Eulalia quadrioculata


Scientific Name: Eulalia quadrioculata

Phylum: Annelida

Class: Polychaeta

Order: Phyllodocida

Family: Phyllodocidae

Genus: Eulalia


quadrioculata [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific Morro Bay, California (Needles & Wendt 2013) STATED Northern California (Carlton 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Northern Strait of Georgia, Johnstone Strait, Outer Burrard Inlet, BC, Canada (Burd et al. 2009) STATUS NOT STATED Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada (Macdonald et al. 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Port Townsend, Washington, USA (Moore 1906, 1908) STATUS NOT STATED San Pedro Basin, California, USA (Hartman 1966) STATUS NOT STATED San Diego Bay, California, USA (Sorensen et al. 2013) STATUS NOT STATED Long Beach Port, California, USA (Loi 1981) STATUS NOT STATED [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Yaquina Bay, Oregon (Markham 1967) STATUS NOT STATED [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Central California (Robinson 1993) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

-124.400001525879 33.6999969482422,-118.199996948242 49 (OBIS 2016) Johnstone Strait, BC (Burd et al. 2009) to San Diego Bay, California (Sorensen et al. 2013)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Not applicable

Second Vector:

Not applicable

Vector Details:

Not applicable

Spread Rate:

Not applicable

Date First Observed in Japan:

Not applicable

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Not applicable


Impact in Japan:

Not applicable

Global Impact:

Not applicable


Native Temperature Regime:

See details

Native Temperature Range:

[Port of Long Beach, California] Surface water temperature ranged from 13.6 ºC to 20.5ºC (Loi 1981) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] [Oregon, USA] Water temperature varied from 9.4ºC to 10.9ºC during sampling (July - December 1966) (Markham 1967) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Found at two sites, where bottom waters ranged from 10.4 - 25.5ºC and 11.5 - 25.1ºC (Robinson 1993)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Oligohaline, Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[Port of Long Beach, California] Surface water salinity ranged from 23.53 to 33.65 psu (Loi 1981) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Found at two sites, where bottom waters ranged from 1.2 - 31.1 psu and 5.9 - 30.1 psu (Robinson 1993)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:


Temperature Range Survival:

RELATED: [Eulalia spp.] -2.058 - 27.099ºC (OBIS 2016b)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:


Salinity Range Survival:

RELATED: [Eulalia spp.] 27.165 - 37.662 PPS (OBIS 2016b)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Upper intertidal, Mid intertidal, Low intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

Sampled from 4 - 66 m (OBIS 2016) 7.5 fathoms (~14 m) (Hartman 1966) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] 6 - 27 m depth (Pleijel et al. 2012) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Intertidal and subtidal (samples taken from 15 - 70 cm above water line; 5 - 35 cm below water line) (Markham 1967)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:

Gonochoristic/ dioecious

Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Planktotrophic planktonic larva (feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Does not reproduce asexually

Reproduction Details:

Separate sexes (Moore 1908) RELATED: [Eulalia sp.] ect-aquasperm (Jamieson & Rouse 1989) [E. sanguinea] Free-spawning, planktotrophic larvae (Wilson 1991) [E. viridis] Encapsulation of embryos in a gelatinous mass, planktotrophic larvae (Wilson 1991) [Class Polychaeta] Asexual reproduction is linked to regeneration capacity, which is restricted in polychaetes (Ansell et al. 1997)

Adult Mobility:

Actively mobile (Mobility is a normal part of at least part of the adult life cycle - at least in spurts. Not dependent upon distance traveled)

Adult Mobility Details:

Free-living; may live on surface or actively burrow (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Maturity Size:


Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:


Reproduction Time:




Egg Size:

Large (Moore 1908)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:


Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:

RELATED: [E. virdis] [White Sea] Population density increased from the mid-1980s until the mid-1990s. Appears to follow an 11-14 year cycle (Khalaman & Naumov 2009)



Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Mussel reef, Macroalgal beds, Kelp forest, Fouling, See details

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epizoic, Epiphytic, Under rock,


Mud, Organic sediment, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate



Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Found among mussels and barnacles, in algal holdfasts, and under rocks in debris (Carlton 2007) Debris with algae (Hartman 1966) Found under rocks, in algal holdfasts, among mussels and barnacles (Blake et al. 1994) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Pilons; bottom dwelling among Chaetopterus tubes (Pleijel et al. 2012) [E. aviculiseta (synonymised taxa)] Sampled from holdfasts (including kelps) growing on a variety of substrates: boulder, wood pile, concrete, wood float, metal cable rust, mud (Markham 1967) RELATED: [E. virdis] Mussel beds (Khalaman & Naumov 2009)

Trophic Level:


Trophic Details:

Surface predatory carnivore, feeds on live benthic macro-organisms (organisms retained on a >500 µm seive) (Macdonald et al. 2010)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:


Natural Control:


Associated Species:


References and Notes


Ansell AD, Gibson RN & Barnes M (1997) Oceanography and Marine Biology, Volume 35. CRC Press. London, UK. Blake JA, Hilbig B, Scott PH (1994) Taxonomic Atlas of the Benthic Fauna of the Santa Maria Basin and the Western Santa Barbara Channel, Volume 4: The Annelida, Part 1, Oligochaeta and Polychaeta: Phyllodocida (Phyllodocida to Paralacydoniidae). Santa Barbara, California: Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History Burd BJ, McGreer E, Taekema B, Macdonald TA (2009) Utility of large regional databases for understanding abundance and diversity characteristics of natural marine soft substrate fauna. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2859. Carlton JT (2007) The Light and Smith manual: intertidal invertebrates from central California to Oregon. London, England: University of California Press, Ltd Global Invasive Species Database. Access date: 17-09-2015 Jamieson BGM & Rouse GW (1989) THE SPERMATOZOA OF THE POLYCHAETA (ANNELIDA): AN ULTRASTRUCTURAL REVIEW. Biological Reviews 64(2): 93-157. Hartman O (1966) Quantitative survey of the benthos of San Pedro basin, Southern California, part II, final results and conclusions. In: Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions Vol. 19, No. 2. University of Southern California Press, Los Angeles, California. Khalaman VV & Naumov AD (2009) Long-term dynamics of common species of polychaetes in fouling communities of the White Sea. Fouling Biology 35(6): 463-473. Loi T (1981) Environmental stresses and intertidal assemblages on hard substrates in the port of Long Beach, California, USA. Marine Biology 63(2): 197-211. Macdonald TA, Burd BJ, Macdonald VI, van Roodselaar A (2010) Taxonomic and Feeding Guild Classification for the Marine Benthic Macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874. Markham JC (1967) A study of the animals inhabiting laminarian holdfasts in Yaquina Bay, Oregon. MA thesis. Oregon State University. Moore JP (1906) Additional New Species of Polychæta from the North Pacific. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 58(1): 217-260. Moore JP (1908) Some Polychætous Annelids of the Northern Pacific Coast of North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 60(2): 321-364. OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 07-01-2016 OBIS b. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. Access date: 31-08-2016 *Note: genus level data Needles LA & Wendt (2013) Big changes to a small bay: introduced species and long-term compositional shifts to the fouling community of Morro Bay (CA). Biological Invasions 15(6): 1231-1251. Pleijel F, Aguado MT, Rouse GW (2012) New and lesser known species of Chrysopetalidae, Phyllodocidae and Syllidae from south California (Phyllodocida, Aciculata, Annelida). Zootaxa 3506: 1-25. Robinson MA (1993) The distribution and abundance of benthic and epibenthic macroinvertebrates in a small, seasonal central California lagoon. MA thesis. San Jose State University. Sorensen K, Swope B, Kirtay V (2013) Marine Ecological Index Survey of San Diego Bay. Accession No. SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA COASTAL WATER RESEARCH PROJECT WESTMINSTER Report 2038.


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence