Aetea truncata


Scientific Name: Aetea truncata

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Gymnolaemata

Order: Cheilostomatida

Family: Aeteidae

Genus: Aetea


truncata (also known as Anguinaria truncata (Lee II and Reusser 2012)) *misidentified as Aetea recta in Soule et al. 1987 (Lee II and Reusser 2012) [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Tropical Eastern Pacific, Temperate Northern Pacific, Central Indo-Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific, Temperate South America, Tropical Atlantic, Temperate Northern Atlantic

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Tropical Eastern Pacific [Galapagos] Santa Cruz Island (Chiriboga et al. 2012; Osburn 1952) STATUS STATED Galapagos (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Pacific [Canada] Vancouver Island (Departure Bay; between Jesse and Newcastle Islands; Nanoose Bay; Northumberland Channel; North Bay; off Snake Island; West of Hammond Bay; Northwest Bay; off Banks Island; off Protection Island; Cape Ebenshaw; West Rockies) (Osburn 1952; Biological Board of Canada 1901) STATUS NOT STATED [US] Friday Harbour (Osburn 1952; Biological Board of Canada 1901) STATUS NOT STATED [US] Sebastian Inlet; Indian River Lagoon; Washington (Friday Harbour); San Juan Channel off Point Caution; South California (Anacapa Island) (Hill 2001; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture; Tateyama, Kominato, Chiba prefecture, Tokyo Bay; Misaki, Jogashima, Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture; Atami, Shimoda, Shizuoka Prefecture; Hamajima, Mie Prefecture; Wakayama, Kushimoto, Shirahama Wakayama Prefecture; Awajishima Island, Hyogo Prefecture; Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi Prefecture; Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture; Amakusa, Kumamoto Prefecture; Nagasaki, Hirado, Nagasaki Prefecture; Toyama Bay, Toyama Prefecture. (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Okinoshima Island, Kyushu. (Silén 1942) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Hokkaido; Ishigaki-jima (Osburn 1952; Taylor et al. 2013; Mawatari 1974) STATUS NOT STATED California, British Columbia, Japan (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific Mindanao, Flores, Sumba, Banda Sea, New Guinea, China Sea (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific [Zanzibar] (Hastings 1929) STATUS NOT STATED Ceylon, Zanzibar, Indian Ocean (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate South America [Brazil] Ilha Grande Bay; Bahia (Ignacio et al 2010; Kelmo et al 2004; Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Atlantic Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA (Hill 2001; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED Dutch West Indies, Puerto Rico, Cape Verde Islands (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Atlantic [UK] British Isles; Isles of Scilly (Gordon 2015; Osburn 1952; Hayward 1971) STATUS NOT STATED [Belgium] Belgian Coast; Belgian Exclusive Economic Zone; Oostende; Sint-Idesbald (Gordon 2015; Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Portugal] Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (Gordon 2015; Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Spain] Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (Gordon 2015; Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Italy] Adriatic Sea (Novosel et al 2004) STATUS NOT STATED [Turkey] Aegean Sea (Koçak 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Several places in Portugal. (Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Baltic Sea, Sweden. (Kontula & Haldin (eds.) 2009) STATUS NOT STATED All British coasts (Hayward & Ryland 1998) STATUS NOT STATED Venice Lagoon, Italy. (Occhipinti-Ambrogi 1985, cited in Corriero et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea and Levantine Sea, Turkey. (Koçak & Önen 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Norway, Denmark, England, Mediterranean, Madeira, Azores (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Nova Scotia, Canada (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain realm [Mexico] Gulf of Mexico (Gordon 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [Australia] (Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED Cosmopolitan with the except of polar seas. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate and tropical waters of both the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans (Soule 1959) Peru, Panama, Australia, Florida, Brazil (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED RELATED: Temperate Northern Pacific Aetea spp. detected but samples unsure if A. anguina or A. truncata. Stated as closer to A. truncata. Collected in Tako-mati, Tiba Prefecture (Sakakura 1938)

Geographic Range:

With the exception of polar seas, has a world-wide distribution. (Hill 2001; Shier 1964) It is a very widely distributed species, known from the coasts of Europe, the Indian Ocean, the western Pacific from Japan to Australia, the western Atlantic from Nova Scotia to Brazil, and on the American Pacific from British Columbia to the Galapagos Islands (Osburn 1952) Latitude: -46.9 to 58.97 degrees; Longitude: -88.3 to 176.83 degrees (EOL 2015) [Western Atlantic] Cape Hatteras south through Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean and Brazil (Hastings 1929; Hill 2001) [Eastern Atlantic] Scandinavia to Portugal/Spain (Hastings 1929; Gordon 2015; Osburn 1952) [Western Pacific] Japan to Australia (Osburn 1952) [Eastern Pacific] Vancouver, Canada to California (Osburn 1952) [Japan] 0-42°N at Pacific side and 0-38°N at Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988) [Japan] Okinoshima, Kyushu: 34°20'N, 134°10'E and 34°11'N, 134°02E. (Silén 1942) [Brazil] Ilha Grande Bay: 22°55' to 23°15'S, 44°00' to 44°43'W. (Ignachio et al. 2010)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

Yes, see inv_propens

Non-native Region:


Invasion Propens:

Eastern Indo-Pacific [Hawaii] considered introduced as of 1935 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009) *Introduced The native region of Aetea truncata is unknown, though it is considered introduced in Hawaii (Carlton and Eldredge 2009; Lee II and Reusser 2012) *Introduced [Hawaii] Honolulu harbor (21°18'21.6"N to 21°19'02.4"N, 157°51'52.2"W to 157°53'12.3"W), Kewalo Basin (21°17'29.5"N, 157°51'56.9"W) (Coles et al. 1999) *Introduced Temperate Northern Atlantic The native region of Aetea truncata is unknown, though it is considered cryptogenic in the Azores (Carlton and Eldredge 2009; Lee II and Reusser 2012) *Cryptogenic

Status Date Non-native:

Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawaii: 1935 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009) [Hawaii] (Coles et al. 1999) Honolulu Harbor: 1935 and September and September 1997. Kewalo Basin: July 1998.

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Hull fouling (not specified), Aquaculture and Fisheries

Second Vector:


Vector Details:

Hull fouling and aquaculture (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Hull fouling. (Carlton & Eldredge 2009) Ballast water (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Ishigaki-jima, Japan: 1973 (Mawatari 1974) See notes

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Hawaii: 1935 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009)


Impact in Japan:

Fouling activities rapid over shell/dense growth in black lip oyster culture (Mawatari 1974)

Global Impact:

Bryozoans are ecologically important in the Indian River Lagoon due to their feeding method. As suspension feeders, they act as living filters in the marine environment. For example, Winston (1995) reported that bryozoan colonies located in 1 square meter of seagrass bed could potentially filter and recirculate an average of 48,000 gallons of seawater per day (Hill 2001)


Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical, See details

Native Temperature Range:

With its nearly world-wide distribution, A truncata is able to withstand fluctuations in water temperature and is thus considered to be eurythermal (Hill 2001) Okinoshima, Kyushu at the depth of 90m and 85m:16ºC and 16.6ºC respectively. (Silén 1942) Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Tropical or Subtropical

Non-native Temperature Range:

Although Hawai’I is located within the tropics, the physical environment may be considered subtropical in regard to seasonality and prevailing water temperatures, conditions which also apply to much of New South Wales. (Coles et al. 1999) Tropical or Subtropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Native Salinity Regime:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Brackish: Polyhaline (Alpha); Marine: Beta-euhaline (Lee II and Reusser 2012) A. t. is found in mesohaline or polyhaline regions at 8-18psu. (Winston 1977)

Non-native Salinity Regime:


Temperature Regime Survival:

Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Temperature Range Survival:

With its nearly world-wide distribution, A truncata is able to withstand fluctuations in water temperature and is thus considered to be eurythermal (Hill 2001) 15.419 - 27.099 ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Mesohaline, Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

34.929 - 38.605 ºC (OBIS 2016) A. t. is found in mesohaline or polyhaline regions at 8-18psu. (Winston 1977)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal

Depth Range:

[Hawaii] Collected specimens off Oahu at 9.1 and 27.4m (Soule & Soule 1968, cited in Carlton and Eldredge 2009) [Vancouver Island, Canada] 5-35 fms (9-63m) (O'Donogue and O'Donogue 1901) [US] Washington: 40-45m; South California: 10-36fms (18 - 64.8m) (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952) [Mexico] Jicaron: 1-15 fms (1.8-27m) (Hastings 1929) [Panama] Taboga: 1-2 fms (1.8-3.6m) on broken coral (Hastings 1929) [UK] Darrity's Hole, Isles of Scilly, collected at 30 m (Hayward 1971) [Italy] Gorgona: 15 fms (27m) on shells, dead coral and gravel (Hastings 1929) Recorded on PVC settlement plates on an artificial reef in open waters at 20m (Bailey-Brock 1989, cited in Carlton and Eldredge 2009) Collected at depths 0.75 - 60 m (OBIS 2015) Common in shallow water and down to 5 fathoms (9m) (Carnegie Institution of Washington 1914) Observed 2-44 m; Subtidal: sub-shallow preferred, sub-deep observed (Lee II and Reusser 2012; Morri et al 1999) Common along shoreline (Osburn 1952) British Columbia: 0-40 fms (Unidentified original paper, cited in Mawatari 1973) Australia: 0-45m. (Unidentified original paper, cited in Mawatari 1973) Sea of Marmara, Aegean Sea, and Levantine Sea in Turkey: 0-50m. (Koçak & Önen 2014) Panama: 1-15 fms. (Unidentified original paper, cited in Mawatari 1973) Off Oahu": 9.1m and 27.4m. (Soule & Soule (1968, cited in Carlton & Eldredge 2009) 2.4km off the southeast coast of O'ahu: 20m. (Bailey-Brock (1989). cited in Carlton & Eldredge 2009) Port Rico: 10 fms (Unidentified original paper, cited in Mawatari 1973) California: 10-36 fms. (Unidentified original paper, cited in Mawatari 1973) Locality unknown: 10-36m. (Osburn 1950) Portugal: 19m. (Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) Seto Inland Sea: 20-30m. (Inaba 1988) Okinoshima, Kyushu: 85m and 90m (Silén 1942) England: lower shore and sublittoral down to about 80m, occasionally deeper. (Hayward & Ryland 1998)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Rare, Common


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

A. truncata has been collected from the Indian River Lagoon during November, but was not reproductive at the time of collection (Winston 1982, cited in Hill 2001) When reproductive, embryos of A. truncata are brooded in membranous ovisacs (Hill 2001) Early development: Live birth with no nutritional supply; Juvenile Development/Dispersal: Larval phase (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Special reproductive structures: öoecia. Sac-like structure connected to zooecium by a short, narrow stolon. Budded off the side, same manner as ordinary zooecia. (Shier 1964) RELATED: [Aetea] Four main groups of embryo-incubation chambers known in Cheilostomata: Aetea is part of group with external membranous sacs (Ovicells); Ovicells exterior to the aperture; shell membrane surrounding the egg (Ostrovsky 2013) [Aetea] Aetea spp. lack of consistency in the position of the external membranous sacs. Only present during the reproductive period. External flexible transparent sacs without a cellular lining and lack of an opening appear to support that they are a fertilization envelope (Ostrovsky 2013) [Cheilostomata] Free spawning species produce the characteristic triangular cyphonautes larva. These larvae are long-lived and planktotrophic. The larval body is enclosed in a membranous shell; the size can be up to little over 1 mm. Cyphonautes larvae are not keyed out - if possible at all. (van Couwelaar 2003) [Gymnolaemates] Internal fertilization, whether intracoelomic or intraovarian, is obligatory (Temkin 1994 and 1996, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Differ from most organisms in that sperm-egg fusion does not stimulate egg activation. Egg activation may not occur until "spawned" outside of maternal zooid (Temkin 1991) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] All bryozoan colonies are hermaphroditic. Autozooids may be dioecious; or monoecious, and protandrous or protogynous. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) CONFLICT For many Gymnolaemate bryozoa, eggs are not activated when fused with sperm at internal site. Instead, egg must be broadcasted before egg activation takes place. In this way, Membranipora spp. is described as being broadcasters despite fertilization being internal process (Temkin 1991; Ostrovsky 2013)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

RELATED: [Bryozoa] The abundance and taxonomic diversity of benthic bryozoan faunas are directly related to substratum. (Hayward & Ryland 1998)

Maturity Size:

Tubular portion measures approximately 0.70 x 0.06 mm (Winston 1982 cited in Hill 2001) Basal portion maximum width of about 0.16mm near its distal end; erect portion at lower part about 0.06mm in diameter. Head about 0.08mm wide and 0.25 to 0.35mm long. Ooecia is 0.36mm x 0.25mm (Shier 1964)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:



[Indian River Lagoon] Fall seasonality (Winston 1995)

Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In coastal species light is an important stimulus to larval release, and many cheilostomates shed larvae during the first few hours of daylight. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoans] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977)

Reproduction Time:

A. truncata has been collected from the Indian River Lagoon during November, but was not reproductive at the time of collection (Winston 1982 in Hill 2001) Settlement has been recorded from July to October in the Bergen area of Noway. (Hayward & Ryland 1998)



Egg Size:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] About 200µm (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] Two phases of larvae metamorphosis: first stage about 20mins; second stage 1-6 days (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




SAV, Mangrove, Oyster reef, Mussel reef, Kelp forest, Macroalgal beds, Rocky subtidal, Rocky intertidal, Coral reef, Floating plants or macroalgae, Fouling

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Mud, Rock, Biogenic, Cobble, Gravel, Artificial substrate


Exposed, Semi-exposed, Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Estuary, Coastal Bay and Nearshore (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Unconsolidated ecosystem: Submerged aquatic vegetation, mangrove; consolidated ecosystem: oyster reef, fouling, kelp forests (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Consolidated substrate - Biogenic: Oyster, Kelp, Rooted Aquatic, Mangrove, Drift Wood; Artificial substrate: Rip-rap, Pilings, Hull/Ballast, Other materials not listed (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Habitat association: Benthic: surficial - non-mobile, Epibenthic - consolidated substrate; Epibiotic (plants and animals) (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Recorded on PVC settlement plates on an artificial reef in open waters at 20m (Bailey-Brock 1989, cited in Carlton and Eldredge 2009) [Indian River Lagoon, US] Typical habitats include seagrasses, drift algae, oyster reef, dock, pilings, breakwaters, and man-made debris; Found in association with hydrozoans, specifically Thyroscyphus ramosus (Hill 2001) (Winston 1995, cited in Hill 2001) Seagrasses as well as floating macroalgae, provide support for bryozoan colonies. In turn, bryozoans provide habitat for many species of juvenile fishes and their invertebrate prey such as polychaete worms, amphipods and copepods (Winston 1995 in Hill 2001) Found in association with other species that act as support structures: mangrove roots, oyster beds, mussels, etc. (Hill 2001) Colonising a wide range of substrates including algae, hydroids and hard substrates. (EOL 2015) Shells, dead coral, and gravel; beach drift grass (Hastings 1929; Mawatari 1974; Shier 1964) Found on all kinds of substrata. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) Hard substratum including algae, sponge, mussels, etc and soft substratum incuding all phanerogams. (Koçak & Önen 2014) Found on algae, gravel and rock. (Inaba 1988) Found at the bottom with shells and sand. (Silén 1942) Recorded on PVC settlement plates on an artificial reef in open waters. (Bailey-Brock (1989), cited in Carlton & Eldredge 2009)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

Suspension feeder (Craeymeersch 2008, cited in Gordon 2015) A. truncata, like all bryozoans, is a suspension feeder. Each individual zooid in a colony has ciliated tentacles that are extended to filter phytoplankton less than 0.045 mm in size (about 1/1800 of an inch) from the water column. RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

Suspension feeder. Each individual zooid in a colony has ciliated tentacles that are extended to filter phytoplankton less than 0.045 mm in size (about 1/1800 of an inch) from the water column. RELATED: [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

COMPETITION [Competition] Inter-specific competition between S. errata and the other fouling organisms (including Aetea truncata) was reported to be quite severe (Koçak 2008) OTHER [Other] According to numerous authors, the amount of food and sea temperature are the main factors influencing zooid size (Dzik 1975, Sebens 1979, Atkinson 1994, O'Dea & Okamura 1999). [Other] O'Dea & Okamura (1999) investigated the relationship between zooid size and sea temperature, showing that the former is inversely proportional to the latter...The comparison of two different temperature regimes of North and South Adriatic Sea rocky communities revealed no systematic difference between zooid sizes. (Novosel et al 2004) [Other] Dzik (1975) and Sebens (1979) considered that less food results in more zooids per unit surface area because the possibility of catching food is higher. This would yield colonies with smaller zooids. RELATED: DISTURBANCE [Disturbance] [Bryozoans] In the Adriatic face two particular threats: anoxic events, which have wiped out populations of habitat-forming bryozoans in the past (Hayward and McKinney 2002) and low-salinity shock caused by high flow of the submarine fresh water springs around which they live (Cocito et al. 2004, cited in Wood et al. 2012) PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] Browsers and grazers, including sea urchins, fish, crabs and some prosobranchs, are known to include bryozoans in their diet. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are also the prey of very many small, selective predators, some of which may be adapted to a very narrow spectrum of prey species. Among them opisthobranch predators of bryozoans are well known. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Other than opisthobranchs as a predator, amphipods, isopods, mites and pycnogonids have all been recorded preying on bryozoan colonies. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) EPIBIONTS [Epibionts] [Cheilostomata] It is frequently observed in Japan that several species of hydroids flourish on Cheilostomata cause damages to them. (Mawatari 1976)

Associated Species:

EPIBIONTS [Epibionts] Bryozoans provide habitat for many species of juvenile fishes and their invertebrate prey such as polychaete worms, amphipods and copepods (Winston 1995 in Hill 2001) RELATED: EPIBIONTS [Bryzoans] [Epibionts] Bryozoans provide habitat for many species of juvenile fishes and their invertebrate prey such as polychaete worms, amphipods and copepods (Winston 1995 in Hill 2001)

References and Notes


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Moderate level of information; data from comparable regions or older data (more than 10 years) from the area of interest


Misidentified as Aetea recta in Soule et al. 1987 (Lee II and Reusser)