Callopora craticula


Scientific Name: Callopora craticula

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Gymnolaemata

Order: Cheilostomatida

Family: Calloporidae

Genus: Callopora


craticula (may have been known as Membranipora craticula) (Osburn 1952) [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Temperate Northern Pacific, Arctic, Temperate Northern Atlantic

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Temperate Northern Pacific Kodiak, Sitka, Ketchikan, Valdez in Alaska. (Ruiz. et al. 2006) STATED Novaya Zemlia, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan (Mawatari & Mawatari1980) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Kushiro, Akkeshi, and Hakodate, Hokkaido. (Mawtari & Mawatari 1980) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Akkeshi Bay; Kushiro; Hakodate; Hokkaido; Sea of Japan (Grischenko et al. 2007; Mawatari and Mawatari 1981; Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED [Canada] Gulf of St. Lawrence; Baffin Bay; Dolphin Strait; Union Strait; Frozen Strait; Hudson Bay; Hudson Strait; Newfoundland; Bay of Fundy (Carson 1985; Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED [US] Maine; Connecticut; Bering Sea; Massachusetts (Dick et al 2005; Osburn 1952; Fuller 1946; Powell 1968; Osburn 1912; Winston et al 2000) STATUS NOT STATED Kurile Islands; Chukchi Sea (Larwood and Nielsen 1981; Grischenko 2014; Powell 1968; Grischenko 2002; Yakovis 2002; Denisenko 2011; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Arctic Barents Sea, White Sea, Spitsbergen, Kara Sea, Jan Mayen, Greenland, Bering Sea, Davis Strait, East Siberian Sea, Labrador, Hudson Bay (Mawatari & Mawatari1980) STATUS NOT STATED Kola Bay; Barents Sea; Laptev Sea; East Siberian Sea; Sea of Okhotski; Kara Sea; Bering Sea (Larwood and Nielsen 1981; Grischenko 2014; Powell 1968; Grischenko 2002; Yakovis 2002; Denisenko 2011; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) STATUS NOT STATED [Greenland] Spitsbergen; Greenland Sea; Baffin Bay (Kuklinski 2009; Lippert et al. 2001; Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Atlantic Norway, Sweden, British Isles, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Davis Strait, Newfoundland, Labrador, Hudson Bay; Alaska, Bering Sea, East Siberian Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan. (Mawatari & Mawatari1980) STATUS NOT STATED [Norway] Tromso; Hornsund; Bellsund; Isfjorden; Svalbard; Jan Mayen Island; Barents Sea (Kuklinski et al. 2007; Gontar et al 2001; Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED Denmark; Faroe Islands; Kattegat; North Sea (Powell 1968; Jennings et al 1999) STATUS NOT STATED [Sweden] Skagerrak (Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED [UK] British Isles; North Sea; Scotland (Powell 1968; Jennings et al 1999; Hayward and Ryland 1998) STATUS NOT STATED [Ireland] Lough Hyne (Watson and Barnes 2004) STATUS NOT STATED Long Island Sound (Hutchins 1945, cited Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED Baltic Sea, Kettegat Area (Borg 1930. ect., cited in Winston) STATUS NOT STATED Kettegat Area, including inner area (Androsova 1962, etc. cited in Winston) STATUS NOT STATED Western Norway (Nair 1961, 1962, cited in Winston 1977) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm Iceland, Alaska, East Siberian Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Newfoundland (Mawatari & Mawatari1980) STATUS NOT STATED [Iceland] (Powell 1968) STATUS NOT STATED Alaska (Dick et al 2005; Osburn 1952; Fuller 1946; Powell 1968; Osburn 1912; Winston et al 2000) STATUS NOT STATED

Geographic Range:

Boreal-Arctic; Widespread; Circumpolar (Gontar et al. 2001) [Western Pacific] Southern Hokkaido, Japan (Powell 1968; Grischenko et al 2007; Mawatari and Mawatari 1981; Grischenko et al 2007) [Eastern Pacific] Ketchikan, Alaska (Dick et al 2005; Grischenko et al 2007; Osburn 1952; Powell 1968) [Western Atlantic] Baffin Bay/Greenland to Connecticut, US (Powell 1968; Carson 1985; Kuklinski 2009; Dick et al 2005; Fuller 1946 [Eastern Atlantic] Iceland to Ireland (Powell 1968; Watson and Barnes 2004) [Arctic] Barents Sea; Kara Sea; East Siberian Sea (Larwood and Nielsen 1981; Grischenko 2014; Powell 1968; Grischenko 2002; Yakovis 2002; Denisenko 2011; Denisenko and Kuklinski 2008) [Hudson Bay, Canada] (Atkinsor & Wacasey 1989) Station 552: 63°19.5'N, 90°42'W. Station 608: 62°44.5', 83°39'W. [Japan] Aininkappu Cape in Akkeshi Bay: 42°59.6'N, 144°51.3'E. (Grischenko et al. 2007) [Japan] Aikappu Cape, tip in Akkeshi Bay: 43°00.4'N, 144°50.1'E. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2016)

Non-native Region:

Not applicable

Invasion Propens:

Not applicable

Status Date Non-native:

Not applicable

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:


Second Vector:


Vector Details:


Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Mawatari and Mawatari described the species in 1981, based on their collection of bryozoans at Hokkaido prior to 1973 (Mawatari and Mawatari 1981)

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

[Alaska] Prior to 1933; Specimens in Hancock Collection from Alaska but not collected during Allan Hancock Expedition from 1933-1942 (Osburn 1952)


Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:



Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Warm temperate, See details

Native Temperature Range:

9-14°C (Carson 1985) Arctic-boreal species (Dick et al. 2005) Though, according to Mawatari & Mawatari (1980), C. c. occurs in temperature 2 to 5ºC (this range means cool temperate by the definition of Hall (1964)), Winston (1977) described that geographic affinity of C. c. was Boreal and Warm-temp. Essentially cool temperate species. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Japan] Akkeshi Bay: The lowest recorded water temperature was -1.4ºC in February 2003, the highest 21.1ºC in August 2004. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Not applicable

Non-native Temperature Range:

Not applicable

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Salinity at Kongsfjorden had low salinity (<28PSU) (Gontar et al 2001) Salinity at Akkeshi Bay is relatively constant, about 30PSU. Ranges from 26PSU in June 2003 to 31 PSU in August 2004 (Nakamura et al., 2005, cited in Grischenko et al. 2007) C. c. occurs in the salinity 31.6 to 34.8psu. (Mawatari & Mawatari 1980) C. c. is found in euhaline and polyhaline region to 18psu but may occurs at a lower salinity in Baltic Sea. (Winston 1977) Akkeshi Bay: relatively constant, about 30psu; it ranged from 26psu in June 2003 to 31psu in August 2004. (Grischenko et al. 2007) It is also said that C. c. is restricted in the intermediate salinity condition between the exposed environment and the estuarine environment in Akkeshi Bay. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Not applicable

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

4.685 - 12.863 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

32.125 - 35.192 PPS (OBIS 2016) C. c. is found in euhaline and polyhaline region to 18psu but may occurs at a lower salinity in Baltic Sea. (Winston 1977)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

CONFLICT: listed as exclusively littoral but also outside of that range None of the species is exclusively littoral but (C. craticula) occurs litorally (Larwood and Nielsen 1981) 5-30m (Gontar et al. 2001) Collected from littoral to 226m (Kuklinski 2009) Bathymetric range: 0 - 280m (Powell 1968) Sampled from 0 - 152 m depth (OBIS 2016) England: ELWS and subtidal. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) Hudson Bay: 18-25m, 32m. (Atkinsor & Wacasey 1989) Locality uncertain: 0-280m (mostly 10-50m). (Mawatari & Mawatari 1980) Akkeshi Bay: -0.06m and -0.1m mean lower low water. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Rare, Common


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

[Akkeshi Bay, Japan] One of three colonies observed had embryos in either June or July 2004 (Grischenko et al. 2007) Oocytes early growth: 10.5μm; Early vitellogenic cell: 31.0μm; nurse cells in early doublets: 10.5μm; early vitellogenic doublets: 30.0x25.0μm; mature oocyte: 129.5x90.0μm (Ostrovsky 2013) RELATED: [Callopora] Callopora dumerilii described as brooding species (Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Internal fertilization, whether intracoelomic or intraovarian, is obligatory (Temkin 1994 and 1996, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Differ from most organisms in that sperm-egg fusion does not stimulate egg activation. Egg activation may not occur until "spawned" outside of maternal zooid (Temkin 1991) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] All bryozoan colonies are hermaphroditic. Autozooids may be dioecious; or monoecious, and protandrous or protogynous. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Colony encrusting (Grischenko et al. 2007) RELATED: [Bryozoa] The abundance and taxonomic diversity of benthic bryozoan faunas are directly related to substratum. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoans] Sessile, colonial suspension feeders found throughout the world in both marine and freshwater environments. (Tilbrook 2012)

Maturity Size:

[Alaska] largest colony observed 4mm across; zooids: 0.30-0.43mm long (average = 0.357mm) by 0.16-0.26mm wide (average=0.218mm); opesia 0.16-0.25mm long (average 0.190mm) by 0.10-0.14mm wide (average-0.120mm) (Dick et al. 2005) [Akkeshi Bay, Japan] Zooids 0.30-0.45mm long; 0.15-0.25mm wide; Opesia oval 0.16-0.21mm long, 0.09-0.14mm wide; Ovicells 0.09-0.14mm long, 0.12-0.16mm wide (Grischenko et al. 2007) Zooecia: 0.40-0.55mm long by 0.25 to 0.30mm wide; Opesia oval, 025 to 0.30mm long (Osburn 1952)

Maturity Age:

It makes rapid growth and colonies attain a size of 10mm in about 6 weeks. (Fuller 1964)

Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In coastal species light is an important stimulus to larval release, and many cheilostomates shed larvae during the first few hours of daylight. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoans] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977)

Reproduction Time:

[Akkeshi Bay, Japan] One of three colonies observed during collection periods in June and/or July 2004 had embryos (Grischenko et al. 2007) Embryo presents throughout the year (during summer in Norway). (Hayward & Ryland 1998) Embryo presented in the specimens of 33.3% collected in Akkeshi Bay during the periods 2-7 June and 3-6 July . (Grischenko et al. 2007) RELATED: Callopora is predominantly a late summer form (Fuller 1946)



Egg Size:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] About 200µm (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

It makes rapid growth and colonies attain a size of 10mm in about 6 weeks. (Fuller 1964) RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] Two phases of larvae metamorphosis: first stage about 20mins; second stage 1-6 days (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Adult Growth Rate:

It makes rapid growth and colonies attain a size of 10mm in about 6 weeks. (Fuller 1964)

Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Sediment subtidal, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Worm reef, Macroalgal beds, Kelp forest, Coralline Algae, Fouling, Other

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic, Under rock


Mud, Mixed fine sediment, Sand, Gravel, Cobble, Mixed sediments, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial substrate


Exposed, Semi-exposed, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

[Gulf of St Lawrence, Canada] Bottom substrate where collected: boulder, gravel & shell, shell, sand & mud (Osburn 1933, cited in Carson 1985) [Alaska, US] small colonies growing on rocks and on serpulid worm tubes attached to rocks (Dick et al. 2005) [Kongsfjorden, Svalbard] Samples collected at sites that were semi-exposed and sheltered and exposed. Silt layers on stones, as well as pebbles and rocks with encrusted corraline algae (Gontar et al 2001) [Akkeshi Bay, Japan] prominent rocky reef flat, overlain with shingles, cobbles and boulders, broken shells and gravel under the boulders; Laminaria sp. and Fucus sp. present; specimens were only found encrusting erect bryozoan species Phidolopora elongata (Grischenko et al. 2007) Specimens collected on hermit crab shells (Kuklinski et al. 2007) Associated with Alaria esculenta and Phycodrys rubens (Lippert et al. 2001) Collected at sites with bottom substrate: rock and mud (Powell 1968) Covering Laminaria spp. in Baltic, Scottish sea-lochs and/or west Norwegian fjords (Ryland 1962) On machined-slate panels (Watson and Barnes 2004) C. c. is found as epizoic on the crab. (Colodey & Stasko 1980) C. c. is found on PVC plates and wooden blocks. (Ruiz et al. 2006) C. c. is found on erect bryozoan Phidolopora elongata in Akkeshi Bay. (Grischenko et al. 2007)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder...filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

COMPETITION [Competition] 'inferior competitors' for space in a study of encrusting bryozoans competing for space simulating habitat found on undersides of boulders (Turner and Todd 1994) [Competition] Study found that Callopora craticula either 'tied or lost' to other encrusting bryozoans in a study on competitive interactions for limited space (Barnes 2012) RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] Browsers and grazers, including sea urchins, fish, crabs and some prosobranchs, are known to include bryozoans in their diet. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are also the prey of very many small, selective predators, some of which may be adapted to a very narrow spectrum of prey species. Among them opisthobranch predators of bryozoans are well known. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Other than opisthobranchs as a predator, amphipods, isopods, mites and pycnogonids have all been recorded preying on bryozoan colonies. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) EPIBIONTS [Epibionts] [Cheilostomata] It is frequently observed in Japan that several species of hydroids flourish on Cheilostomata cause damages to them. (Mawatari 1976)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


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Fredensborg, DN: Olsen & Olsen. Colodey AG & Stasko AB (1980) Epizoites on Cancer irroratus Say from the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science 30: 89-100. Denisenko, N. V. (2011). Bryozoans of the East Siberian Sea: history of research and current knowledge of diversity. In P. N. W. Jackon & M. E. S. Jones (Eds.), Annals of Bryozoology 3: aspects of the history of research on bryozoans (pp. 1-15). Dublin, UK: International Bryozoology Association. Denisenko, N. V. & Kuklinski, P. (2008). Historical development of research and current state of bryozoans diversity in the Chukchi Sea. In P. N. W. Jackson (Ed.), Annals of Bryozoology 2: Aspects of the History of Research on Bryozoans (pp. 1-15). Dublin, UK: International Bryozoology Association. Dick, M. H., Dick, M. H., Grischenko, A. V., & Mawatari, S. F. (2005).Intertidal Bryozoa (Cheilostomata) of Ketchikan, Alaska. Journal of Natural History, 39(43), 3687-3784. 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Substantial scientific information; non-peer-reviewed information; data specific to the region; supported by recent data (within the last 10 years) or research