. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2859. www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340084.pdf Carlton JT (2007) The Light and Smith manual: intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd Cohen AN, Calder DR, Carlton JT, Chapman JW, Harris LH, Kitayama T, Lambert CC, Lambert G, Piotrowski C, Shouse M, Solórzano LA (2005) Rapid Assessment Shore Survey for Exotic Species in San Francisco Bay - May 2004. Final Report for the California State Coastal Conservancy, Association of Bay Area Governments/San Francisco Bay-Delta Science Consortium, National Geographic Society and Rose Foundation. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. http://www.sfei.org/sites/default/files/No453_Part2-2004_ShoreSurvey.pdf Dearn SL (1987) The fauna of subtidal articulated coralline mats: composition, dynamics, and effects of spatial heterogeneity. Doctoral dissertation, California State University. islandora.mlml.calstate.edu/islandora/object/islandora%3A1850/datastream/OBJ/download/The_fauna_of_subtidal_articulated_coralline_mats__composition__dynamics__and_effects_of_spatial_heterogeneity.pdf Fauchald K & Jumars PA (1979) The diet of worms: a study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology - An Annual Review 17: 193-284. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/255608624_The_diet_of_worms_a_study_of_Polychaete_feeding_guilds Gaffney PM (1973) Setal Variation in Halosydna brevisetosa, a Polynoid Polychaete. Systematic Zoology 22(2): 171-175. www.jstor.org/stable/2412100?origin=crossref&seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?sts=sss&st=sss&fr=1&x=32&y=9&sn=Halosydna+brevisetosa&rn=&hci=-1&ei=-1&lang=EN Access date: 21-09-2015 Harbo RM (1999) Whelks to Whales: Coastal Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing Hartman O (1944) Polychaetous annelids from California including the description of two new genera and nine new species. In: Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions Vol. 10. University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles, California. http://ia700406.us.archive.org/12/items/allanhancockpaci10alla/allanhancockpaci10alla.pdf Hartman O (1948) The polychaetous annelids of Alaska. Pacific Science 2: 3-58. scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/8890 Hartman O (1966) Quantitative survey of the benthos of San Pedro basin, Southern California, part II, final results and conclusions. In: Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions Vol. 19, No. 2. University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles, California. Hartman O (1968) Atlas of the errantiate polychaetous annelids from California. Allan Hankock Foundation University of Southern California: 1-828. Hillger KA & Reish DJ (1970) The Effect of Temperature on the Setal Characteristics in Polynoidae (Annelidae: Polychaeta). Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 69(2): 87-99. scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol69/iss2/5/ Hyogo Environmental Advancement Association (2010) Report of the breeding of marine organisms. Wide-area waste treatment plant maintenance business in Osaka Bay in 2010. Osaka-Wan Center : 1-38+Appendices. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1967) Errant polycahtous annelids from Tsukumo Bay and vicinity of Noto Paninsula, Japan. Bulletin of the National Science Museum 10: 403-441. Imajima M (1968) Polychaetous annelids from Hayama, Miura Peninsula. Science Report of the Yokosuka City Museum 14: 20-41. (in Japanese) Imajima M (1970) Errant Polychaetous annelids collected from the areas around the Tsushima Islands. Memirs of the National Science Museum 3: 113-122. Imajima M (1997) Polychaetous annelids from Sagami Bay and Sagami Sea collected by the Emperor Showa of Japan and deposited at the Showa Memorial Institute, National Science Museum, Tokyo. National Science Museum Monographs 13: 1-131. Imajima M (2001) Polychaetous Annelids II. Seibutsu Kenkyusha, Tokyo: 1-542. (in Japanese) Imajima M & Gamo S (1970) Polychaetous annelids from the intertidal zone of Manazuru, Kanagawa Prefecture. Science Reports of the Yokohama National University, Sec. II 16: 1-18. http://kamome.lib.ynu.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/10131/2954/1/KJ00004478758.pdf Imajima M & Hayashi K (1969) Seasonal changes of polychaetes living among the attaching organisms. Proceedings of the Japanese Society of Systematic Zoology 5: 2-15. (in Japanese with English abstract) Inaba A (1988) Fauna and frola of the Seto Inland Sea. Second Edition II. Mukaishima Marine Biological Station, Hiroshima University: 1-475. (in Japanese) Izuka A (1912) The errantiate Polychaeta of Japan. Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, 30: 1-262. Kato et al. (2003) Intertidal polychaetes of Rishiri Island. Rishiri Research 22: 41-47. (in Japanese) Kozloff EN (1993) Seashore Life of the Northern Pacific Coast. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press Kurth S, Megill W, Yasué M (2007) Preliminary report on the epibenthic and benthic environment of San Ignacio Lagoon. Other. CERF. (Laguna San Ignacio Wetlands Ecosystem Science Project). sanignaciograywhales.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2007-benthic-report.pdf Lee JW (1998) Systematic Study of Polychaetes (Annelida) from Offshore Waters of Geojedo Island, Korea. Korean Journal of Systematic Zoology 14(3): 243-255. www.dbpia.co.kr/Journal/ArticleDetail/NODE01801163 Loi T (1981) Environmental stresses and intertidal assemblages on hard substrates in the port of Long Beach, California, USA. Marine Biology 63(2): 197-211. link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00406828 Lwebuga-Mukasa J (1970) The Role of Elytra in the Movement of Water Over the Surface of Halosydna brevisetosa (Polychaeta: Polynoidae). Bulletin of the Southern California Acadamy of Sciences 69(3): 154-160. scholar.oxy.edu/scas/vol69/iss3/7/ Macdonald TA, Burd BJ, Macdonald VI, van Roodselaar A (2010) Taxonomic and Feeding Guild Classification for the Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/340580.pdf Macdonald JS & MacConnachie S (2011) An Analysis of Ten Years of Intertidal Monitoring: Evaluating the Biophysical Data Collected by the Saanich Inlet Shorekeepers Program. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2957. www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/Library/346239.pdf Marine Ecology Research Institute (2012) Report of the marine environmental assessment survey of thermal power plant. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry Nuclear Safety Agency : 1-256. (in Japanese) http://www.meti.go.jp/meti_lib/report/2012fy/E002099.pdf Markham JC (1967) A study of the animals inhabiting laminarian holdfasts in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. MA thesis. Oregon State University. ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/28385?show=full Moore JP (1909) Polychætous Annelids from Monterey Bay and San Diego, California. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61(2): 235-295. www.jstor.org/stable/4063281?seq=1 Needles LA & Wendt (2013) Big changes to a small bay: introduced species and long-term compositional shifts to the fouling community of Morro Bay (CA). Biological Invasions 15(6): 1231-1251. link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0362-2 Nishimura S & Suzuki K (1977) Common sea shore animals of Japan in color. Uchinomi F ed. Hoikusha Publishing Co., Ltd. Osaka. (in Japanese) OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. http://iobis.org/mapper/ Access date: 07-01-2016 Okuda S (1938) Polychaetous annelids from the vicinity of the Mitsui Institute of Marine Biology. Japanese Journal of Zoology 8: 75-105. Okuda S & Yamada M (1954) Polychaetous annelids from Matsushima Bay. Journal of the Faculty Science of Hokkaido University, Series B, Zoology, 12: 175-199. Paxton H & Chou LM (2000) POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS FROM THE SOUTH CHINA SEA. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (supplement 8): 209-232. lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/rbz/biblio/s8/s08rbz209-232.pdf Rouse GW (2000) Polychaetes have evolved feeding larvae numerous times. Bulletin of Marine Science 67(1): 391-409. www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?option1=tka&value1=Polychaetes+have+evolved+feeding+larvae+numerous+times&pageSize=10&index=1 Rudy Jr P, Rudy LH, Shanks, A, Butler B (2015) Halosydna brevisetosa. In: Oregon Estuarine Invertebrates (Second Edition). Accessed via: https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/handle/1794/12664?show=full Ryu SH et al. (2012) Biodiversity of marine invertebrates on rocky shores of Dokdo, Korea. Zoological Studies 51(5): 710-726. www.researchgate.net/publication/257303611_Biodiversity_of_marine_invertebrates_on_rocky_shores_of_Dokdo_Korea Salazar-Silva P (2013) Revision of Halosydna Kinberg, 1856 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Polynoidae) from the Tropical Eastern Pacific and Grand Caribbean with descriptions of new species. Journal of Natural History 47(17-18): 1177-1242. www-tandfonline-com/doi/full/10.1080/00222933.2012.752934 Sept JD (1999) The Beachcomber's Guide to Seashore Life in the Pacific Northwest. Madeira Park, BC: Harbour Publishing Thompson DL (1977) Biofouling Organisms and Their Salinity Tolerance on Navigational Buoys in Upper San Francisco Bay. MSc thesis AD A046383. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California. oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA046383 Uchida H (1985) Polychaetous Annelids from Kishu III. Aphroditoidea (7). Nanki-Seibutsu 27: 75-80. (in Japanese) Wilson WH (1991) Sexual reproductive modes in polychaetes: Classification and diversity. Bulletin of Marine Science 48(2): 500-516. www.researchgate.net/publication/233656834_Sexual_reproductive_modes_in_polychaetes_Classification_and_diversity Yamanishi R (1980) Polychaetous annelids of Osaka Bay I. On the fauna in the year around 1960. Bulletin of the Osaka Museum of Natural History 33: -42. (in Japanese with English abstract) Yan SK & Huang ZG (1993) Biofouling of ships in Daya Bay, China. In: B Martin (Ed.) The Marine Biology of the South China Sea (pp: 131-136). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence


Reported as synonym to H. johnsoni by Carlton (2007); challenged by other authors, including Salazar-Silva (2013)