Aetea anguina


Scientific Name: Aetea anguina

Phylum: Bryozoa

Class: Gymnolaemata

Order: Cheilostomatida

Family: Aeteidae

Genus: Aetea


cf. anguina (also known as Sertularia anguina (Lee II and Reusser 2012)) (Described as A. anguina which may involve a species complex. (See Keough & Ross 1999) ) [Describe here as A. iricolor]

Native Distribution

Origin Realm:

Arctic, Temperate Northern Atlantic, Tropical Atlantic, Temperate Northern Pacific, Central Indo-Pacific, Western Indo-Pacific, Tropical Eastern Pacific, Temperate South America, Temperate Australasia, Southern Ocean

Native Region:

Origin Location:

Conflict: listed in Arctic and Antarctica waters (Mawatari 1973), but also listed as not in polar waters (Osburn 1950, Ryland 1965, and Ryland & Haywawrd 1977, cited in Huisman et al. 2008, Hayward & Ryland 1998). Listed as native and cryptogenic in Brazil, Japan, west and east coasts of USA, and introduced in Australia Tropical Atlantic Anjos Bay, Brazil. (Ferreira et al. 2004) STATED [Brazil] Ilha Grande Bay (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952; Ignacio et al 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Jamaica, Porto Rico (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate South America Argentine shelf. (Gappa & Lichtschein 1988) STATUS NOT STATED Coastal islands in Santa Catarina, Brazil. (Bouzon et al. 2012) STATUS NOT STATED [Peru] (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952) STATUS NOT STATED Juan Fernandez, Patagonia, Tristan da Cunha (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Atlantic Venice Lagoon, Italy. (Occhipinti-Ambrogi 1985, cited in Corriero et al. 2007) STATUS NOT STATED Sea of Marmara, Turkey. (Koçak & Önen 2014) STATUS NOT STATED [Belgium] Belgian Coast; Blankenberge; Zeebrugge; Belgian Exclusive Economic Zone (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [The Netherlands] Dutch Coast; Scheveningen; Calais (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [France] Wimereux (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [Spain] Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone; Canary Islands (Iberfauna 2008; DAISIE 2015) STATUS NOT STATED [Portugal] Azores Exclusive Economic Zone; Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015; Iberfauna 2008) STATUS NOT STATED Baltic Sea, Sweden. (KontulaT & Haldin 2009) STATUS NOT STATED [UK] Irish Economic Zone; British Isles; Isle of Scilly; Admiralty Bay; South Shetlands (Keegan et al. 1987, cited in Guiry et al. 2015; Carlton 2007; Hayward 1971; Pabis et al 2014) STATUS STATED [US] Maine; North Carolina; South Carolina; Georgia (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952; Maturo 1958; Wenner et al 1984) STATUS NOT STATED [Canada] Southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs; Gaspe Bay to American; Eastern Bradelle Valley); Newfoundland (incl. Strait of Belle Isle) (Linkletter 1977, cited in Van Guelpen et al. 2015; Brunel et al 2000; Osburn 1952; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED Widespread on all British coasts (Hayward & Ryland 1998) STATUS NOT STATED East Coast of U.S. America (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Scandinavia, West and Central Atlantic, Mediterranean, England, Azores (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Northern Pacific [Japan] Akkeshi, Muroran, Hokkaido; Asamushi, Aomori Prefecture; Matsushima, Miyagi Prefecture; Misaki, Kanagawa Prefecture; Sado Island, Niigata Prefecture; Kushimoto, Shirahama, Wakayama Prefecture; Miyazima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Amakusa, Kumamoto Prefecrure; Nagasaki, Sasebo, Nagasaki Prefecture. (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Sagami Bay and Bonin Islands (Ogasawara Islands). (Silén 1942) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Seto Inland Sea. (Inaba 1988) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] The eastern (Wakayama Prefecture) and western (Mie Prefecture) coast of Kii Peninsula. (Mawatari 1952) STATUS NOT STATED [Korea] South Sea; Jeju-do; Mip'o; Kap'ado (Seo 1992; Seo and Min 2009; Rho and Seo 1990; Rho and Seo 1986) STATUS NOT STATED [Japan] Mororan; Mori; Shirikishinai; Otaru; Paramushir; Akkeshi; Kushiro (Mawatari and Mawatari 1981; Mawatari 1956) STATUS NOT STATED [US] San Diego, California (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952; Maturo 1958; Wenner et al 1984) STATUS NOT STATED [Mexico] Aqua Verde Bay; Marquer Bay; Carmen Island; south end of Tiburón Island (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015; Soule 1959) STATUS NOT STATED [Canada] Gabriola Pass, British Columbia (Linkletter 1977, cited in Van Guelpen et al. 2015; Brunel et al 2000; Osburn 1952; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS NOT STATED Japan, California, Vancouver (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Central Indo-Pacific South China Sea. (Silén 1942) STATUS NOT STATED New Guinea, Torres Straits (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Western Indo-Pacific Cochin, India (Louis 2006) STATUS NOT STATED [India] Tamil Nadu; Gulf of Mannar; Kerala; Kochi (National Institute of Oceanography 2010) STATUS NOT STATED Gulf of Mannar, British East Africa, Zanzibar, Indian Ocean, East Indian Archipelago (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Tropical Eastern Pacific [Galapagos] Santa Cruz Islands (Chiriboga et al. 2012; Osburn 1952; Oregon State University 1971) STATUS STATED Galapagos (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Temperate Australasia [New Zealand] (Lee II and Reusser 2012; Gordon 1967) STATUS NOT STATED New Zealand (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Southern Ocean Antarctica (Mawatari 1973) Arctic Arctic (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED Uncertain Realm Several places in Portugal. (Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) STATUS NOT STATED Widespread throughout the world except in polar waters. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) STATUS NOT STATED Australia, Brazil (Mawatari 1973) STATUS NOT STATED [Mexico] Gulf of Mexico (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al. 2015; Soule 1959) STATUS NOT STATED RELATED: Temperate Northern Pacific Aetea spp. detected but samples unsure if A. anguina or A. truncata. Stated as closer to A. truncata. Collected in Tako-mati, Tiba Prefecture (Sakakura 1938)

Geographic Range:

Cosmopolitan distribution (Hewitt et al 2004; Osburn 1952; Shier 1964) [Eastern Pacific] Gabriolla Pass, BC to San Diego, California; Peru; Juan Fernandez Islands (Oregon State University 1971; Hastings 1929; Shier 1964) [Western Pacific] Japan to New Zealand Mawatari and Mawatari 1981; Lee II and Reusser 2012; Hastings 1929; Shier 1964; Mawatari 1956) [Western Atlantic] Maine to Brazil; Patagonia, Argentina (Osburn 1952; Maturo 1958; Hastings 1929; Shier 1964) [Eastern Atlantic] Scandinavia; UK to Canary Islands, Spain (Gordon 2015; Moretzsohn et al 2015; DAISIE 2015; Pabis et al 2014; Hastings 1929; Shier 1964; Mawatari 1956) [Arctic] Arctic Ocean (Hastings 1929; Shier 1964) Northwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, Eastern Indo-Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, West Tropical Atlantic, Megellanic, Southwest Atlantic, Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea (Lee II and Reusser 2012) South China Sea: 11°05'N, 108°50'E. (Silén 1942) Beach Areosa (Viana do Castelo), Portugal: 41°43'00"N, 08°52'53"W. (Reverter-Gil et al. 2014) Honolulu harbor, Hawaii: 21°18'38.9", 157°51'54.4"W. (Coles et al. 1999) Argentine Sea: At the western sea of the line connected the points of 37°28'S, 55°30'W and 54°30'S, 56°35'W. (Gappa & Lichtschein 1988) Betrobars Pier, Brazil: 23°48'07"S, 45°23'27"W. (Marques et al. 2013) Campeche, Brazil: 27°42'S, 48°27W. (Bouzon et al. 2012) Maleques do Sul Archipelago, Brazil: 27°51'S, 48°26W. (Bouzon et al. 2012)

General Diversity:


Non-native Distribution

Invasion History:

Yes, see inv_propens Yes (Keough and Ross 1999 and Carlton & Eldredge 2009) [CONFLICT] No records of invasion (Global Invasive Species Database 2015) Australia, considered cosmopolitan but first introduced as of 1887 (Hewitt et al. 2004) Hawaii, considered introduced as of 1997 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009)

Non-native Region:

Northeast Pacific, Northwest Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, Southern Australia and New Zealand, West Tropical Atlantic, Southwest Atlantic, Eastern Indo-Pacific

Invasion Propens:

Conflict: Listed as native and cryptogenic in Brazil, Japan, west and east coasts of USA, and introduced in Australia Temperate Northern Pacific West Coast of USA (Ruiz et al. 2000) *Cryptogenic [Whether A. a. is a native or non-native, decimal range of Japan and that of adjacent waters are as follows.] 0-42°N at Pacific side and 0-43°N at Japan Sea side. (Inaba 1988) *Cryptogenic Temperate Northern Atlantic East Coast of USA (Ruiz et al. 2000) *Cryptogenic Temperate Australasia Tasmania, Australia. (Mallick & Driessen 2010) *Cryptogenic Port Philip Bay, Australia. First record is 1880's (MacGillivray 1887, cited in Keough & Ross 1999) and 1887 (MacGillivray 1887, cited in Hewitt et al. 2004) *Introduced Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia: Found on test plates submerged during April and June in 2002. (Wyatt et al. 2005) *Introduced Tropical Atlantic Petrobras Pier, Brazil. (Marques et al. 2013) *Cryptogenic Temperate South America Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil. (Ignacio et al. 2010) *Cryptogenic Eastern Indo-Pacific [The propensity of the locality where A. a. is definitely described as introduced species is as follows.] Honolulu harbor, Hawaii. (Carlton & Eldredge 2009; Lee II and Reusser 2012) *Introduced Uncertain region Australia (Hewitt et al. 2004) *Introduced

Status Date Non-native:

Honolulu Bay, Hawaii: 1997 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009) Note: Though Carlton & Eldredge (2009) described A. a. as introduced species in Hawaii with reference to Coles et al. (1999), A. a. is not defined as introduced species in Coles et al. (1999) (M. Otani, pers. comm.) Port Phillips Bay, Australia: 1887 (MacGillivary 1887, cited in Hewitt et al. 2004; Hewitt et al. 2004) Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, Western Australia: Found on test plates submerged during April and June in 2002. (Wyatt et al. 2005)

Vectors and Spread

Initial Vector:

Hull fouling (not specified, commercial, recreational)

Second Vector:

Hull fouling (recreational)

Vector Details:

[Hawaii, US] Ship fouling (organisms living on hulls, in sea chests, or other fouled areas) (Carlton and Eldredge 2009) [Australia] Hull fouling indicated as vector, possibly from international trades and/or immigration (not specified for species) (Hewitt et al. 2004) [Monkey Bay, Australia] Hull fouling of recreational craft may be a more significant vector in the World Heritage Property than previously considered (Wyatt et al. 2005) Hull fouling (not specified). (Hewitt et al. 2004, Carlton & Eldredge 2009) At Monkey Mia in Shark Bay, intial vector is considered by hull fouling of recreational traffic or tourism-based vessels. (Wyatt et al. 2005)

Spread Rate:


Date First Observed in Japan:

Collections from Paramushir, Akkeshi and Kushiro since 1931 (Mawatari 1956) The oldest record in Japan may be from Hokkaido in 1944 (Mawatari 1956), although it is not known whether A. a. is an introduced species in Japanese waters.

Date First Observed on West coast North America:

Hawaii: 1997 (Carlton and Eldredge 2009)


Impact in Japan:


Global Impact:

A. a. almost has no major ecological effetcs. (Keough & Ross 1999)


Native Temperature Regime:

Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Native Temperature Range:

[Mexico] This is a widely distributed shallow-water species especially well known from cool temperature to tropical waters. (Soule 1959) Temperate and tropical regions, near cosmopolitan distribution (Osburn 1952) South China Sea at the depth of 45m: 26ºC. (Silén 1942) Cold water, Cool temperate, Mild temperate, Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Non-native Temperature Regime:

Warm temperate, Subtropical, Tropical

Non-native Temperature Range:

Water temperature in Port Phillip Bay is ranging from 21ºC in summer to 11ºC in winter. (Thresher 1999) Although Hawai’I is located within the tropics, the physical environment may be considered subtropical in regard to seasonality and prevailing water temperatures, conditions which also apply to much of New South Wales. (Coles et al. 1999) A. a. is prebalent in Temperate waters and present in Tropical waters. (Wyatt et al. 2005) Warm temperate (M. Otani, pers. comm.)

Native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Native Salinity Range:

Brackish: Polyhaline (Alpha); Marine: Beta-euhaline (Lee II and Reusser 2012)

Non-native Salinity Regime:

Polyhaline, Euhaline, Hypersaline

Temperature Regime Survival:

See details

Temperature Range Survival:

3.490 - 24.323ºC (OBIS 2016)

Temperature Regime Reproduction:


Temperature Range Reproduction:


Salinity Regime Survival:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Survival:

33.165 - 36.186 PPS (OBIS 2016) A. a. is found in euhaline and polyhaline regions to 18psu. (Winston 1977)

Salintiy Regime Reproduction:

Polyhaline, Euhaline

Salinity Range Reproduction:


Depth Regime:

Upper intertidal; Mid intertidal; Lower intertidal, Shallow subtidal, Deep subtidal, Bathyal

Depth Range:

[Canada] Gulf of St. Lawrence: 0-200m (Brunel et al. 2000) [Mexico] Aqua Verde Bay, 1-3 fms (1.8-5.4m) ; Marquer Bay, Carmen Island, intertidal; south end of Tiburón Island, 20-22 fathoms (Soule 1959) [Galapagos] Shoreline; 5-12fms (9-21.6m) (Hastings 1929) [Korea] Collected samples from 20m (Seo 1992) Observed: 15 - 100m, Sub-Deep; Preferred: Subtidal, Sub-Shallow (Lee II and Reusser 2012) 183m (OBIS 2015) Shoreline to 54 fms (97.2m) (Oregon State University 1971; Osburn 1952) From the very lower intertidal zone, through the shallow subtidal, down to 50m, and very rarely beyond this depth; Infralittoral (Van Guelpen et al. 2005; Rouse 2011) [South China Sea] 45m. (Silén 1942) [Sagami Bay] Okinose, 150-600m (Silén 1942) [Sagami Bay] Sengen-tsuka, 145m (Silén 1942) [Seto Inland Sea] 20-30m. (Inaba 1988) [Bonin Islands] Eeast from Chichizima Island, 100-135m. (Silén 1942) [Bonin Islands] Eeast from Channel, 120-150m. (Silén 1942) [Bonin Islands] Taki-no-ura, diver or 45-60m. (Silén 1942) [Bonin Islands] Two miles east from Higashizima, 135m. (Silén 1942) [England] Lower intertidal to about 50m deep. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Portugal] Beach Areosa (Viana do Castelo): intertidal. (Reverter-Gil 2014) [Turkey] Sea of Marmara: 0-50m. (Koçak & Önen 2014) [India] On glass panels submerged less than 3m depth. (Louis 2006) [Australia] On PVC plates submerged at 0.5m depth. (Wyatt et al. 2005) [Argentine Sea] 35-188m. (Lopez & Lichtschein 1988) [Brazil] Petrobras Pier: 8.5m on the concreat structure. (Marques 2013) [Brazil] Oil platform and Drill ships anchored at Anjos Bay: 1-3m and 4-6m. (Ferreira et al. 2004)

Non-native Salinity Range:

Native Abundance:

Rare, Common, Abundant


Fertilization Mode:


Reproduction Mode:


Spawning Type:


Development Mode:

Lecithotrophic planktonic larva (non-feeding)

Asexual Reproduction:

Budding/fragmentation (Splitting into unequal parts. Buds may form on the body of the “parent”)

Reproduction Details:

Sexual and asexual; bryozoan colonies consist of replicated series of zooids, each budded asexually form a predecessor. The founding zooid metamorphoses from the sexually produced larva. Hermaphroditic (Van Guelpen et al. 2005) Juvenile development: larval phase (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Brood sacs at the top of the autozooid, distal to the operculum in A. anguina (Ostrovsky 2013) Ovisac is a product of the exterior zooidal wall, not an external diverticulum of the tentacle sheath, since there is no tissue passing from the zooidal opening ot the sac (Cook 1977, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) RELATED: [Aetea anguina] Embryo is brooded in the ovisac symmetrically situated proximally or distally to the orifice. (Occhipinti Ambrogi 1981, cited in Hayward & Ryland 1998, Mawatari 1976) [Aetea] Four main groups of embryo-incubation chambers known in Cheilostomata: Aetea is part of group with external membranous sacs (Ovicells); Ovicells exterior to the aperture; shell membrane surrounding the egg (Ostrovsky 2013) [Aetea] Aetea spp. lack of consistency in the position of the external membranous sacs. Only present during the reproductive period. External flexible transparent sacs without a cellular lining and lack of an opening appear to support that they are a fertilization envelope (Ostrovsky 2013) [Cheilostomata] Free spawning species produce the characteristic triangular cyphonautes larva. These larvae are long-lived and planktotrophic. The larval body is enclosed in a membranous shell; the size can be up to little over 1 mm. Cyphonautes larvae are not keyed out - if possible at all. (van Couwelaar 2003) [Gymnolaemates] Internal fertilization, whether intracoelomic or intraovarian, is obligatory (Temkin 1994 and 1996, cited in Ostrovsky 2013) [Gymnolaemates] Differ from most organisms in that sperm-egg fusion does not stimulate egg activation. Egg activation may not occur until "spawned" outside of maternal zooid (Temkin 1991) [Bryozoans] While sperm is spawned through pores in lophophore tentacles, eggs are usually harbored inside the body wall, and are internally fertilized by sperm, coming in on lophophore feeding currents (Brusca and Brusca 2003, cited in Rouse 2011; Kozloff 1990, cited in Rouse 2011) [Bryozoans] Colonial hermaphrodites, with testes (spermatogenic tissue) and ovaries developing either within the same zooid (zooidal hermaphroditism) or in different zooids within the same colony (zooidal gonochorism) (Ostrovsky 2013) [Bryozoans] Members of the phylum Bryozoa are hermaphroditic. Both fertilization and egg brooding may either be internal or external (Ruppert et al. 2004) [Bryozoans] The first zooid in a colony is called the ancestrula. It is from this individual that the rest of the colony will grow asexually from the budding (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] All bryozoan colonies are hermaphroditic. Autozooids may be dioecious; or monoecious, and protandrous or protogynous. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoa] Reproduces asexually by budding. (Mawatari 1976) CONFLICT For many Gymnolaemate bryozoa, eggs are not activated when fused with sperm at internal site. Instead, egg must be broadcasted before egg activation takes place. In this way, Membranipora spp. is described as being broadcasters despite fertilization being internal process (Temkin 1991; Ostrovsky 2013)

Adult Mobility:


Adult Mobility Details:

Sessile; attaches to algae, rocks, etc. (Rouse 2011) RELATED: [Bryozoa] The abundance and taxonomic diversity of benthic bryozoan faunas are directly related to substratum. (Hayward & Ryland 1998)

Maturity Size:

Size (Zooecium): Length: 380 µm (max. 515 µm) (min. 245 µm); Breadth: 75 µm (National Institute of Oceanography 2010) Erect zooids about 0.6 to 0.8 mm long (Bock 1982) 600-800µm (Carlton 2007) Head is 0.17-0.20 mm in length; entire erect portion is 0.60 to 0.75mm in length; Lower part about 0.06mm in diameter (Shier 1964)

Maturity Age:


Reproduction Lifespan:




Broods per Year:


Reproduction Cues:

RELATED: [Bryozoans] Experiments often used light as a cue to collect embryos/larvae (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977) [Bryozoa] In coastal species light is an important stimulus to larval release, and many cheilostomates shed larvae during the first few hours of daylight. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Bryozoans] In various degrees of intensity according to the species temperature also stimulates sexual reproduction. (Winston 1977)

Reproduction Time:

Settlement may occur in spring and summer. (Keough & Ross 1999) Settlement occurred during April and June at Monkey Mia in Shark Bay that is near the southern limit of the tropical Indo-West Pacific Biotic Province. (Wyatt et al. 2005)



Egg Size:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] About 200µm (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Egg Duration:


Early Life Growth Rate:

RELATED: [Gymnolaemata] Two phases of larvae metamorphosis: first stage about 20mins; second stage 1-6 days (Woollacott and Zimmer 1977)

Adult Growth Rate:


Population Growth Rate:


Population Variablity:




Kelp forest, Rocky intertidal, Rocky subtidal, Macroalgal beds, Fouling

Habitat Type:

Epibenthic, Epiphytic, Epizoic


Gravel, Cobble, Rock, Biogenic, Artificial Substrate


Semi-exposed; Protected

Habitat Expansion:


Habitat Details:

Regimes: Estuary, Coastal Bay, Nearshore, Shelf (Lee II and Reusser 2012; Van Guelpen et al 2005) Ecosystem: Subtidal rocky, Fouling, Kelp forest (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Consolidated substrate: kelp forests and hull/ballast (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Habitat association: Benthic: Surficial non-mobile, Epibenthic-consolidated substrate; Epibiotic, epiphytic - on plants (Lee II and Reusser 2012) Epibenthic encrusting, attached to algae (Moretzsohn et al. 2015) Occurs on stones and boulders, hydroids, polyzoans and algae (Ryland 1962; Gordon 1967) Kelp holdfasts- most frequently species of Laminaria, - small red algae, hydroids (Hydrallmania, Sertularia) and erect bryozoans (Amathia spp.); Sponges (Rouse 2011; Gordon 1967; Shier 1964) Common on all collections of shells/barnacle plates and algae from offshore. Species appears to reach its maximum inshore development on logs and rocks of outer jetties, though colonies have settled on experimental tiles. (Gordon 1967; Maturo 1958; Rouse 2011) Usually found growing over the surface of algae, other invertebrates, rocks shells, wooden structures and almost any submerged object. (Ryland 1965, Ryland & Hayward 1977, Bock 1982, cited in Huisman et al. 2008) Found particularly on Laminaria holdfasts, on small red algae, hydroids (Hydrallmania, Sertularia) and erect bryozoans (Eucratea); also stones and shells. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) On algae, rocks and gravels. (Inaba 1988) On the pillar of oil platform and hull of drill ship. (Ferreira et al. 2004) Hard substratum including algae, sponge, mussels, etc and soft substratum incuding all phanerogams. (Koçak & Önen 2014) Found on glass panels immersed less than 3m. (Louis 2006) Found on PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plates. (Wyatt et al. 2005)

Trophic Level:

Suspension feeder

Trophic Details:

Suspension feeder (Craeymeersch 2008, cited in Gordon 2015) RELATED: [Bryozoans] Suspension feeder. Filter phytoplankton less than 0.045mm in size from the water column. (Hill 2001) [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Forage Mode:


Forage Details:

Feeds on small microorganisms, including diatoms and other unicellular algae (Van Guelpen et al. 2005) RELATED: [Bryozoa] Many phytoplankton species are cleary unsuitable as food for bryozoans. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Cheilostomata] Main food is diatom, protozoans and etc. and unappropriate sized particles are ejected. (Mawatari 1976)

Natural Control:

PREDATION [Predation] Grazing organisms such as sea urchins and fish (Van Guelpen et al. 2005) COMPETITION [Competition] Competition and overgrowth from sponges, algae and tunicates (Van Guelpen et al. 2005) RELATED: PREDATION [Predation] [Bryozoa] Browsers and grazers, including sea urchins, fish, crabs and some prosobranchs, are known to include bryozoans in their diet. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Bryozoans are also the prey of very many small, selective predators, some of which may be adapted to a very narrow spectrum of prey species. Among them opisthobranch predators of bryozoans are well known. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) [Predation] [Bryozoa] Other than opisthobranchs as a predator, amphipods, isopods, mites and pycnogonids have all been recorded preying on bryozoan colonies. (Hayward & Ryland 1998) EPIBIONTS [Epibionts] [Bryozoa] It is frequently observed in Japan that several species of hydroids flourish on Cheilostomata cause damages to them. (Mawatari 1976)

Associated Species:


References and Notes


Bock, P. E. (1982). Bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa). Marine invertebrates of southern Australia. Part I, 319-394. Bouzon JL, Brandini FP, Rocha RM (2012) Biodiversity of sessile fauna on rocky shores of coastal islands in Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil. Marine Science 2: 39-47. Brunel, P., Bossé, L., & Lamarche, G. (2000). Catalogue of the Marine Invertebrates of the Estuary and Gulf of Saint Lawrence. Retrieved from Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada website Carlton JT & Eldredge LG (2009) Marine bioinvasions of Hawai'i. The introduced and cryptogenic marine and estuarine animals and plants of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Cultural and Environmental Studies 4: 1-202. Chiriboga, A., Ruiz, D., and Banks, S. (2012). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Bryozoans - FCD Lista de especies de Bryozoos Galápagos. In: F. Bungartz, H. Herrera, P. Jaramillo, N. Tirado, G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui, D. Ruiz, A. Guézou & F. Ziemmeck. (Eds.). Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Retrieved from Coles SL, DeFelice RC, Eldredge LG (1999) Nonindigenous marine species introductions in the harbors of the south and west shores of Oahu, Hawaii. Final Report prepared for the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Bishop Museum Technical Report 15: 1- 210 pp. Corriero G, Longo C, Mercurio M, Marchini A, Occhipinti-Ambrogi A (2007) Porifera and Bryozoa on artificial hard bottoms in the Venice Lagoon: Spatial distribution and temporal changes in the northern basin. Italian Journal of Zoology 74: 21-29. DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. (2015). Aetea anguina. Retrieved from Ferreira CEK, Gonçalves JEA and R. Coutinho R (2004) Ship hulls and oil platforms as potential vectors to marine species introduction. 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Moderate level of information; data from comparable regions or older data (more than 10yrs) from the area of interest


Both southern Australia and New Zealand and the Eastern Indo-Pacific regions mentioned in native and non-native See: Mawatari, S. (1973) Studies on Japanese anascan Bryozoa. 1. Inovicellata. Bull. Natl. Sc. Mus. Tokyo. P 409-428.