Celleporina nordenskioldi


Scientific Name: Celleporina nordenskioldi

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Gymnolaemata

Order: Cheilostomatida

Family: Celleporidae

Genus: Celleporina


nordenskjoldi [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Arctic, Temperate Northern Pacific

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific [Japan] Akkeshi Bay; Muroran; Hokkaido (Grischenko et al 2007, Mawatari and Mawatari 1981) STATUS NOT STATED [Northwestern Pacific] Eastern Kamchatka, the Commander Islands, the Kurile Islands, the Shantar Archipelago, Sakhaline Island. Primorye, Peter the Great Gulf. (Kluge 1961, etc., cited in Grischenko et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido. (Grischenko et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED [Cellepora nordenskjoldi (Synonymized taxon)] Akkeshi and Muroran. (Mawatari & Mawatari 1981) STATUS NOT STATED Arctic Laptev Sea, Chukchi Seas. (Kluge 1962, ect., cited in Grischenko et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Beaufort Sea near Point Barrow, Alaska; Bering Sea (Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED East Siberian Sea; Chukchi Sea; Bering Sea; Laptev Sea (Denisenko 2011; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008; Grischenko 2002; Kuklinski and Taylor 2009) STATUS STATED

Geographic Range:

Considered an Arctic-Boreal Pacific species (Grischenko et al. 2007) Distributed along the Eurasian and American sectors of the Arctic region and extends into the Boreal Pacific, but appears to be absent in the Canadian Arctic and northern Atlantic. Has been reported along the Eurasian Arctic in the Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and from the Beaufort Sea near Alaska . In the northwestern Pacific, has been recorded from eastern Kamchatka, the Commander Islands, the Kuril Islands, the Shantar Archipelago, Sakhalin Island, Primorye, Peter the Great Gulf and Akkeshi and Muroran along the Pacific coast of Hokkaido (Grischenko et al 2007) [Western Pacific] Russia; Japan; Bering Sea; East Siberian Sea (Grischenko et al 2007; Mawatari and Mawatari 1981; Grischenko 2002) [Arctic] Russia; Arctic seas north of Europe (Osburn 1952) [Japan] Daikokujima Island, north side in Akkeshi Bay: 42°57.3'N, 144°52.5'E. (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Japan] Mabiro Cape in Akkeshi Bay: 42°58.6'N, 144°53.2'E. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:

RELATED: Chukchi Sea, because of its link to Pacific Ocean via Bering Strait, can be thought of a s a gateway to the Arctic Ocean. All colonizers of the Arctic of Pacific origin first have to establish themselves in this region in order to progress with colonization of more distant areas (Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008)

Date First Observed in Japan:

Mawatari and Mawatari described the species in 1981, based on their collection of bryozoans at Hokkaido prior to 1973 (Mawatari and Mawatari 1981)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:



Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate

Native Temperature Range:

[East Siberian Sea, Russia] Water temperature varies from 5°C to 8°C in southern areas to -1.5°C in the northern part in summer time and form 0.5°C to -1.8°C in corresponding areas in winter (Denisenko 2011) [Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan] Temperature ranges from -1.4°C to highest 21.1°C (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Japan] Akkeshi Bay: The lowest recorded water temperature was -1.4ºC in February 2003, the highest 21.1ºC in August 2004. (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Peter the Great Bay] During winter, coastal waters become equal in temperature approaching arctic conditions. During summer, waters of semi-enclosed shallow bays warm strongly (to 28°C in August) (Biryulin et al. 1970, cited in Lutaenko 1999). At the same time, in the subtidal zone of open areas, August temperatures reach 15-l7°C. (Lutaenko 1999) Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

[East Siberian Sea, Japan] Salinity fluctuates from 18% in nearshore coastal areas to 25.5% in the offshore areas. Decreases between 2 and 8% in river mouths (Denisenko 2011) [Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan] Salinity is relatively constant about 30 PSU, ranged from 26 PSU to 31 PSU (Grischenko et al. 2007) Salinity in open areas at the coast of Primorye - Primorskoe near Peter the Great Bay approaches normal marine and is 33-34psu. (Lutaenko 1999) [Japan] Akkeshi Bay: relatively constant, about 30psu; it ranged from 26psu in June 2003 to 31psu in August 2004. (Grischenko et al. 2007) C. n. was found only at the southern entrance to Akkeshi Bay, where oceanic conditions might prevail. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

RELATED: [Celleporina spp.] -0.197 - 26.525 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

RELATED: [Celleporina spp.] 27.473 - 36.426 PPS (OBIS 2016)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

East Siberian Sea: Shallow depth, averages about 45m. (Denisenko 2011) Chukchi Sea: Shallow depth (Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido: Sampled depths to 10m (Grischenko et al 2007) Laptev Sea: Sampled at 22m (Kuklinski and Taylor 2009) Alaska: Collected 18-25fms (32.4-45m)(Osburn 1952) Akkeshi Bay: lower intertidal zone. (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Costazia nordenskjoldi (Synonymized taxon)] Point Barrow, Aladka: 18 to 25 fms. (Osburn 1952)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:



Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

100% of colonies observed (55) in June/July were with embryos (Grischenko et al 2007) RELATED: [Celleporidae] Members of the family Celleporidae...early in their astogeny, zooids in the primary layer begin to bud frontally, becoming buried under the secondary layer of zooids (Ikezawa and Mawatari 1993) [Celleporina] Ooecia budded from the distofrontal wall; 'Kenozooidal ooecia' formed in the genera (Ostrovsky 2013) [Celleporina] Celleporina hyalina studied to have reproductive pattern III, brood chambers, non-feeding ciliated larvae (Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Internal fertilization, whether intracoelomic or intraovarian, is obligatory (Temkin 1994 and 1996, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Differ from most organisms in that sperm-egg fusion does not stimulate egg activation. Egg activation may not occur until "spawned" outside of maternal zooid (Temkin 1991) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] All bryozoan colonies are hermaphroditic. Autozooids may be dioecious; or monoecious, and protandrous or protogynous. (Hayward & Ryland 1999) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Encrusting species (Grischenko et al 2007) RELATED: [Bryozoa] The abundance and taxonomic diversity of benthic bryozoan faunas are directly related to substratum. (Hayward & Ryland 1999) [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are a phylum of sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:

Up to 9mm in diameter; Zooids: 0.29-0.36mm across; Ovicell: 0.22-0.25mm long, 0.25-0.30mm wide (Grischenko et al 2007) Zoarium: 0.65x0.40mm; distal ends 0.30-0.35mm; Ovicell 0.30x0.26mm (Osburn 1952)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:

There are three separate generations during the year, with peak embryo production during February-March, May-August, and October-November. (Eggleston 1972, cited in Hayward & Ryland 1999)


The life cycle is completed quickly and colonies live for less than a year. (Hayward & Ryland 1999)

Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In coastal species light is an important stimulus to larval release, and many cheilostomates shed larvae during the first few hours of daylight. (Hayward & Ryland 1999) [Bryozoa] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977)

Reproduction Time:

[Japan] Observed populations in June and July all had embryos (Grischenko et al 2007) Embryo presented in all the specimens collected in Akkeshi Bay during the periods 2-7 June and 3-6 July . (Grischenko et al. 2007)



Egg Size:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] About 200µm (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) Ovicell: 0.22-0.25mm long, 0.25-0.30mm wide (Grischenko et al 2007)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] Two phases of larvae metamorphosis: first stage about 20mins; second stage 1-6 days (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Rocky subtidal, Kelp forest

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic, Under rock


Gravel, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate


Exposed, Semi-exposed

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

[Hokkaido, Japan] Found on hydroid stolons, did not find samples on rock, shell nor algae; Colonies also found detached from ctenostome bryozoan Flustrellidra filispina. Sampled from exposed cape (Mabiro Cape) and Daikokujima Island (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Mabiro Cape, Japan] Prominent rocky reef flat with layered boulders and cobbles, numerous smaller rocks under the boulders, zone of Laminaria spp., specimens collected from rock substrates (Grischenko et al 2007) [Daikokujima Island, Japan] Rocky, creviced reef flat with boulders and cobbles, with smaller rocks underneath the boulders, zone of Laminaria spp., specimens collected from rock substrates (Grischenko et al. 2007) C. n. was found only on the bryozoans of Flustrellidra filispina and Bulula pacifica and Hydroid stolon in Akkeshi Bay. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

Is a suspension feeder on phytoplankton (Hughes 1992) RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1999) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1999) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] Browsers and grazers, including sea urchins, fish, crabs and some prosobranchs, are known to include bryozoans in their diet. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are also the prey of very many small, selective predators, some of which may be adapted to a very narrow spectrum of prey species. Among them opisthobranch predators of bryozoans are well known. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Other than opisthobranchs as a predator, amphipods, isopods, mites and pycnogonids have all been recorded preying on bryozoan colonies. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) EPIBIONTS [Epibionts] [Cheilostomata] It is frequently observed in Japan that several species of hydroids flourish on Cheilostomata cause damages to them. (Mawatari 1976)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Denisenko, N. V. (2011). Bryozoans of the East Siberian Sea: history of research and current knowledge of diversity. In P. N. W. Jackon & M. E. S. Jones (Eds). Annals of Bryozoology 3: aspects of the history of research on bryozoans (pp. 1-15). Dublin, UK: International Bryozoology Association. Denisenko, N. V. & Kuklinski, P. (2008). Historical development of research and current state of bryozoans diversity in the Chukchi Sea. In P. N. W. Jackson (Ed.). Annals of Bryozoology 2: Aspects of the History of Research on Bryozoans (pp. 1-15). Dublin, UK: International Bryozoology Association. Global Invasive Species Database. http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/ Access Date: 3-Mar-2016. Grischenko, A. V. (2002). History of investigations and current state of knowledge of bryozoans species diversity in the Bring Sea. In P. N. W. Jackson & M. E. S. Jones (Eds.). Annals of Bryozoology: Aspects of the History of Research on Bryozoans (pp. 97-116). Dublin, UK: International Bryozoology Association. Grischenko AV, Dick MH, Mawatari SF (2007) Diversity and taxonomy of intertidal Bryozoa (Cheilostomata) at Akkeshi Bay, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Natural History 41(17-20), 1047-1161. Doi: 10.1080/00222930701391773. Hayward PF & Ryland JS (1999) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa part 2. Hippothooidea - Celleporoidea. Synopses of the British Fauna (New Series). Barnes RSK & Crothers JH (eds.) No. 14 (Second Edition). The Linnean Society of London and The Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association by Field Studies Council: 416pp. Hill, K. (2001) Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce. Retrieved from http://www.sms.si.edu/irlspec/Electr_bellul.htm Kuklinski, P. & Taylor, P. D. (2009). Mineralogy of Arctic bryozoans skeletons in a global context. Facies, 55, 489-500. Doi: 10.1007/s10347-009-0179-3. Lutaenko KA (1999) Additional data on the fauna of bivalve mollusks of the Russian continental coast of the Sea of Japan: middle Primorye and Nakhodka Bay. Publications of the Seto Marine Biological Laboratory 38: 255-286. Mawatari S (1976) Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). In: Animal systematics. Uchida T (ed.) Nakayama-shoten Co. Ltd., Tokyo: 35-229. (in Japanese) Mawatari, S. F. & Mawatari, S. (1981). A preliminary list of Cheilostomatous Bryozoans collected along the coast of Hokkaido. Proc. Jap. Soc. Syst. Zool., 21, 41-58 OBIS. Ocean Biogeographic Information System. http://iobis.org/mapper Access date: 08-09-2016 *Note: genus level data Osburn RC (1952) Bryozoa of the Pacific coast. Part 2, Cheilostomata-Ascophora. The University of Southern California Publication. Allan Hancock Pacific Expedition 14: 271-611. Ostrovsky, A. N. (2013). Evolution of Sexual Reproduction in Marine Invertebrates – Example of gymnolaemate bryozoans. Dordrectht: Springer Netherlands. Doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7146-8 Rouse, S. (2011). Aetea anguina. Bryozoa of the British Isles. Retrieved from http://britishbryozoans.myspecies.info/content/aetea-anguina-linnaeus-1758 Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., and Barnes, R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A functional evolutionary approach. Ann Arbor, MN: Thomson Brooks/Cole. Temkin, M. H. (1991). Fertilization in the Gymnolaemate Bryozoa (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (DP23819). Tilbrook KJ (2012) Cheilostomata: first records of two invasive species in Australia and the northerly range extension for a third. Check List 8: 181-183. http://www.checklist.org.br/getpdf?NGD192-11 Winston JE (1977). Distribution and ecology of estuarine ectoprocts: A critical review. Chesapeake Science, 18: 34‐57. doi:10.2307/1350363. https://fau.digital.flvc.org/islandora/object/fau%3A6214/datastream/OBJ/view/Distribution_and_ecology_of_estuarine_ectoprocts__A_critical_review.pdf Woollacott, R. M., & Zimmer, R. L. (Eds.). (1977). Biology of Bryozoans. New York, NY: Academic Press


Limited information; expert opinion based on observational information or circumstantial evidence


In Osburn (1952), identified as Costazia nordenskjoldi